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Manual de inglés médico 1


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Manual de inglés médico 1

  1. 1. MEDICAL ENGLISH 1 Autores: Verónica Clavijo Bazalar. Fernando Cornejo Sánchez.
  2. 2. UNIT 1Booking a Doctors AppointmentReceptionist: Doctors office. Jane speaking. How can I help you?Caller: I need to make an appointment with Dr. Harris.Receptionist: Do you know your chart number?Caller: No, sorry. Its at home and Im at work right now.Receptionist: No problem. Whats your name, please?Caller: George Mason.Receptionist: Okay Mr. Mason. Hold one moment while I grab your chart, please.Caller: Sure.Receptionist: Thanks for waiting. Now, what do you need to see the doctor about?Caller: Well, I am fighting a cold these days, and I think I have a chest infection or something. Mycough is getting worse each day.Receptionist: Hmm. Doctor Harris is off tomorrow. Do you think it can wait until Wednesday?Caller: Oh, it is urgent. I feel badReceptionist: No problem, I will help you.Check your understanding1. Why does the caller phone the doctors office?a) Hes running late for his appointment. c) He cant remember his chart number.b) Hes booking an appointment with Dr. d) His medication ran out. Harris.Medical English 1 Page 1
  3. 3. 2. Which is true about George Mason?a) He has a bad cold. c) His cough is better.b) Hes running a fever. d) Hes off on a sick day.SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE TO HAVEAffirmative statements SUBJECT VERB COMPLEMENTI have feverYou have a cold stiff neckWe have a sunburnThey haveHe has feverShe has a coldIt has a stiff neckMedical English 1 Page 2
  4. 4. 1. Have a headache 14. Have a sunburn 2. Have an earache 15. Have a stiff neck 3. Have a toothache 16. Have a runny nose 4. Have a stomachache 17. Have a bloody nose 5. Have a backache 18. Have a cavity 6. Have a sore throat 19. Have a wart 7. Have fever 20. Have (the) hiccups 8. Have a cold 21. Have (the) chills 9. Have a cough 22. Have cramps 10. Have a virus 23. Have diarrhea 11. Have an infection 24. Have chest pain 12. Have a rash 25. Have shortness of breath 13. Have an insect bite 26. Have laryngitisNEGATIVE STATEMENTS SUBJECT AUXILIARY VERB COMPLEMENT I do not / don’t have fever You have a cold We have a stiff neck They have a sunburn He does not / have fever She doesn’t have a cold It have a stiff neckMedical English 1 Page 3
  5. 5. INTERROGATIVE STATEMENTS AUXILIARY SUBJECT VERB COMPLEMENT QUESTION MARKDo I have fever ? you have a cold we have a stiff neck they have a sunburnDoes he have fever ? she have a cold it have a stiff neck “WH” AUXILIARY SUBJECT VERB COMPLEMENT QUESTIONQUESTION MARK WORDSHow often do I have fever ? you have a cold we have a stiff neck they have a sunburnWhen does he have fever ?Why does she have a cold it have a stiff neckMedical English 1 Page 4
  6. 6. TO BE 27. Be faint/weak 30. Be bloated 28. Be dizzy 31. Be congested 29. Feel nauseous 32. Be exhausted TYPE OF SENTENCE SUBJECT AUXILIARY VERB NEGATIVE FORM COMPLEMENT + I am a patient. + You are a physician. - She is not insane. - We are not swollen. ? Is he weak. ? Are they vitamins?Medical English 1 Page 5
  7. 7. OTHER VERBS 33. Cough 42. Scratch 34. Sneeze 43. Scrape 35. Wheeze 44. Bruise 36. Burp 45. Burn 37. Vomit/throw up 46. Break 38. Bleed 47. Hurt 39. Twist 48. Cut 40. Sprain 49. Swell 41. Dislocate 50. ItchMedical English 1 Page 6
  8. 8. ACTIVITIESA. CHANGE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTO THE APPROPRIATE FORM. + affirmative sentences - negative sentences ? interrogative sentences1) She has a cold or allergies (?) _______________________________________________________________________2) They sneeze every minute (-) __________________________________________________________________3) My sister doesn’t cough (+) ________________________________________________________________________4) My husband is dizzy (?) ________________________________________________________________________5) Does he feel nauseous? (+) __________________________________________________________________6) His brother is exhausted (-) _________________________________________________________________7) You aren’t a good dentist (?) _______________________________________________________________________8) I don’t wait for anybody (+) _________________________________________________________________Medical English 1 Page 7
  9. 9. 9) It itches badly (-) _____________________________________________________________________10) They aren’t here (+) ________________________________________________________________B. PUT IN ORDER THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES.1. in / friends / I / have / don’t / class/ this / many. ________________________________________________________________2. hospital / to / go / to / They / the / want. _____________________________________________________________________3. aren’t / These / your / patients. _____________________________________________________________________4. need / I / a / don’t / psychologist _____________________________________________________________________5. burp / he / vomit /?/ Does / and/ often _______________________________________________________________C. FIND THE MISTAKES IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES AND REWRITE THEM.1. He don’t eat fish __________________________________________________2. The children is tired _____________________________________________3. My patients isn’t there ____________________________________________4. We has a sunburn and you feel nauseus ________________________________5. Do she work in those medical facility? ____________________________________Medical English 1 Page 8
  10. 10. Medical SpecialistsMedical specialists are experts in certain fields of medicine. They treat specific parts of the body,such as the stomach or the heart, or they specialize in certain diseases, such as AIDS. Familydoctors keep a list of local specialists and can help patients choose the right specialist for eachmedical issue. In many cases, specialists require a referral from a family doctor before they will seea patient.Here is a list of the most common types of specialists. Study the list and then check yourunderstanding by taking the quiz.Allergist: specializes in determining food and environmental allergiesAnesthesiologist: specializes in pain prevention during surgeryCardiologist: heart specialistChiropractor: back specialistDentist: tooth specialistDermatologist: skin specialistFertility specialist: helps people who have difficulty getting pregnantGynecologist: specializes in womens needsMassage therapist: specializes in muscle relaxationMidwife: helps women deliver babies in a natural wayNaturopath: specializes in natural cures and remediesNeurologist: brain specialistObstetrician: specialist for pregnant womenOccupational therapist: specializes in workplace healthOncologist: tumor specialist, including cancerOphthalmologist: specializes in eye diseasesPediatrician: specialist for babies and childrenMedical English 1 Page 9
