Early America- 8/26

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Early America- 8/26

  1. 1. Early America<br />
  2. 2. Native American Inhabitants<br />No written story exists<br />Archaeologists use artifacts to infer<br />Folklorists have recorded songs, legends, myths<br />Uncertain arrival<br />As recently as 12,000 years ago or as much as 70,000 years<br />Regardless, at least 30 times longer than Europeans  not until late 1500s<br />
  3. 3. European Settlers<br />100 years after European explorers landed in North America  still no permanent settlements north of Florida<br />1607  English settlers- Jamestown, VA<br />Picture from: http://northamericadredge.com/loc.html<br />
  4. 4. Settlers + Natives<br />Natives usually greeted settlers as friends<br />Taught agriculture, woodcraft techniques<br />Introduced to maize, beans, squash, snowshoes, canoes, etc.  crucial to survival<br />Entranced by natives<br />They did not realize that Native Americans had own cultural values, literary traditions<br />
  5. 5. Native American Tradition<br />Oral Tradition: Stories spoken aloud rather than committed to paper; told by elders to younger generations<br />Mainly viewed as folklore [unwritten songs, stories, etc. of a culture] for a long time<br />Thus, the song lyrics, hero tales, migration legends, and accounts of the creation were studied more for their story value than literary<br />It IS considered literature!<br />
  6. 6. Alternatives to Written Accounts<br />No religious texts like Bible, Koran  instead, sacred symbols on animal hides, in beadwork, and woven into rugs or clothing<br />Picture from: http://sarweb.org/?news_stockman_grant<br />
  7. 7. Native American Literature<br />Language of lyrics, narratives that have been captured in writing often poetic & moving<br />Diverse BUT commonality  deep respect for nature<br />Tales, chants celebrate wonders of natural world, interconnectedness with world of the spirit<br />
  8. 8. Lack of Language<br />Imagine you have just landed in a new country and this is what you see when you go exploring…<br /> Since you have never seen one of these animals before, you would not have a name to call it!<br />Picture from: http://divaboo.info/<br />
  9. 9. Borrowed Language<br />Early colonists borrowed words from the Native Americans’ vocabulary<br />Pronunciation was difficult for them  Anglicized (shortened, simplified), e.g.:<br />otchock = woodchuck segankw = skunk<br />Titípigmeoor mono de<br />bosillo(pocket monkey)<br /> Pygmy Marmoset- Native to<br /> South America countries<br />Picture from: http://jdobias.blogspot.com/2011/05/days-71-72-and-73-im-city-boy-get-me.html<br />
  10. 10. Borrowed Language<br />Picture from: http://wapedia.mobi/en/List_of_U.S._state_name_etymologies<br />Some U.S. places originating from Native American words:<br />-Shenandoah<br />-Rappahannock<br />-25 state names<br />-5 of the 6 Great Lakes<br />
  11. 11. Native American Myths & Legends<br />
  12. 12. Explaining Phenomena<br />Native Americans asked same questions as anyone else: “Why am I here?” “How did Earth come to be?” “When did life begin?”<br />Need for explanation  myths, traditional stories passed down to new generations<br />Origin Myths: stories that explain phenomena such as customs, religious rites, natural landmarks, events beyond our control<br />
  13. 13. Oral Tradition<br />These traditionally unwritten songs, stories, poems, etc. convey a people’s values, concerns, and history<br />What did the Native Americans value in their culture? What things did they fear? What was most important for them to pass on to future generations?<br />
  14. 14. The Earth on Turtle’s Back<br />Onondaga-Northeast Woodlands<br />Lived in what is now central NY<br />Originally from Canada<br />Wood & bark long houses<br />Did not believe in fighting<br />Retold by Michael J. Caduto<br /> and Joseph Bruchac<br />Story about the creation of<br />the world<br />Earth forms as an offshoot of a celestial place called Skyland<br />Picture from: http://www.laurenharman.com/portfolio/illustration.html<br />
  15. 15. When Grizzlies Walked Upright<br />Modoc<br />Lived in what is now Oregon and Northern CA<br />Farmers, fishers, hunters, weavers<br />Forced onto Oregon reservation<br />Some Modoc had hostile relations with US troops<br />Retold by Richard Erdoes and Alfonso Ortiz<br />Tells origin of all Native American people<br />Chief of the Sky Spirits’ creations,<br />interactions with daughter<br />

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