Lesson 2

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Lesson 2

  1. 1. Lesson 2: Bellringer What is a paradigm?
  2. 2. Concepts • Life, liberty, pursuit of happiness • All men are created equal • Religious toleration • Separation of power • Where have we heard these concepts before????
  3. 3. John Locke • Pioneered these concepts • English philosopher of the Enlightenment • European enlightenment had a huge impact on American and led to America’s own enlightenment
  4. 4. Enlightenment Reading Discussion
  5. 5. The Enlightenment • 18th century to the Napoleonic Wars • Western Europe • Change in thinking – The printing press allowed the works of Enlightened philosophers to be mass produced for readers – Ideas spread around the world
  6. 6. The Enlightenment • Immanuel Kant described it as the freedom to use one’s own intelligence – Who told people how to think before? • Focus on reason, observation, and science • Moving away from religious superstition
  7. 7. Enlightened Views • Enlightened philosophers had new views on government on society • Believed in freedom and democracy, which went against the thoughts of the time: divine rights of monarchy • Believed in using knowledge, religious toleration, laissez faire economics, and power derived from the governed
  8. 8. The Enlightenment Sparked Action • French Revolution • American Revolution
  9. 9. American Enlightenment • Own version of the enlightenment • Mid to late 18th century • Linked European Enlightenment to American Revolution • Many ideas of the European Enlightenment inspired the Founding Fathers and sparked movement in the colonies
  10. 10. American Enlightenment • Founded on ideas of: republicanism, liberty, democracy, and religious toleration – Where have we heard these before? • Greatly influenced by Locke
  11. 11. 1. Republicanism • Ideology of governing a nation as republic, in which positions of power are chosen by the people in some form of election – Founding Fathers looked at government models from the past • Rome – The more Americans believed in republicanism, the more they felt England in violation and conflict must arise
  12. 12. 2. Liberty • Freedom from despotic rule (kings) – Influenced by Locke; “No one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or processions” – Lead to the belief of “Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” – Founding Fathers believed men had certain rights (inalienable) and England was infringing on their rights • Morally wrong
  13. 13. 3. Democracy • Government run by the people, majority rule • Citizens should have a say in their government • Came from Enlightenment reaction against authoritarianism
  14. 14. Religious Toleration • Founding principle of the colonies • Founding Fathers wanted a country in which all faiths could freely practice – John Locke
  15. 15. American Enlightenment • All these ideals of the American Enlightenment were in contrast to the way England was treating the colonists – The more Americans believed in these ideals, the more conflict brewed – American Revolution was inevitable
  16. 16. Thomas Paine, Common Sense • Published during American Revolution • Huge circulation within the American colonies • Written in common language • Argued against British rule in America – Read excerpt – Look for ideals
  17. 17. Question • In what ways was the American Enlightenment a pertinent precursor to the American Revolutionary War? • 2 paragraph response • Use notes
  18. 18. John Locke • Two Treatises on Government • Political philosophy book • Published anonymously 1689 – First Treatise argued against divine rule – Second Treatise outlines a theory of civil society In reading, underline evidence of American Enlightenment or other aspects of American freedom you recognize

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