  11. 11. Physical therapist: specializes in the bodys movementPodiatrist: foot specialistPsychiatrist: specialist in mental healthRadiologist: specializes in imaging testsACTIVITIESA. Read the patient complaints and say which specialist each patient needs.1. I have a terrible rash on my arms and legs. I think Im allergic to dairy food, but it also might be grass.a) chiropractor c) allergistb) ophthalmologist d) psychiatrist2. My husband and I just took a home pregnancy test, and it came out positive. We want to know when we are due and we want to make sure the fetus is healthy.a) podiatrist c) obstetricianb) pediatrician d) pharmacist3. I still cant walk and its been three months since my accident. I hate being stuck in a wheelchair.a) anesthesiologist c) radiologistb) physical therapist d) dentist4. The test results show that I have an advanced form of blood cancer.a) oncologist c) midwifeb) neurologist d) allergist5. My left eye has an infection that wont go away and my vision has been blurry for two weeks now.a) podiatrist c) ophthalmologistb) massage therapist d) radiologistMedical English 1 Page 10
  12. 12. 6. I dont want to take any drugs that will cause me to become addicted to them, but I do need some sort of pain relief.a) naturopath c) cardiologistb) dentist d) dermatologist7. Ive been having major chest pains this week. Im also having trouble breathing.a) gynecologist c) oncologistb) cardiologist d) dermatologist8. I get terrible acne and I have tried all of the products in the pharmacy. I dont know what to donow.a) massage therapist c) occupational therapistb) podiatrist d) dermatologist9. My baby is not developing properly. She hasnt put on any weight in two months and she keeps getting ear infections.a) anesthesiologist c) midwifeb) pediatrician d) massage therapist10. My husband and I have been trying to get pregnant for three years. We have tried everything that the books suggest.a) fertility specialist c) psychiatristb) oncologist d) dentistB. Which are they specialties? Choose the right word for each number. X-ray technician; gynecologist; psychiatrist; emergency medical technician; surgeon; pediatrician; cardiologist; optometrist, obstetrician; dentist; doctor; nurse; lab technician.Medical English 1 Page 11
  13. 13. UNITHead 2Read the text below and answer the questionsInside the head is the brain, which is responsible for thinking. The top of a persons scalpis covered with hair. Beneath the hairline at the front of the face is the forehead.Underneath the forehead are the eyes for seeing, the nose for smelling, and the mouthfor eating. On the outside of the mouth are the lips, and on the inside of the mouth arethe teeth for biting and the tongue for tasting. Food is swallowed down the throat. At thesides of the face are the cheeks and at the sides of the head are the ears for hearing. Atthe bottom of a persons face is the chin. The jaw is located on the inside of the cheeksand chin. The neck is what attaches the head to the upper body. 1. Where is the brain? ___________________________________________________________________ 2. Where is the forehead? ___________________________________________________________________Medical English 1 Page 12
  14. 14. 3. Where are the lips? __________________________________________________________________ 4. What can you do with your teeth? __________________________________________________________________ 5. Where are the ears? __________________________________________________________________ 6. Where is the chin located? __________________________________________________________________ 7. Where is the jaw located? _________________________________________________________________Present ProgressiveWe use the present continuous tense to talk about:  action happening now  action in the future SUBJECT AUXILIARY VERB MAIN VERB COMPLEMENT+ I am examining a patient.+ You are prescribing the medicine- She is not sleeping in the hospital.- We are not coughing? Is he vaccinating the children?? Are they taking vitamins?ACTIVITIESA. Complete the following sentences with the present continuous. 1. The doctors _______________ (vaccinate) the children right now. 2. The gynecologist ________________________ (examine) Lucia these days. 3. The doctor __________________ (prescribe) medicines right now. 4. Listen! Michael_____________________ (cough) a lot.Medical English 1 Page 13
  15. 15. 5. I ______________________ (drink) cough syrup at this moment. 6. Jake _________________________ (suffer) a terrible disease. 7. Doctor, ______________________ you ________________ (cure) Mr. Baker? 8. Look! A biologist _____________________ (analyze) a microbe. 9. My children __________________________ (catch) a cold. 10. _______________ you _______________(arrange ) an appointment?B. Decide which of the choices below would best complete the article if inserted in the blanks. Circle the appropriate letters. Too Much Fast Food?According to a recent survey, these days Hong Kong consumers (1)_______ more money onconvenience foods since the economic downturn. Because companies are trying to make morewith fewer staff, employees (2) ________ harder than ever before. More women (3)__________the workforce as well. They (4) _________less time to prepare nutritious home-cooked meals fortheir families. Instead, families (5)_________ out or (6) ________ convenience foods, such asfrozen pizzas and instant noodles. These foods (7) …………more fat, salt and sugar than home-cooked meals. Experts say that eating too much of them (8)………… the risk of serious healthproblems, including diabetes and heart disease.However, the current trend towards convenience foods (9) ………benefitting some businesssectors. Supermarkets (10)………….. to the higher demand for quick, easy-to-serve meals byincreasing their selection of convenience and pre-packaged foods. These products (11) ………. forhigher prices than fresh food. Restaurants also (12)…………. from the trend: most Hong Kongpeople now (13)………… out at least once a day.Is convenience food just a fad or is home-cooked food (14)…………. a thing of the past?How (15) …………………….this trend affecting our health?1. A are spending 3. A joins B spends B are joining C spend C join2. A work 4. A has B works B have C are working C hadMedical English 1 Page 14
  16. 16. 5. A are eating 10. A respond B eats B responded C eat C are responding6. A bought 11. A sells B buys B are sold C buy C sell7. A containing 12. A profit B are profiting B contains C profits C contain 13. A eat8. A increase B ate B increasing C were eating C increases 14. A become9. A is B became B are C becoming C be 15. A does B is C haveC. Supplies and Tools. Here is a list of some of the most common supplies found in doctors offices, operating rooms, and medical kits. Study the vocabulary and try the matching exercise.1. Antiseptic a) thin, netted material used for dressing wounds2. Bandage b) an instrument used to check a persons body temperature3. Forceps c) liquid used to sterilize (clean) the surface of the skin4. Gauze d) a cylinder-shaped piece that attaches to a needle and can be filled with liquid5. Microscope e) a cloth covering that is placed over a wound to prevent bleeding, swelling and infection6. Oxigen mask f) glass cylinder that is filled with blood or other liquids and can be capped and placed in a storage area7. Scales g) equipment that fits over the nose and mouth and supplies oxygen8. Syringe h) instrument used during operations and medical procedures (assists the doctor in pulling, holding, and retrieving)9. Test tube i) a device that measures a persons weight10. Thermometer j) equipment that makes small things appear larger than they areADDITIONAL INFORMATION Explain: take blood pressure, give a shot, listen to lungs, check ears, check eyes, start an IV, look at an MRI scan, take temperature, take pulse, prep for surgery, operate, bandage, write in the chart, pay the bill, take the patient to...Medical English 1 Page 15
