The Goal• The Goal of this field trip is to help you identify the cause and effects of the French and Indian War. The Lenni-Lenape were one of the largest Delaware speaking tribes and fought as scouts in the French and Indian War
Rivalry Between France and Britain On 18th century maps, New Francecovered an enormous expansestretching from hudson’s Bay tothe mouth of the Mississippi, andfrom the shores of Acadia to theRocky Mountains. British French
The Fur Trade• The colonization and the development of New France were closely associated with a raw material much needed in Europe: fur. Beaver, whose fur was used to make felt hats was abundant in the forests of North America.
Conflict in the Ohio Valley• English settlers stayed along the Atlantic coast until the 1740s.• English traders began crossing the Appalachian Mountains in search of furs. British settlers move west
• French traders moved east from the Great Lakes and south from Canada F r e n c h
• Each group believed they owned the rights to the land• Both English and French settlers attempted to colonize the area around present day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Native Americans and the French• Most French settlers in North America were fur trappers and traders• They did not destroy Native American hunting grounds by clearing forests• They married Native American women• The Algonquian and the Huron people decided to side with the French
Native Americans and the British decided• Some Native Americans that the only way to protect their way of life was to take sides in the struggle.• The powerful Iroquois Confederation sided with the British because they hated the Algonquin and the Huron peoples
1753• French troops from Canada marched south to seize and fortify the Ohio Valley.• Britain protested the invasion and claimed Ohio for itself.
• Robert Dinwiddie, lieutenant governor of Virginia sent 21 year old George Washington to deliver a letter to the French commander asking them to leave the area• The French sent Washington away
The British Build Fort Prince George• The British built Fort Prince George at a point where the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers come together to form the Ohio River• The fort was captured by the French before it was completed
Fort Duquesne• The French knocked down the British fort and built Fort Duquesne
• Washington was sent back to the Ohio country in April 1754 to assist in the building of Fort Prince George• On the way, Washington received word that the French had just completed Fort Duquesne• Shortly after, Indian scouts warned Washington that the French were in the area
May 1754• Washington launched a surprise attack on the French• French Ensign de Jumonville and a third of his militia were killed by the united commanded by Washington
• "I fortunately escaped without any wound, for the right wing, where I stood, was exposed to and received all the enemys fire, and it was the part where the man was killed, and the rest wounded. I heard the bullets whistle, and, believe me there is something charming in the sound."•
• Anticipating a French counterattack ,Washington ordered his men to build a fort in a marshy cleared called Great Meadow later named Fort Necessity• Later in the month the French surrounded the fort• Washington quickly ran out of ammunition• Under the terms of the surrender
• The British sent General Edward Braddock to America in 1754 to restore and strengthen the British position in the Ohio Valley and the Great Lakes region after the defeat of George Washington at Fort Necessity
The Battle of the Wilderness• Braddock decided to attack Fort Duquesne using the European style of fighting• They lined up with their red coats and long clumsy muskets• Making them easy targets
• The French and Indians hid in the woods• They wore skins to camouflage themselves• They shot at the British from the woods• the British soldiers “Broke and ran as sheep pursued By dogs” George Washington
• General Braddock died in the battle from a shot in the lungs• Two-thirds of his men were killed or wounded
1756The Seven Years War or theFrench and Indian War begins asGreat Britain declares war onFrance expanding the NorthAmerican conflict to Europe,Africa, Asia and South America.
July 1758• General Jeffrey Amherst captured Louisbourg, a French fort that guarded the mouth of the St. Lawrence River.
July 1759• English soldiers and Iroquois Indians captured Fort Niagara and control of the Niagara River
William Pitt• In 1757, Britain had a new secretary of state, William Pitt• He was determined to win the war in the colonies• he sent Britain’s Best generals to the colonies• He borrowed money to pay colonial troops to fight William Pitt
Fort Pitt• By August 1759, the British controlled six French forts including Fort Duquesne (rebuilt as Fort Pitt)• In late summer, the British began to attack the capital of New France, Quebec• Quebec sat on cliffs 300 feet above the St. Lawrence River• It was protected by cannons and thousands of soldiers
The British take Quebec• British General James Wolfe sailed around the fort for two months• In September, a scout found a steep, unguarded path up the cliffs to the plains just west of Quebec Landing barrages
• Under cover of darkness Wolfe and 4,000 men floated to the path and secretly climbed the cliffs
The British Are Victorious• During the battle British General James Wolfe was killed and French General Montcalm died of his wounds the next day• The French surrendered Quebec to the British• After Montreal fell in 1760, all of Canada was in British hands
The Treaty of Paris• Britain gained control of all of North America east of the Mississippi River• Spain gained New Orleans and the French territory west of the Mississippi• France kept a few islands near Newfoundland and in the West Indies