Y8 Humans 13 two types of immunity

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Year 8 Science lesson

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Y8 Humans 13 two types of immunity

  1. 1. 2 Types of Immunity <ul><li>Learning Objectives : </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the difference between active and passive immunity </li></ul>
  2. 2. White blood cells - recap Engulf Antibodies Break cell wall Antitoxins
  3. 3. Antibodies Antibodies attach themselves to the markers ( antigens ) on the bacteria.
  4. 4. Antibodies The antibodies have to be the right shape to match the antigens .
  5. 5. Antibodies The antibodies have to be the right shape to match the antigens .
  6. 6. Antibodies Your body only knows what shape to make the antibodies after you have caught the disease and become ill.
  7. 7. Match the antibody to the microbe a b d c 1 2 3 4
  8. 8. Definition <ul><li>Immune: Not being able to catch a particular disease because you have antibodies in your blood to fight it. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Definition <ul><li>Vaccine: a dead or weakened version of a disease. Your body can make antibodies without becoming infected. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Vaccination <ul><li>Use these words to explain how a vaccine works </li></ul><ul><li>Inject dead/weakened antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>White blood cells microbe vaccine </li></ul>
  11. 11. Fighting disease NATURAL IMMUNITY This is when antibodies are produced by a person when needed or they are passed on by the mother during pregnancy. ARTIFICIAL IMMUNITY <ul><li>Can be done in two ways: </li></ul><ul><li>A vaccine with dead microbes is injected – the body is “tricked” into producing antibodies ready for the real thing. This is called PASSIVE IMMUNISATION </li></ul><ul><li>The antibodies are injected directly into the body – this is called ACTIVE IMMUNISATION. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Acquired Immunity Artificially acquired Naturally acquired Active Active Passive Passive <ul><li>Antigens enter body naturally </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies & specialised lymphocytes produced </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies pass from mother to foetus </li></ul><ul><li>Infant does not produce any antibodies of its own </li></ul><ul><li>Antigens are introduced in vaccines </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies & specialised lymphocytes produced </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies are introduced in an immune serum </li></ul><ul><li>Body does not produce any antibodies of its own </li></ul>
  13. 13. L ive attenuated (weakened) <ul><li>M ade from live virus </li></ul><ul><li>A ltered to be less harmful </li></ul><ul><li>O ral polio, MMR and BCG , yellow fever and one form of typhoid vaccine </li></ul>Whole-agent vaccine Inactivated (killed) <ul><li>Inactivated micro-organism </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Rabies, most influenza vaccines </li></ul>Contains whole, non-virulent micro-organisms
  14. 14. Different defence mechanisms
  15. 15. Transmission of microbes
  16. 16. Disease defence - what’s the order?
  17. 18. 2 Types of Immunity <ul><li>Learning Objectives : </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the difference between active and passive immunity </li></ul>

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