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Learning express express review guides grammar 224p

  1. 1. Grammar
  2. 2. Grammar ® New York
  3. 3. Copyright © 2007 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Express review guides. Grammar.—1st ed. p. cm. ISBN: 978-1-57685-626-0 1. English language—Grammar—Problems, exercises, etc. I. LearningExpress (Organization) PE1112.E97 2007 428'.0076—dc22 2007017305 Printed in the United States of America 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 First Edition ISBN: 978-1-57685-626-0 For more information or to place an order, contact LearningExpress at: 2 Rector Street 26th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com
  4. 4. Contents INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 7 CHAPTER 8 CHAPTER 9 CHAPTER 10 CHAPTER 11 GLOSSARY v Pretest 1 Capitalization and Punctuation—First Things First 15 Spelling—Spell Well . . . with a Few Exceptions 51 Verbs—The Movers and Shakers of Language 69 Adjectives and Adverbs—The 5 Ws and 4 Hs of Good Writing 89 Agreement—A Matter of Compatibility 107 Modifiers—Does It Dangle or Squint or Split? 127 Sentence Structure—From the Simple to the Complex 143 Paragraphs—As Easy as Announce-Build-Close! 157 Tricky Words—Bee a Wear of Why Lee Words! 171 Posttest 187 201
  5. 5. Introduction O ur earliest ancestors invented language out of necessity and the need to improve their quality of life. It could not have taken long for early humans to come to detest the endless aggravation of not being able to get their points across to others around them. The adage Necessity is the mother of invention held true then, as it does even today, as the complexity of our world increases. Our language constantly evolves in order to adapt to our needs and to maintain and improve our quality of life. It doesn’t happen overnight, though, and it didn’t back then either, but the evolution of language is like clockwork—its change is unswerving. English is complex, but luckily, it comes with a user’s manual—grammar and usage—a voluminous set of rules and guidelines that helps you make sense of the many intricate and dynamic parts of our language. And while you may be studying grammar right now in school, figuring out the inner workings of sentence structure and writing can be fun and challenging. The benefits of your efforts will especially be rewarded in your writing. You write more often than you think. Essays, notes, e-mail, lists—all require writing, just in different formats. Sometimes, what you write requires you to be more formal, and you have to follow certain guidelines for etiquette. At other times, your writing may resemble some kind of code or language that your friends understand perfectly well, but that an English teacher would have nightmares about. That’s okay. Really. Flexibility is the key, and knowing when and where to use proper English is important. No
  6. 6. viii Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR one expects you to be a walking grammar book, but having a grounded understanding in the whys and hows of English will impact your spoken and written communication skills forever. If you make a concerted and consistent effort to apply some of the skills you have learned in this book, you will create good habits—habits that will stay with you when you write term papers, a letter of introduction to a prospective employer, and perhaps even an acceptance speech for a prestigious award. All of these scenarios hinge on someone understanding and appreciating what you say and how you say it, whether written or spoken. This book will equip you with the basic tools you will need to build an essay that is clear and logical and that you can be proud of. It also includes the following helpful hints and exercises to help you further develop your writing skills. ¯ Fuel for Thought: critical information and definitions that can help you learn more about a particular topic ¯ Inside Track: tips for reducing your study and practice time—without sacrificing accuracy ¯ Practice Lap: quick practice exercises and activities to let you test your knowledge The chapters, which include lessons, along with examples and practice questions, are meant to be read in order, so the lessons build upon themselves as you read. Here’s a brief description of each chapter, so that you get an idea of the flow. CHAPTER 1: PRETEST Take this test to see where you need to focus before you start the book. Any surprises? This will give you a good idea about your strengths and where you need to improve. Read through each lesson, do the practice questions along the way, and you’re bound to strengthen your writing skills.