  17. 17. UNIT 3 Main Structures of the Digestive SystemThe digestive tract is a long continuous tube that starts with the mouth and ends with the anus. Itincludes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. The tongueand teeth located in the mouth are accessory structures. The salivary glands, gallbladder, liver, andpancreas are the other accessory organs of the digestive system that secretes digestive enzymesinto the digestive tract that are involved in the process of digestion.Mouth: The mouth contains tongue and teeth. With the help of these the food is chewed (brokeninto tiny pieces) and mixes with saliva (secreted by salivary glands)Pharynx: Is a funnel shaped opening through which the food from mouth passes to esophagus.Esophagus: Is a long tubular structure that with the help of peristalsis movement passes food tothe stomach.Stomach: A large sac-like structure that holds the food for a while where it gets mixed with thehydrochloric acid and gastric juice.Small intestine: It is a long muscular tube that is divisible into the duodenum, the jejunum, andileum. Secretions of liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are passed into the small intestine, where themajor part of the digestion occurs.Large intestine: Minor part of the digestion occurs in large intestine and is divisible into cecum,colon, and rectum. Reabsorption of water and absorption of food material takes place in largeintestine.Anus: The indigested food is excreted out through anus.Liver: Liver is the largest organ of the human body and it is involved in synthesis and secretion ofbile that plays a role in emulsification of fats. Liver secreted from live is stored in gallbladder, fromwhich it flows into small intestine.Pancreas: Pancreas secretes pancreatic juice.Medical English 1 Page 16
  18. 18. PLURAL FORM OF NOUNS CASE DESCRIPTION OF THE STRUCTURE EXAMPLE RULEGeneral rule The plural form of NOUN + “-S” minute - minutes most nouns is created simply by adding the letter “s” to the end of the word.When nouns end in The plural is formed NOUN + “-ES” church - churches-ch, -x, -s, -sh, -z or by adding “es” box -boxess-like sounds index -= indexes ( also indices) gas - gases bush - bushes ass -asses quiz – quizzesNouns ending in “o” When they are NOUN + “-ES” potato - potatoes preceded by a tomato – tomatoes consonant. volcano - volcanoes Except: newly created NOUN + “-S” photo - photos words or words with piano - pianos Spanish or Italian portico - porticos origin.Noun ending in “y” When they are NOUN – “Y” +” IES” party - parties preceded by a lady - ladies consonant, they drop the “y” and add “ies” When they are NOUN + “-S” Boy - boys preceded by a Toy - toys VOWEL, add a “s” Ray – raysNoun ending in “f” or “fe” Drop the “f” or “fe” NOUN – “F” + VES calf – calves and add “ves” half - halves wolf - wolves NOUN – “FE” + VES wife – wivesNouns ending in “is” Drop the “-is” and add NOUN – IS + ES crisis - crises “-es” hypothesis - hypotheses oasis - oasesIrregular plural Some nouns change ODD PLURAL FORM child - children their structure to form ox - oxen their plural form. man – men woman - women person - people foot - feet tooth - teeth Medical English 1 Page 17
  19. 19. mouse - mice louse - liceIdentical singular and Some nouns have NO CHANGE aircraft - aircraftplural form identical plural and fish - fish singular forms, sheep - sheep although they are still deer - deer considered to have a species - species plural form. headquarters - headquartersCollective words or nouns These nouns ONLY PLURAL FORM cattleassociated with two exist only in the plural scissorsparts. form and take a plural trousers verb. tweezers congratulations pajamasCompound nouns In compound nouns MAIN NOUN + -S court martial - courts martial the plural ending is son-in-law - sons-in-law usually added to the passer-by - passers-by main noun.Uncountable noun Uncountable nouns NO PLURAL FORM advice on the other hand information have no plural form luggage and take a singular headquarters - headquarters verb (is / was ...). news - news Medical English 1 Page 18
  20. 20. CASE DESCRIPTION OF THE STRUCTURE EXAMPLE RULELatin or Greek origin These nouns maintain NOUN – US + I nucleus = nuclei their Latin or Greek syllabus = syllabi form in the plural. focus = foci fungus = fungi cactus = cacti (cactuses is acceptable) NOUN – ON + A phenomenon = phenomena criterion = criteria NOUN - UM + A datum = data medium= media NOUN + E alumna = alumnae trachea=tracheaeNOTES: Third person of singular in simple present tense conjugation uses the same rules that plural forms.Medical English 1 Page 19
  21. 21. ACTIVITIES1. PRONUNCIATION A. Say the plural nouns. Then write them in the correct columns. /S/ /Z/ /IZ/ actress dictionary roommate carrots boys actresses box girl son _____________ ______________ _____________ boy house state _____________ ______________ ______________ carrot lemon student _____________ _____________ ______________ class notebook watch _____________ ______________ ______________ B. Simple present tense conjugation. Say the third person conjugations. Then write them in the correct columns. /S/ /Z/ /IZ/ kiss work like It knocks She studies He kisses watch touch stay _____________ ______________ _____________ study cough clear _____________ ______________ ______________ knock sneeze put _____________ _____________ ______________ clean _____________ ______________ ______________ 2. GRAMMAR A. Write the s plural form of the following words. 1. thesis ____________ 11. watch ______________ 2. stimulus ____________ 12. mountain ______________ 3. alumnus ____________ 13. louse ______________ 4. loaf ____________ 14. family ______________ 5. medium ____________ 15. shelf ______________ 6. crisis ____________ 16. cloud ______________ 7. veto ____________ 17. area ______________ 8. fireman ____________ 18. photo ______________ 9. diagnosis ____________ 19. home ______________ 10. ox ____________ 20. logo _______________Medical English 1 Page 20
  22. 22. B. Next to each word in the list, write correctly the plural for that word. If that word cannot be pluralized because its a non-count noun, write the letter X. 1. man ______________ 16. dancing ______________ 2. furniture ______________ 17. 1990 ______________ 3. experience ______________ 18. aluminum ______________ 4. Kennedy ______________ 19. fax ______________ 5. ski ______________ 20. roof ______________ 6. gas ______________ 21. fish ______________ 7. box ______________ 22. child ______________ 8. peace ______________ 23. difficulty ______________ 9. cactus ______________ 24. knowledge ______________ 10. criterion ______________ 25. goose ______________ 11. baby ______________ 26. video ______________ 12. memo ______________ 27. curriculum ______________ 13. work ______________ 28. biology ______________ 14. self ______________ 29. URL ______________ 15. applause ______________ 30. dish ______________ C. Write the plural form of the following medical nouns. 1. mouth ______________ 2. pharynx ______________ 3. anus ______________ 4. trachea ______________ 5. pancreas ______________ 6. enzyme ______________ 7. duodenum ______________ 8. cecum ______________ 9. rectum ______________ 10. bronchus ______________ D. What are MASS (NON-COUNT or UNCOUNTABLE) NOUNS? Here is a list of MASS NOUNS for you to consider.  Can you count any of these things?  Do we use the plural form of any of these words in common speech and writing?  What do the things in the first column have in common? The second column?Medical English 1 Page 21
