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Demographic Transition Model

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Demographic Transition Model

  1. 2. <ul><li>A geographical model used to explain… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>∆ high birth/high death rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>⋎ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>low birth/low death rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as countries develop from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-industrial (LLDC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>⋎ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial (LDC/MDC) </li></ul></ul>
  2. 3.
  3. 4.
  4. 5. <ul><li>High birth rates </li></ul><ul><li>high death rates </li></ul><ul><li>population growth is slow and fluctuating. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Need for workers in agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of clean water, sanitation, medical care, education </li></ul><ul><li>Religious beliefs and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of family planning (use, access or need) </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Typical of Britain in the 18th century, </li></ul><ul><li>although NO country is currently in stage one. </li></ul>
  7. 8.
  8. 9. <ul><li>Birth rate remains high </li></ul><ul><li>death rate is falling </li></ul><ul><li>population begins to rise steadily. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Beginnings of industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements in food supply </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements in medical care (smallpox vaccine) and sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural lag – attitudes about large families not changing </li></ul><ul><li>Family planning still not widely used </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Countries in this stage include Bangladesh, Yemen, Afghanistan and much of Sub-Saharan African </li></ul><ul><li>Do not include South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Swaziland, Lesotho, Namibia, Kenya and Ghana, which have begun to move into stage 3. </li></ul>
  11. 12.
  12. 13. <ul><li>Birth rate starts to fall </li></ul><ul><li>death rate continues to fall </li></ul><ul><li>population is rising. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Industrialization continues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase in urbanization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural attitudes favoring small families take hold </li></ul><ul><li>Family planning available </li></ul><ul><li>Healthcare and sanitation continue to improve (lower Infant Mortality Rate) </li></ul><ul><li>Increased standard of living </li></ul><ul><li>Changing status of women </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>China, Brazil and Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>REMEMBER - South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Swaziland, Lesotho, Namibia, Kenya and Ghana, which have begun to move into stage 3. </li></ul>
  15. 16.
  16. 17. <ul><li>Birth rate and death rate are both low. </li></ul><ul><li>Population remains steady. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Excellent standard of living </li></ul><ul><li>Universal access to healthcare and sanitation (long life expectancy) </li></ul><ul><li>High percentage of individuals accessing birth control </li></ul><ul><li>More women in the labor force = fewer children </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural attitudes favor smaller families </li></ul><ul><li>Education more readily accessible </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Canada </li></ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Most of Europe </li></ul>
  19. 20.
  20. 21. <ul><li>Currently entering into the negative growth rate meaning that there are: </li></ul><ul><li>less births than deaths = country's population size is decreasing </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Greece </li></ul><ul><li>the United Kingdom </li></ul>
  22. 23.
  23. 24. http://www.geographyalltheway.com/igcse_geography/population_settlement/population/imagesetc/demographic_transition_detailed.jpg

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