  7. 7. Introduction CHAPTER 2: CAPITALIZATION AND PUNCTUATION—FIRST THINGS FIRST There’s more to capitalization than just capitalizing the first word of every sentence. Learn about the basic dos and don’ts of proper capitalization. As the “pulse” of the sentence, punctuation leads the reader through a sentence just as road signs lead a driver. Learn the ins and outs of punctuation, from apostrophes to dashes to quotations to semicolons. CHAPTER 3: SPELLING—SPELL WELL . . . WITH A FEW EXCEPTIONS Learn basic spelling rules (and their exceptions), and learn how prefixes and suffixes play an important role in our language. CHAPTER 4: VERBS—THE MOVERS AND SHAKERS OF LANGUAGE The “movers and shakers” of language, verbs come in many shapes and varieties and present many vivid pictures. Learn how verbs make a sentence come alive. CHAPTER 5: ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS—THE 5 Ws AND 4 Hs OF GOOD WRITING Like the colors on an artist’s palette, these modifiers brighten and enliven language to help paint pictures in a reader’s mind. Learn how useful and powerful these words can be. CHAPTER 6: AGREEMENT—A MATTER OF COMPATIBILITY Agreement between a sentence’s verbs and nouns is paramount. Learn how to decide whether to make a verb plural or singular, and how to make your pronouns compatible with your antecedents. Your what? Find out here! CHAPTER 7: MODIFIERS—DOES IT DANGLE OR SQUINT OR SPLIT? Care to know whether your modifiers dangle, squint, or split? Learn about phrases and clauses and their uncanny ability to throw a curveball or two when you least expect it. ix
  8. 8. x Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR CHAPTER 8: SENTENCE STRUCTURE—FROM THE SIMPLE TO THE COMPLEX Proper sentence structure can make or break your message. Learn how phrases and clauses improve your sentence structure and how to avoid runons and fragments. CHAPTER 9: PARAGRAPHS—AS EASY AS ANNOUNCE-BUILD-CLOSE Identify paragraph components and their proper organization, and then apply that knowledge to create a sound five-paragraph essay. CHAPTER 10: TRICKY WORDS—BEE A WEAR OF WHY LEE WORDS! English is filled with words that sound alike but are spelled differently (homonyms) and words that are spelled the same but pronounced differently (homographs). Then there are words that just, well, trick us—better word choice is just a chapter away. CHAPTER 11: POSTTEST Now that you’ve finished the book, how much have you improved? This posttest will give you a chance to see how much you’ve learned and how far you’ve come since you took the pretest. Do you still need any improvement? Go back to the relevant chapters and review. GLOSSARY This chapter contains an extensive list of important words you may already know, or you may have learned throughout this book. Refer to it as often as you need to. Ready? Let’s get started!
  9. 9. 1 Pretest T his pretest contains 70 questions and is designed to test your knowledge of various topics that are covered in the book. By taking this test and then checking your answers against the answer key that follows, you’ll be able to determine what you already know and what you need to learn. For each question you answer incorrectly, be sure to read the explanation that accompanies the correct answer in the answer key. Also, the answer key contains chapter references, so that you know which lesson deals with that question’s topic. It should take you no more than one hour to complete the pretest. Good luck! CAPITALIZATION Correct the words that require proper capitalization. 1. dean asked, “may i borrow your markers when you’re finished?” 2. my teacher asked me to write an essay titled “if i could live forever.” 3. when hailey saw the latest issue of vogue, she eagerly bought it. 4. brielle said, “there’s a lost cat sitting outside the door.”