  23. 23. wood oxygen dancing English cloth water soccer luggage ice milk hockey equipment plastic wine weather furniture wool beer heat experience steel cake sunshine applause aluminum sugar electricity photography metal rice biology traffic glass meat history harm leather cheese mathematics publicity porcelain flour economics homework hair reading poetry advice dust boating Chinese air smoking SpanishMedical English 1 Page 22
  24. 24. READING COMPREHENSIONRead the following text and answer the questions below. Human Digestive SystemHow does food get digested?Digestion involves mechanical as well as chemical changes in the food taken. Mechanicalalteration is brought about by teeth, grinding organs and muscular contraction of stomach andintestinal walls. Breaking food into small pieces increases the surface area exposed to the enzymesof digestive juices.INTRODUCTION OF FOOD DIGESTION PROCESSChemical changes, whether in protozoans or in animals from sponges to man, involve cleaving ofcomplex, insoluble macro molecules into simpler, soluble sub units, and are brought about by theaction of enzyme.Medical English 1 Page 23
  25. 25. Food Digestion ProcessFood Intake: Different organisms obtain food in different ways but carry out similar reactions. Totake food, protozoans use pseudopodia, flagella or cilia; sponges and muscles use a current ofwater; hydra uses tentacles beset with stinging cells; planarians and earthworms use a muscularpharynx; flukes and leeches use oral succer.Digestive System and process: Parts of the body concerned with the uptake and digestion of foodand elimination of indigestible remains from the digestive system, also called elementary system.The digestive system consists of two sets of organs:Alimentary canal: It is a tube comprising many specialized organs. It provides and helps in theprocess of:(i)An inlet, the mouth, to ingest food(ii)A cavity, the lumen, where food is digested(iii)A surface for the absorption of digested food(iv)A space where indigestible remains are changed in to faeces(v)An outlet the anus for elimination of faeces. Digestive glands and their function in the process: These are the structures associated with thedifferent regions of the alimentary canal. They sent into the digestive track their secretions whichcontains enzyme and other materials to help in the digestion of food. Most of the alimentarycanal and certain digestive glands are supported and held in place by mesenteries, the doublesheets of peritoneum with a layer of connective tissues in between.Summary for Food Digestion ProcessThe digestive system serves three major functions are:1. Nutrition: The digestive track primarily serves to provide food to the tissues to the body.2. Breathing: The interior part of the alimentary canal also plays a role in respiration in the chordates.3. Excretion: The digestive system brings about sum excretion too. Excretion is the elimination of unwanted materials from the body.Medical English 1 Page 24
  26. 26. QUESTIONS 1. Does digestion only involve mechanical changes? __________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 2. Why are enzymes important during the digestion process? __________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 3. Which is the final step of the digestion process? __________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 4. How is the alimentary canal supported? __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________2. Matching Match the numbers with the letters1. Cleave a) excrement2. Intake b) the cavity of a tubular organ or part3. Lumen c) tube4. Faeces d) the amount taken in5. Canal e) divideON-LINE EXERCISESThe following links could provide you further information and resources on plural form.Find mistakes  nd-Mistakes-Basic-Level-Test-001&catid=117:find-mistakes&Itemid=365Plural forms      English 1 Page 25
  27. 27. UNITTHE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 4What is the respiratory system?Your respiratory system is made up of the organs inyour body that help you to breathe. Remember, thatrespiration = breathing. The goal of breathing is todeliver oxygen to the body and to take away carbondioxide.Parts of the respiratory systemLungsThe lungs are the main organs of the respiratorysystem. In the lungs oxygen is taken into the bodyand carbon dioxide is breathed out. The red bloodcells are responsible for picking up the oxygen in thelungs and carrying the oxygen to all the body cellsthat need it. The red blood cells drop off the oxygento the body cells, then pick up the carbon dioxidewhich is a waste gas product produced by our cells.The red blood cells transport the carbon dioxide backto the lungs and we breathe it out when we exhale.TracheaThe trachea (TRAY-kee-uh} is sometimes called the windpipe. The trachea filters the airwe breathe and branches into the bronchi.BronchiThe bronchi (BRAHN-ky) are two air tubes that branch off of the trachea and carry airdirectly into the lungs.Medical English 1 Page 26
  28. 28. Diaphragm Breathing starts with a dome-shaped muscle at the bottom of the lungs called the diaphragm (DY-uh-fram). When you breathe in, the diaphragm contracts. When it contracts it flattens out and pulls downward. This movement enlarges the space that the lungs are in. This larger space pulls air into the lungs. When you breathe out, the diaphragm expands reducing the amount of space for the lungs and forcing air out. The diaphragm is the main muscle used in breathing. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Why Do I Yawn? When you are sleepy or drowsy the lungs do not take enough oxygen from the air. This causes a shortage of oxygen in our bodies. The brain senses this shortage of oxygen and sends a message that causes you to take a deep long breath - a YAWN. Why Do I Sneeze? Sneezing is like a cough in the upper breathing passages. It is the bodys way of removing an irritant from the sensitive mucous membranes of the nose. Many things can irritate the mucous membranes. Dust, pollen, pepper or even a cold blast of air are just some of the many things that may cause you to sneeze. What Causes Hiccups? Hiccups are the sudden movements of the diaphragm. It is involuntary. You have no control over hiccups, as you well know. There are many causes of hiccups. The diaphragm may get irritated, you may have eaten to fast, or maybe some substance in the blood could even have brought on the hiccups. Simple Present / Negative and Interrogative SentencesType of sentence Subject Auxiliary (-) Base form of the verb Complement- She does not / operate a patient He doesn’t They do not/ take care of me You don’t Medical English 1 Page 27
  29. 29. Type of sentence Auxiliary Subject Base form of the Complement Question verb mark? Does she operate a patient ? he Do they take care of me ? youType of sentence “Wh” Auxiliary Subject Base form Complement Question question of the verb mark words? Why does she visit a patient ? Where does he operate that boy ? When Do they take care of me ? How Do You heal them ? ON-LINE EXERCISES Go to the following links to practice. ACTIVITIES A. Read carefully the following text. I have a terrible stomachache. Doctor: — Good morning. Please have a seat here. What´s the problem? Paul Ryefield: — I have a terrible stomachache. Doctor: — Do you have diarrhea? Paul Ryefield: — Yes, I do. Doctor: — Do you have any other symptoms? Paul Ryefield: — Yes, I feel sick. Doctor: — You mean you feel nauseous? Paul Ryefield: — That´s right. I feel like vomiting. And right now I feel dizzy, too. Doctor: — All right. Please take off your clothes to the waist and lie down there ... Just tell me if it Medical English 1 Page 28
  30. 30. hurts when I do this.Paul Ryefield: — It doesn´t hurt. ... Ouch. It hurts there.Doctor: — Okay. Let´s hope it´s just indigestion, but we´ll need to run some diagnostic tests to be sure. We´ll run a blood test and we´ll also need a urine sample.Paul Ryefield: — Can you give me something for the time being?Doctor: — Yes, I´ll give you a prescription for indigestion tablets.B. Write a dialogue using the interrogative and negative sentences. Use the vocabulary above______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Medical English 1 Page 29
  31. 31. C. VOCABULARY. Read the text then Work with a partner and match the term in column A with its contextual meaning in column B.Influenza is a viral infection of the respiratory tract that produces severe discomfort anddebilitation. Flu should not be confused with a cold. Influenza produces symptoms that requirebed rest for several days. There are several types of influenza virus and all have certaincharacteristics: rapid transmission from person to person, an incubation period of few days, andsymptoms that become severe in a short time.Symptoms are generally respiratory in nature but gastrointestinal involvement is common withcertain types of influenza. Headache and painful respiration are usually the first symptoms. Withinthe first hours the body temperature increases and remains elevated for several days. Severemuscle aches, headache, weakness, and chest discomfort accompany the fever. Throattenderness and episodes of coughing are present in most cases.Symptoms are severe for 3 to 5 days, and then subside slowly. Weakness and coughing maypersist for 10 days to 2 weeks.A B1. debilitation a. abate / diminish2. confuse b. acute / grave / critical3. cold c. complement / to go together with something4. require d. event / occurrence5. severe e. higher than normal6. involvement f. need or demand7. increases g. pharynx8. remain h. rhinovirus or coronavirus infection9. elevated i. sensitive / painful10. accompany j. to be mistaken for something else11. throat k. to be part of / to be included in12. tenderness l. to go up13. episodes m. to incapacitate14. subside n. to stay / to continue beingD. READING COMPREHENSION. Instructions: Work with a partner. Discuss each question in English and decide if the statements are T (true) or F (false.)a. Influenza is caused either by virus or bacteria. T Fb. The flu is the same thing as a cold. T Fc. Fever is not a typical sign of the flu. T Fd. Some patients may develop gastrointestinal troubles during influenza. T Fe. Influenza is a very infectious disease. T Ff. The incubation period for the flu is usually about one month. T FMedical English 1 Page 30
  32. 32. UNIT 5 THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEMThe circulatory system is made up of the vessels and the muscles that help and control the flow ofthe blood around the body. This process is called circulation. The main parts of the system are theheart, arteries, capillaries and veins.As blood begins to circulate, it leaves the heart from the left ventricle and goes into the aorta. Theaorta is the largest artery in the body. The blood leaving the aorta is full of oxygen. This isimportant for the cells in the brain and the body to do their work. The oxygen rich blood travelsthroughout the body in its system of arteries into the smallest arterioles.On its way back to the heart, the blood travels through a system of veins. As it reaches the lungs,the carbon dioxide (a waste product) is removed from the blood and replace with fresh oxygenthat we have inhaled through the lungs.Medical English 1 Page 31
  33. 33. Arteries Arteries are tough, elastic tubes that carry blood away from the heart. As the arteries move awayfrom the heart, they divide into smaller vessels. The largest arteries are about as thick as a thumb.The smallest arteries are thinner than hair. These thinner arteries are called arterioles. Arteriescarry bright red blood! The color comes from the oxygen that it carries.Veins Veins carry the blood to the heart. The smallest veins, also called venules, are very thin. They joinlarger veins that open into the heart. The veins carry dark red blood that doesnt have muchoxygen. Veins have thin walls. They dont need to be as strong as the arteries because as blood isreturned to the heart, it is under less pressureMedical English 1 Page 32
  34. 34. HeartDid you know that your heart is the strongest muscle? Your heart is divided into two sides. Theright side pumps blood to your lungs where it picks up oxygen. The left side pumps oxygen-soakedblood out to your body. They do not work on their own, but together as a team. The bodys bloodis circulated through the heart more than 1,000 times per day. Between five and six thousandquarts of blood are pumped each day. Your heart is about the same size as your fist.Blood is thicker than water and has a little bit salty taste. In an adult body there is 10.6 pints ofblood circulating around. In their blood there is billions of living blood cells floating in a liquidcalled plasma. If you took a small sample of this blood and poured it into a test tube and then putit in a machine called a centrifuge, you would be able to see the layers of this blood. This machinespins the blood around so fast that it separates the red blood cells, from the white blood cells,from the platelets. The red blood cells sink to the bottom because they are the heavier, more solidparts, but the plasma remains at the top because it is lighter. The plasma is 95% water and theother 5% is made up of dissolved substances including salts.Medical English 1 Page 33