  10. 10. 2 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR 5. my dentist, dr. benjamin feldman, always gives me a free toothbrush. 6. tammy enjoys taking walks in the park. 7. have you read the biography of queen elizabeth i? 8. the warm carribbean breeze blew gently across the island. 9. i traveled to burma, a country northwest of thailand. 10. I see mrs. alessi on thursdays only. PUNCTUATION Insert proper punctuation into the following sentences. 11. The playful puppy pushed the little girl 12. Should Polly play outside with her friends or practice her piano 13. The hungry penguin sat on the ice waiting for its mother 14. Wow How did you do that 15. its time to go home 16. Rebeccas long blond hair blew in the breeze 17. The cat chased the mouse into the barn and returned later with a smile on its face 18. The lost hiker tired and hungry searched through his bag for food 19. As Ashley flew to London she thought of her friends and family back home
  11. 11. Pretest 20. Butch a bully popped all of Chelseas balloons and made her cry 21. The caterpillar crawled over the leaf along the branch and down the trunk of the tree 22. After a long talk they decided to go home cook dinner watch TV and chill 23. March 17 1993 is Saras birthday she will be 15 years old this year 24. The midnight sky was still except for one tiny sparkle of a star 25. You must know how to catch throw hit and slide 26. They finally reached the far side of the island however help was nowhere in sight 27. Amanda placed Martins Encyclopedia Book H in her book bag 28. Elliott wants to study genetics in college he hopes to become a doctor 29. That was a good one remarked Tony Do it again 30. Im hungry Do we have anything to eat whined Brandon MODIFIERS Adjectives In each sentence, circle the adjective(s). 31. The car got a flat tire. 32. Tom’s cotton shirt was wrinkled. 33. The loud music hurts my ears. 3
  12. 12. 4 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR 34. Southern peaches are exceptionally delicious and juicy. Adverbs In each sentence, circle the adverb(s). 35. The orange ball glowed and sank slowly on the horizon. 36. Linda completely misunderstood the directions the teacher gave. 37. Nikki quickly decided to turn right at the corner. 38. Westerns can be very exciting. 39. Her fourth-quarter grades had improved slightly. 40. Twenty minutes too late, she removed the burned tuna casserole from the oven. Prepositional Phrases In each sentence, circle the prepositional phrase(s). 41. The grandfather clock in the hallway chimed each hour. 42. The shed in the backyard was covered with English ivy. 43. Steven cut the grass in the front yard yesterday. Tricky Words In each sentence, circle the tricky word(s). 44. Will ewe please take three dollars and by sum milk? 45. Joe tries to due his assignments early. 46. Nell kneads two go two bed.
  13. 13. Pretest 47. Hour daughter, Meghan, had the flew. 48. They’re is only ate scents in my pocket. 49. The plain arrived with the pear of twins a bored. 50. Weight here! Aisle get sum stationary for you. SENTENCE STRUCTURE Identify each sentence as simple, compound, or complex. Underline the subject once and underline the predicate twice. 51. The judges watched the dancers closely and gave prizes to the highest scorers. 52. Karen’s sandwich store serves subs, soups, and salads. 53. Zachary slept well after washing cars for the fund-raiser all day. 54. Mrs. Milling recorded the test grades, and her student teacher passed them back to the students. 55. The nurse gently held the newborn baby, who was crying. 56. Presidential conventions occur every four years during the summer. 57. Ivy was afraid to watch horror movies, but she enjoyed comedies. 58. The bakery, which was built next to the grocery store, was always busy. 59. Although he was a good student, sometimes Matthew forgot to do his homework. 60. The teacher, who taught health and gym, quickly made his way to the meeting. 5
  14. 14. 6 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR COMBINING SENTENCES Choppy sentences in a paragraph are unappealing. Combine the following sentences, rewriting them when necessary, to create an informative, interesting sentence. Although there are many possible combinations, a sample sentence of each question is provided for you at the end of the pretest. 61. My worst trip was not, in fact, the actual vacation. My worst trip was the plane ride to the vacation spot. 62. This wasn’t just one of those two-hour trips to Florida. This was a 16-hour direct flight. It was a flight across the Atlantic over the North Pole. 63. I was boarding the plane. I was anxiously waiting to see how the leg room and the food would be. I was anxiously waiting to see who would be seated around me. 64. Naturally, I did not have high expectations on a flight as long as this. I considered how they can’t expect you to be too comfortable. I considered how they can’t expect you to not be bored.
  15. 15. Pretest 65. Of course, I was not surprised. I think more things went wrong than right on this flight. 66. As I was sitting down, the first thing I noticed was two babies. I noticed the babies seated within three rows of me. I thought that wasn’t a good sign. 67. The babies weren’t the only things I became aware of as I took my seat. I realized how close the back of the seat in front of me was to my knees. 68. By then, I was already telling my sister she could have the window seat. I was supposed to have the window seat. I knew I would need the aisle for extra leg room. 69. I settled in. Eventually, I started dozing off. I would be interrupted by the flight attendants. They were kicking my feet, which were in the aisle. I can’t complain, though, because they weren’t supposed to be there anyway. 7
  16. 16. 8 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR 70. The food was actually quite good. The tray holder that comes out of the back of the seat in front of you was not. It was like trying to balance your meal on the head of a needle. I ended up spilling my soda and dinner all over my lap. ANSWERS Capitalization We capitalize (1) the first word of every sentence, (2) the first word of a direct quotation, (3) the pronoun I and all contractions made using the word I, (4) proper nouns, (5) proper adjectives, and (6) the first word and all key words in titles. (To better understand capitalization, please see Chapter 2.) 1. Dean asked, “May I borrow your markers when you’re finished?” 2. My teacher asked me to write an essay titled “If I Could Live Forever.” 3. When Hailey saw the latest issue of Vogue, she eagerly bought it. 4. Brielle said, “There’s a lost cat sitting outside the door.” 5. My dentist, Dr. Benjamin Feldman, always gives me a free toothbrush. 6. Tammy enjoys taking walks in the park. 7. Have you read the biography of Queen Elizabeth I? 8. The warm Caribbean breeze blew gently across the island. 9. I traveled to Burma, a country northwest of Thailand. 10. I see Mrs. Alessi on Thursdays only. Punctuation (1) Periods signify the end of declarative and imperative sentences; (2) question marks are used after a question; and (3) exclamations signify strong feelings or emotion. (To better understand punctuation, please see Chapter 2.) 11. The playful puppy pushed the little girl. 12. Should Polly play outside with her friends or practice her piano? 13. The hungry penguin sat on the ice waiting for its mother.
  17. 17. Pretest Wow! How did you do that? 15. It’s time to go home. 16. Rebecca’s long, blond hair blew in the breeze. 17. The cat chased the mouse into the barn and returned later with a smile on its face. 14. Use commas (1) to separate series of three or more items or phrases in a sentence, (2) with an introductory word or phrase, (3) before and after a word or phrase that is meant to rename or describe a noun that precedes it (an appositive), and (4) in dates and addresses. 18. The lost hiker, tired and hungry, searched through his bag for food. 19. As Ashley flew to London, she thought of her friends and family back home. 20. Butch, a bully, popped all of Chelsea’s balloons and made her cry. 21. The caterpillar crawled over the leaf, along the branch, and down the trunk of the tree. 22. After a long talk, they decided to go home, cook dinner, watch TV, and chill. 23. March 17, 1993, is Sara’s birthday. She will be 15 years old this year. 24. The midnight sky was still, except for one tiny sparkle of a star. Use colons to (1) introduce a list, (2) introduce the subtitle of a movie or book, (3) separate hours from minutes when writing the time. Use a semicolon (4) to separate two related sentences and (5) between two complete sentences that are separated by transitional words or phrases. 25. You must know how to do all of the following: catch, throw, hit, and slide. 26. They finally reached the far side of the island; however, help was nowhere in sight. : 27. Amanda placed Martin’s Encyclopedia: Book H in her book bag. 28. Elliott wants to study genetics in college; he hopes to become a doctor. Direct quotations require the use of opening and ending quotation marks. 29. “That was a good one,” remarked Tony. “Do it again.” 30. “I’m hungry. Do we have anything to eat?” whined Brandon. 9
  18. 18. 10 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR Modifiers Adjectives (1) modify only nouns; (2) answer What kind? Which one? and How many? about the nouns they are modifying; (3) imply something belongs to someone; and (4) are sometimes proper nouns that behave like adjectives. (To better understand adjectives, please see Chapter 5.) 31. The car got a flat tire. 32. Tom’s cotton shirt was wrinkled. 33. The loud music hurts my ears. 34. Southern peaches are exceptionally delicious and juicy. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs, and answer Where? When? How? How much? How often? and How long? (To better understand adverbs, please see Chapter 5.) 35. The orange ball glowed and sank slowly on the horizon. 36. Linda completely misunderstood the directions the teacher gave. 37. Nikki quickly decided to turn right at the corner. 38. Westerns can be very exciting. 39. Her fourth-quarter grades had improved slightly. 40. Twenty minutes too late, she removed the burned tuna casserole from the oven. A prepositional phrase is a group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun. (To better understand prepositional phrases, please see Chapters 6 and 7.) 41. The grandfather clock in the hallway chimed each hour. 42. The shed in the backyard was covered with English ivy. 43. Steven cut the grass in the front yard yesterday. Words that are spelled differently and have dissimilar meanings, but are pronounced exactly the same, are called homonyms. (To better understand tricky words, please see Chapter 10.) 44. Will you please take three dollars and buy some milk? 45. Joe tries to do his assignments early. 46. Nell needs to go to bed. 47. Our daughter, Meghan, had the flu. 48. There is only eight cents in my pocket.