  35. 35. PRONOUNSA pronoun is a word that can be used instead of another word.Examples:The X-ray machine is automatic, so it does not need to be programmed.Helen was diagnosed as hypertensive, so the doctor gave her some beta-blockers.If you did not pass one or more laboratories, you must take them this semester. SUBJECT PRONOUNS OBJECT PRONOUNS I Me You You He Him She Her It It We Us You You They ThemWhen pronouns are used as subjects of clauses they are called SUBJECT PRONOUNS (SP). Theirposition is before verbs.They have discovered the cure. SPWe are wasting time.SPOBJECT PRONOUNS (OP) are located after verbs or prepositions.They fight cancer They fight it. OPI gave one scalpel and three tweezers to the surgeon I gave them to him OPNOTE: OPA pronoun acts as a subject or an object in a clause, so it is an error to repeat the noun it refers toin the same clause.ExampleThe administrators they are willing to discuss your queries.Bottle-feeding them young children is as nutritious for them as breast feeding.Medical English 1 Page 34
  36. 36. Demonstrative adjectives vs. demonstrative pronouns DISTANCE SINGULAR PLURAL NEAR This These FAR That ThoseThis, that, these, those are words used to refer to nouns that are near or further away in time orspace.They work as adjectives when they modify a noun (the noun is written or pronounced in the sameclause). If they replace a noun these words work as pronouns.Example:  This chocolate tastes delicious. (ADJECTIVE) This tastes delicious. (PRONOUN)  I dont like this prognosis. (ADJECTIVE) I dont like this. (PRONOUN)  That athlete will run for an hour. (ADJECTIVE) That will run for an hour (PRONOUN)  Jim wrote that prescription. (ADJECTIVE) Jim wrote that. (PRONOUN)  These patients look good. (ADJECTIVE) These look good. (PRONOUN)Possessive adjective vs. possessive pronounsPossessive adjectives modify a noun (that is written or pronounced in the clause) and show thatthere is a possession relation.Possessive pronouns are used when we want to substitute a group of words that are indicating apossession relation.Medical English 1 Page 35
  37. 37. POSSESSIVE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE PRONOUN My Mine Your Yours His His Her Hers Its Its Our Ours Your Yours Their TheirsFor example:  This is my book. (ADJECTIVE)  This is mine. (PRONOUN)  Their patients are in the intensive care unit (ADJECTIVE). Theirs are in the intensive care unit. (PRONOUN)  This is your disk and thats mine. (ADJECTIVE – PRONOUN)  The smallest stethoscope is hers. (PRONOUN)NOTERead the following sentenceWhen you drive to Manitoba, will you take your car or theirs?  The possessive adjective "your" depends on the noun "car."  The possessive pronoun, "theirs," stands in the place of the noun phrase, "their car."ACTIVITIESA. Underline the object in each sentence and replace it using an object pronoun. a) Please help doctor Takashi. _______________________________________________________________ b) Peter loves chemistry _______________________________________________________________ c) Read page 104. _______________________________________________________________Medical English 1 Page 36
  38. 38. d) Ask doctor Huapaya and doctor Carhuancho. _______________________________________________________________ e) Buy five syringes for Miss La Rosa. _______________________________________________________________ B. Unscramble the words groups to write sentences. Use the correct punctuation and capitalization. a) lend / him / money / some / always / I ________________________________________________________________ b) the / showing / the / something / women / is / man / to. ________________________________________________________________ c) them / she / help / some / gives / rarely. ________________________________________________________________ d) you / tell / the / him / do / ? / answers ________________________________________________________________ e) this / us / does / explain / kind / exercises / of / she / not / to.C. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate possessive adjective, then use possessive pronouns to replace the group of words expressing possession relation. 1. What’s the boy’s name? _____________ name is Ben Scott. __________________________________________________________________ 2. Debbie has a dog. ____________ dog is very lively. __________________________________________________________________ 3. The dog is very lively. _____________ name is Ben. __________________________________________________________________ 4. We are at school. _______________ school is very nice. __________________________________________________________________ 5. I have a new laptop. _____________ laptop is white. __________________________________________________________________ 6. Im from Chester. Most of ______________ friends are from Chester, too. __________________________________________________________________ 7. The Guptas have a restaurant. _____________ restaurant is great. __________________________________________________________________Medical English 1 Page 37
  39. 39. 8. The rabbit is white. ______________ cage is in the garden. __________________________________________________________________ 9. You are not English. ______________ name is not an English name. __________________________________________________________________ 10. Sandra and Jenny are friends. ________________school is in Chester. __________________________________________________________________ 11. The Scotts have a new car. _________________ car is blue. __________________________________________________________________ 12. Emma Peel has a brother. ________________ name is Paul. __________________________________________________________________ 13. Nick Baker has a sister._______________ name is Debbie. __________________________________________________________________ 14. Yes, we have a dog. _____________ dog is very old. __________________________________________________________________ 15. The Snows have a tortoise. ____________ name is Trundle. __________________________________________________________________ D. GROUP EXERCISE. Create a logical secrete message using at least ten abbreviations showed next pages. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________Medical English 1 Page 38
  40. 40. ABBREVIATIONS This is partial list of abbreviations used in medical prescriptions. ABBREVIATIONS LATIN OR GREEK MEANING ORIGINAa Ana of eachAd Ad up toa.c. ante cibum before mealsa.d. auris dextra right earad lib. ad libitum use as much as one desires; freelyadmov. Admove applyAgit Agita stir/shakealt. h. alternis horis every other houra.m. ante meridiem morning, before noonAmp AmpuleAmt AmountAq Aqua Watera.l., a.s. auris laeva, auris left ear sinistraA.T.C. around the clocka.u. auris utraque both earsBis Bis twiceb.d./b.i.d. bis in die twice dailyB.M. bowel movementbol. Bolus as large as single dose(usually intravenously)B.S. blood sugarB.S.A body surface areasBUCC Bucca inside cheekcap., caps. Capsula capsulec, c. Cum with (usually written with a bar on top of the"c")cib. Cibus foodCc cum cibo with food, (but also cubic centimeter)Cf with foodcomp. compoundcr., crm creamCST continue same treatmentD5W dextrose 5% solution (sometimes written as D5W)D5NS dextrose 5% in normal saline (0.9%)D.A.W. dispense as written (i.e., no generic substitution)dc, D/C, disc discontinuedieb. alt. diebus alternis every other daydil. dilutedisp. dispersible or dispensediv. divide Medical English 1 Page 39
  41. 41. ABBREVIATIONS LATIN OR GREEK MEANING ORIGINd.t.d. dentur tales doses give of such dosesD.W. water distilledelix. elixire.m.p. ex modo prescripto as directedemuls. Emulsum emulsionEt Et andEod every other dayEx aq ex aqua in waterfl., fld. fluidft. Fiat make; let it be madeG gramGr graingtt(s) gutta(e) drop(s)H hypodermich, hr hora hourh.s. hora somni bedtimeID intradermalIM Intramuscular (with respect to injections)inj. injectio injectionIP intraperitonealIV intravenousIVP intravenous pushIVPB intravenous piggybackL.A.S. label as suchLCD coal tar solutionLin linimentum linimentLiq liquor solutionlot. lotionMane mane in the morningM. misce mixm, min minimum a minimumMcg microgramm.d.u. more dicto utendus to be used as directedmEq milliequivalentMg milligrammist. mistura mixMitte mitte sendmL milliliternebul nebula a sprayN.M.T. not more thannoct. nocte at nightnon rep. non repetatur no repeatsNS normal saline(0.9%)1/2NS half normal saline(0.45%) Medical English 1 Page 40
  42. 42. ABBREVIATIONS LATIN OR GREEK MEANING ORIGINN.T.E. not to exceedo_2 both eyes, sometimes written as o2o.d. oculus dexter right eyeD.W. water distilledelix. elixire.m.p. ex modo prescripto as directedemuls. emulsum emulsionEt Et andEod every other dayEx aq ex aqua in waterfl., fld. fluidft. fiat make; let it be madeG gramGr graingtt(s) gutta(e) drop(s)H hypodermich, hr hora hourh.s. hora somni bedtimeID intradermalIM Intramuscular (with respect to injections)inj. injectio injectionIP intraperitonealIV intravenousIVP intravenous pushIVPB intravenous piggybackL.A.S. label as suchLCD coal tar solutionLin linimentum linimentLiq liquor solutionlot. lotionMane mane in the morningM. misce mixm, min minimum a minimumMcg microgramm.d.u. more dicto utendus to be used as directedmEq milliequivalentMg milligrammist. mistura mixMitte mitte sendmL milliliternebul nebula a sprayN.M.T. not more than Medical English 1 Page 41
  43. 43. ABBREVIATIONS LATIN OR GREEK MEANING ORIGINnoct. nocte at nightnon rep. non repetatur no repeatsNS normal saline(0.9%)1/2NS half normal saline(0.45%)N.T.E. not to exceedo_2 both eyes, sometimes written as o2o.d. oculus dexter right eyeo.p.d. once per dayo.s. oculus sinister left eyeo.u. oculus uterque both eyesoz ounceper per by or throughp.c. post cibum after mealspig./pigm. pigmentum paintp.m. post meridiem evening or afternoonPRN, prn pro re nata as neededp.o. per os by mouth or orallyp.r. by rectumpulv. pulvis powderPV per vaginam via the vaginaq quaque everyq.a.d. quoque alternis die every other dayq.a.m. quaque die ante every day before noon meridiemq.d.s. quater die sumendus four times a dayq.p.m. quaque die post every time after noon meridiemq.h. quaque hora every hourq.h.s. quaque hora somni every night at bedtimeq.1h, q.1° quaque1 hora every 1 hour; (can replace “1” with other numbers)q.d. quaque die every dayq.i.d. quater in die four times a dayq.o.d. every other dayqqh quater quaque hora every four hoursq.s. quantum sufficiat a sufficient quantityQWK every weekR rectalrep., rept. repetatur repeatsRL, R/L Ringers lactate sines without (usually written with a bar on the top of the “s”)s.a. secundum artum use your judgment Medical English 1 Page 42
  44. 44. ABBREVIATIONS LATIN OR GREEK MEANING ORIGINSC, subc, subcut, subq, SQ subcutaneousSig write on labelSL sublingually, under the tongueSol solutio solutions.o.s., si op. sit si opus sit if there is a needSs semis one halfStat statim immediatelySupp suppositorium suppositorySusp suspensionSyr syrupus syrupTab tabella tablettal., t talus suchTbsp tablespoontroche trochiscus lozengeTsp teaspoont.i.d. ter in die three times a dayt.d.s. ter die sumendum three times a dayt.i.w. three times a weektop. topicalT.P.N. total parenteral nutritiontr, tinc., tinct. tinctureu.d., ut. dict.ut dictum as directedung. unguentum ointmentU.S.P. United States PharmacopoeiaVag vaginallyW withWf with food (with meals)w/o withoutX timesY.O. years old Medical English 1 Page 43
  45. 45. UNITHOSPITAL FACILITIES 6Melissa Memorial HospitalMelissa Memorial Hospital is designed as a critical access hospital providing for 24hour emergency care. The design is intended to present an image of a facility thatprovides quality healthcare in a friendly environment. This facility focuses on healingthe body, mind and spirit by personalizing, humanizing, and demystifying thehealthcare experience for patients and their families.Family Waiting Lounge – The family lounge sits immediately adjacent to the inpatientbed wing, providing a bright and spacious place for families to gather.Medical English 1 Page 44
  46. 46. Main Entry Lobby - The high ceiling main lobby space was designed with comfort inmind. Its upper windows provide a beacon when lights are on at night and itscontemporary design and soft colors offer patients and their families a warm welcomeand an orientation point of reference.Nursing Station - The nursing station is centrally located to offer overlapping accessand control of the inpatient bed wing, the labor and delivery suite, the emergencydepartment, the observation beds, the family lounge as well as the outpatient waitingarea.Operating Room - The new surgical suite was designed primarily for outside specialiststhat travel to Melissa Memorial for specialty surgeries. The new surgical area will helpto increase specialty surgery volumes.Floor Plan - The Floor Plan emphasizes departmental adjacencies and clean andseparate corridor flows.Medical English 1 Page 45
  47. 47. Pre-operative and Recovery Areas - The hospital provides pre-operative and recoveryareas adjacent to the operating room.The total refurbishment of Melissa Memorial Hospital will be 2011. The roof will be replaced, thewards partitioned into individual cubicles to provide privacy for patients, and new nursing stationswere constructed. Ceramic floor tiles give the wards a cool and clean appearance as do theacoustic ceilings in all the General Wards corridors.The next major development will be the building of an ultra-modern maternity wing. It will haveeighteen beds, five are sea-facing private rooms, four semi-private rooms and eight general wardbeds. It will also have its own operating theatre, a baby nursery, isolation rooms, delivery rooms,family planning area, well-baby and well-woman clinics, pediatric cardiology.The development of the hospital never really stops, because the pace of change always increasesand the hospital must keep up.Medical English 1 Page 46
  48. 48. THERE IS/ THERE AREBoth expressions are used to state the something exists or to point out something in the distance.There is/There are can be used as the sentences subject. 1. "There is" - is used with the following subjects:  Singular nouns  Uncountable nouns  3rd person singular (he, she, my physician, his outpatient, etc.). Examples: There is my specialist on the corner. There is a lot of blood on the highway. There must have been an accident. There is a fracture here. 2. "There are" - is used with the following subjects:  3rd person plural (they, my doctors, the nurses, the practitioners, etc.) Examples: There are many nurses in this nursing station. There are practitioners there. There are three sites on the internet that are really good to study Medical English. PREPOSITIONSMedical English 1 Page 47