  19. 19. Pretest The plane arrived with the pair of twins aboard. 50. Wait here! I’ll get some stationery for you. 49. Sentence Structure (1) A simple sentence must have a simple subject (one word) and a simple predicate (one word); (2) a compound sentence is two complete sentences joined by a conjunction; (3) a complex sentence is made up of at least one independent clause and one subordinate (dependent) clause. (For more help with sentence structure, please see Chapter 8.) 51. The judges watched the dancers closely and gave prizes to the highest scorers. compound 52. Karen’s sandwich store serves subs, soups, and salads. simple 53. Zachary slept well after washing cars for the fund-raiser all day. simple 54. Mrs. Milling recorded the test grades, and her student teacher passed them back to the students. compound 55. The nurse gently held the newborn baby, who was crying. complex 56. Presidential conventions occur every four years during the summer. simple 57. Ivy was afraid to watch horror movies, but she enjoyed comedies. compound 58. The bakery, which was built next to the grocery store, was always busy. complex 59. Although he was a good student, sometimes Matthew forgot to do his homework. complex 60. The teacher, who taught health and gym, quickly made his way to the meeting. complex 11
  20. 20. 12 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR Combining Sentences (For more help with combining sentences, please see Chapters 8 and 9.) 61. My worst trip was not, in fact, the actual vacation, but the plane ride to the vacation spot. The choppiness of these sentences is obvious because the subjects are repeated. Combine the subjects to make one sentence. 62. This wasn’t just one of those two-hour trips to Florida but a 16-hour direct flight across the Atlantic over the North Pole. Again, the choppiness is evident with the repetition of the words this and flight. Combine for fluidity. 63. As I was boarding the plane, I anxiously waited to see how the leg room and the food would be, and to see who would be seated around me. The subject, I, is written three times, which means the sentences can be combined. Also, notice the word anxiously being used twice. Avoid repetition. 64. Naturally, I did not have high expectations on a flight as long as this; I considered how they can’t expect you to be too comfortable and to not be bored. The sentence topics are directly related, so they can be joined using a semicolon. The last two sentences need combining for fluidity. 65. Not to my surprise, I think more things went wrong than right on this flight. Just a little rewording brings the two sentences together. 66. As I was sitting down, the first thing I noticed was two babies within three rows of me, and I immediately thought that wasn’t a good sign. Notice some of the repetition avoided with combining and a little rewording. 67. The babies weren’t the only things I became aware of as I took my seat; I realized how close the back of the seat in front of me was to my knees. The semicolon joins the sentences, as they complement each other. 68. By then, I was already telling my sister she could have the window seat, even though I was supposed to. I knew I would need the aisle for extra leg room. Combining the first two sentences makes sense. Leave the last one alone for the added emphasis.
  21. 21. Pretest I settled in and eventually started dozing off, only to be interrupted by the flight attendants kicking my feet, which were in the aisle. I can’t complain, though; they weren’t supposed to be there anyway. Notice the same subject, I, in the first three choppy sentences. They need combining with a bit of rewording. Leave the last sentence alone for emphasis. 70. The food was actually quite good, but the tray holder that comes out of the back of the seat in front of you was not. It was like trying to balance your meal on the head of a pin, and I ended up spilling my soda and dinner all over my lap. The first two sentences contrast each other nicely, and combining them with the conjunction but works well. The last two sentences can be made into a compound sentence using the conjunction and. 69. 13
  22. 22. 2 Capitalization and Punctuation First Things First W hat if no one had to follow the same rules or conventions of punctuation and capitalization for written English? It is certain that whatever message the writer means to get across will fall short, if not get lost altogether. Take a look. when i—go to thanksgiving Dinner at. grandmas house my cousin nathan and I, watch football on my uncles? big screen tv and Cheer on our . . . favorite teams, later on the Entire family young; and old gathers in the living room, and plays bingo a time! honored custom started “when grandma was a little girl growing” up in st louis mo? Without the use of standard punctuation and capitalization, you would find that reading the preceding passage is tedious and requires too much time and trouble. If it is rewritten appropriately, however, reading and understanding it becomes effortless. When I go to Thanksgiving dinner at Grandma’s house, my cousin Nathan and I watch football on my uncle’s big-screen TV and cheer on our favorite teams. Later on, the entire family, young and old, gathers in the living room and plays bingo, a time-honored tradition started when Grandma was a little girl growing up in St. Louis, Missouri. What a difference!