  49. 49. ACTIVITIESA. THERE IS/THERE ARE. Choose the appropriate expression from the parentheses. 1. ___________ a fly in that doctors soup. (There is, There are) 2. ______________many health centers in Huaycan. (There isnt, There arent) 3. ________________ any viruses in this area. (There isnt, There arent) 4. _____________________ lots of clinics in big cities. (There is, There are) 5. ______________ a blood bank here? (Is there, Are there) 6. _________________ survivors in the mine? (Is there, Are there) 7. _____________________ a blood donor I can call? (Is there, Are there) 8. _______________ an important surgery tomorrow. (There is, There are) 9. _____________________ 8 students in my Medical English class. (There is, There are) 10._________________________ many inpatients in this hospital. (There isnt, There arent)Medical English 1 Page 48
  50. 50. B. GROUP PROJECT. Look at the map below. Then write a description for the plan using “there is”, “there are” and prepositions. C. Draw three plans considering the vocabulary below. Then describe the plans using “there is”, “there are” and prepositions. 1. Ultra-modern maternity wing: eighteen beds, five are sea-facing private rooms, four semi- private rooms and eight general ward beds; one operating theatre; a baby nursery; isolation rooms; delivery rooms; family planning area; well-baby and well-woman clinics; pediatric cardiology. 2. Third floor: two lifts; a four-bed High Dependency Unit; Renal Dialysis Unit; Radiology department. 3. Outpatient Department: Obstetrics; Gynecology; -Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT); -Dental Surgery ; Orthopedics; Dermatology; Virology; Urology; Radiation, Oncology; Obstetrics; Perinatology Consultation; Cardiology; Pathology; Psychiatry; Pulmonary Services; Neurosurgery ; Pediatrics; Internal Medicine; Endocrinology; General Surgery; Geriatrics; Gastroenterology; Electrophysiology; Neonatology; Nephrology; Rheumatology; Ophthalmology; Plastic Surgery; Otolaryngology; Pathology.Medical English 1 Page 49
  51. 51. UNIT 7 THE EXCRETORY SYSTEMExcretion - Excretion is the removal of the metabolic wastes of an organism. Wastes that areremoved include carbon dioxide, water, salt, urea and uric acid. All excreted wastes travel at sometime in the blood.Organs of the Excretory SystemLungs - removal of excess carbon dioxideLiver - produces urea and uric acid as a by-product of the breakdown of proteinsSkin - removal of excess water, salt, urea and uric acidUrinary System - kidneys filter the blood to form urine, which is excess water, salt, urea and uricacidTHE SKINLayers of the skinEpidermis - outer protective layer without blood vesselsDermis - inner layer containing blood vessels, sensory nerve endings, sweat and oil glands, hairs,and fat cellsFunctions of the skinExcretion - Wastes such as excess water, salt, urea and uric acid are removed from the body insweat.Waterproofing - The skin with its oil glands prevents the entry of water into, and loss of water outof the body.Medical English 1 Page 50
  52. 52. Protection from disease - The intact skin prevents invasion of micro-organisms and dust into thebody.Protection from ultraviolet rays - Pigments reduce the intake of UV rays.Regulation of body temperature - The thin layer of fat cells in the dermis insulates the body.Contraction of small muscles attached to hairs forms goosebumps and creates an insulatingblanket of warm air. Also, sweat produced by sweat glands uses excess body heat to evaporate,providing a cooling effect.Sensory Detection - The nerve endings or receptors in the dermis detect heat, cold, touch,pressure and pain. SOME / ANY STATEMENT SOME ANYAffirmative I have some health nuisances. _statement They will need some caloriesNegative _ I do not need any blood transfusion.statementsInterrogative _ Do you need any help?statements Does she have any classmates? Exception: Offer: Would you like some help? Request: Can you lend me some money? QUANTIFIERS WITH COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNSSome adjectives and adjectival phrases describe quantity. Some can only go with countable nouns(nurses, inpatients, outpatients), and some can only go with uncountable nouns (sugar, fat, blood,advice). However, there are quantifiers that can be used with both countable and uncountablenouns. ONLY WITH WITH UNCOUNTABLE ONLY WITH UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS AND COUNTABLE NOUNS COUNTABLE NOUNS How much? How much? or How many? How many? a little no/none a few a bit (of) not any a number (of) - some (any) several a great deal of a lot of a large number of a large amount of plenty of a great number of - lots of -Medical English 1 Page 51
  53. 53. Notes:1. Much and many are used in negative and question forms.Example:How much sugar do you consume?How many cigarettes do you smoke?Theres not much blood in the blood bank.There werent many physicians at the meeting.2. They are also used with too, (not) so, and (not) as :ExamplesThere were too many physicians at the meeting.Its a problem when there are so many patients.Theres not so much work to do this week.3. In positive statements, we use a lot of:Examples:I have a lot of work this week.There were a lot of physicians at the meeting.4. A few (for countable nouns) and a little (for uncountable nouns) describe the quantity in a positive way:Examples:I have a few patients (= maybe not many, but enough)I have a little money (= I have enough to live on)5. Few and little describe the quantity in a negative way:Few people visited him in hospital (= he had almost no visitors)He had little money (= almost no money)Medical English 1 Page 52
  54. 54. ACTIVITIESA. QUANTIFIERS. In the following sentences, fill in the gaps with one of the following quantifiers: much, many, a lot of, most, a little, little, a few, few1. It seems to me that we havent had ____________ assignments in English this term.2. How _______________ material can we be expected to read in one week?3. Ive unfortunately had _________________ headaches already because of stress.4. Our yard looks awful this summer. There are too _____________ weeds.5. I didnt use _____________ fertilizer last spring, and that has made a difference.6. Also, Ive paid very_________________ attention to how rain weve had.7. Im afraid its rained ________________ times this summer, and that is why the grass is turningbrown and dying. Farmers are very upset.8. How _______________ good would it do if we watered the plants ourselves?9. ________________ advice I have ever received from so-called "experts" has been useless.10. They said that just _________________ help could make a big difference.11.________________________ people know as much about computers as Tomas does.12. It does us _________________________ good when the banking system collapses.Medical English 1 Page 53
  55. 55. B. GROUP PROJECT. You are a doctor who needs to know your patient routine. Write a 30- line dialogue using quantifiers in each sentence. Use affirmative, negative and interrogative statements.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Medical English 1 Page 54
  56. 56. UNITTHE URINARY SYSTEM 8UrineThe first nitrogenous waste to be formed from the breakdown of protein is ammonia, a highlytoxic chemical that is quickly converted by the liver to urea and uric acid. These are less toxic thanammonia and are transported in the blood to the kidneys for excretion in urine. Urine consists ofexcess water, excess salt, urea and uric acid.Parts of the Urinary SystemMedical English 1 Page 55