  23. 23. 16 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR PART 1: CAPITALIZATION—FIRST THINGS FIRST Capitalize the first word of every sentence. Take the dog for a walk, please. Fifty-two weeks make up one year. Capitalization signifies the beginning of a sentence. It provides visual separation clues for readers as to when a new sentence begins, which is helpful when several sentences follow one another in a paragraph, as you observed in the preceding passage. FUEL FOR THOUGHT IF THE FIRST word of a sentence is a number, it should be written out as a word. When a sentence includes a person’s exact words, capitalize the first word of the direct quotation . . . Looking wide-eyed at the list of ice cream choices, Anthony said, “There are so many flavors.” “I’m so hungry, I could eat them all!” exclaimed Anthony’s friend, Jason. . . . however, do not capitalize the first word of a partial quotation. “We can have a feast,” Alex replied with resolve, “if we order the seven-scoop Kitchen Sink Sundae!” Capitalize the pronoun I and all contractions made using the word I (I’m, I’ve, I’ll, I’d).
  24. 24. Capitalization and Punctuation “I’m sure I’ve never borrowed Alicia’s sequined green-and-pink sweater,” said Rhonda. “I’ll look in my closet, but I think I’d remember wearing something that outlandish.” Capitalize proper nouns. Unlike common, garden-variety nouns, which are general names for people, places, and things (city, building, man, holiday, etc.), proper nouns are specific (New York City, Empire State Building, Thomas Edison, Thanksgiving, etc.) and require capitalization to acknowledge their importance. ¯ When referring to a specific person, for example, Mr. James W. Dunlap, Jr., or Dr. Sara E. Mahanirananda, PhD, notice that their initials are capitalized, as are their titles (Mr., Mrs., Miss, Rev., Dr.) and the abbreviations following their names (Jr., Sr., Esq., PhD). ¯ FUEL FOR THOUGHT SOME NOUNS MAY act as both a common and proper noun, depending on how they are used in a sentence. For instance, when used alone, the word governor is a common noun. The governor took a much-needed vacation after the arduous primaries this fall. When used before a person’s name, however, governor should be capitalized. When asked where he was headed, Governor Braxton commented that he was looking forward to his two-week reprieve in upstate New York. This rule also applies to family relationships when a specific person is referred to, except when it follows a possessive noun or possessive pronoun. I made my grandmother a scarf for her birthday; Aunt Nancy commented on how colorful it was. 17
  25. 25. 18 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR INSIDE TRACK THE CARDINAL DIRECTIONS (north, south, east, and west) are not capitalized; however, when you’re referring to a specific section of the country, like the Southwest, you capitalize the word. The seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter) are not capitalized unless they are being used in the title of something, like Spring Fling. The names of gods and religious figures are always capitalized except when you are not referring to one specific god, like Roman gods. PRACTICE LAP Identify and correct improperly capitalized words in the following dialogue. Then, check your answers at the end of the chapter. 1. “all right,” jack conceded, “you win this time.” 2. “it’s getting late and i have homework to do,” jack sighed. 3. “can we play one more time,” asked julie. “please?” 4. jack smiled and remarked, “only if i can go first!” 5. “deal!” julie replied with a sly smile, handing jack the wireless controller. “good luck!” Capitalize proper adjectives. Adjectives modify, or enhance, nouns to tell you more information about the person, place, or thing being described. Sometimes, a proper noun acts like an adjective—for example, April showers, Chinese yo-yo, and English muffin. When proper adjectives refer to a nationality, the suffix -n or -ian is generally added, such as with Victorian era, American flag, and Mexican food.
  26. 26. Capitalization and Punctuation Capitalize the first word and all key words in titles of books, movies, songs, short stories, works of art, etc. Articles (a, an, the) and the conjunctions so, for, and, but, nor, or, yet are not capitalized, unless they are the first word of the title. Personal pronouns (I, you, he, she, it, they, them, we, us, etc.) and verbs are always capitalized. Titling Written Works Book Bridge to Terabithia Short Story “The Lawyer and the Ghost” Newspaper The New York Daily News Movie Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone Painting Starry Night Song “Sunshine on My Shoulders” Magazine Newsweek PRACTICE LAP Identify and correct any proper adjectives or titles that should be capitalized in the following sentences. Then, check your answers on page 20. 6. Have you read Mark Twain’s the adventures of huckleberry finn? 7. Thomas Jefferson’s declaration of independence of the united states of america is on display at the National Archives in Washington, D.C. 8. Kauai, a hawaiian island, is among one of the most exotic places in the world. 9. One of Pierre-Auguste Renoir’s famous paintings is called lady at the piano. 10. march winds blow, before april showers show, which make may flowers grow. 19
  27. 27. 20 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR ANSWERS Reminder: Capitalize (1) the first word of every sentence, (2) the first word of a direct quotation, (3) the pronoun I and all contractions made using the word I, and (4) proper nouns. 1. “All right,” Jack conceded, “you win this time.” 2. “It’s getting late and I have homework to do,” Jack sighed. 3. “Can we play one more time?” asked Julie. “Please?” 4. Jack smiled and remarked, “Only if I can go first!” 5. “Deal!” Julie replied with a sly smile, handing Jack the wireless controller. “Good luck!” Reminder: Capitalize (1) proper adjectives and (2) the first word and all key words in titles. 6. Have you read Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn? 7. Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence of the United States of America is on display at the National Archives in Washington, D.C. 8. Kauai, a Hawaiian island, is among one of the most exotic places in the world. 9. One of Pierre-Auguste Renoir’s famous paintings is called Lady at the Piano. 10. March winds blow, before April showers show, which make May flowers grow. PART 2: PUNCTUATION—THE PULSE OF THE SENTENCE Periods Periods signify the end of a declarative sentence (a statement of fact) or an imperative sentence (a command or request is stated). For example: Declarative: There is a test on the Westward Expansion on Tuesday. Imperative: Study hard if you want to do well.
  28. 28. Capitalization and Punctuation Periods also follow most abbreviations (Mr., Mrs., lb., oz., A.M., P.M., Mon., Tue., Jan. Feb., etc.), except for abbreviations that use all capital letters (NASA, CIA, FBI, YMCA, etc.) and abbreviations for states (DE, NJ, CA, KN, MO, etc.). Periods must also follow a person’s initials (John F. Kennedy, T.S. Eliot, etc.). INSIDE TRACK WHEN A SENTENCE ends with an abbreviation that has a period, do NOT add another period at the end. Instead, leave the abbreviation’s period as the endmark. If the sentence is an exclamatory sentence or question, you MUST place the exclamation mark or question mark at the end, after the abbreviation’s period. Correct: I was supposed to meet you at 4 P.M.! Was I supposed to meet you at 4 P.M.? Incorrect: I will meet you at 4 P.M.. Question Marks—Go Ahead and Ask Question marks are used after a question (an interrogatory sentence). This is a difficult rule, isn’t it? Don’t get indirect questions mixed up with questions. Sometimes a sentence sounds like it has a question in it, but it’s really just a statement reporting a question: I was wondering if Lucas, Sean, and I could get together to study tonight at my house. I asked whether I could get together with my friends to study. The statements I was wondering and I asked are just that—statements. Hence, they end with periods. 21
  29. 29. 22 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR Exclamation Marks—Turn Up the Volume Exclamations signify strong feelings or emotion. When a sentence is exclamatory, use an exclamation mark to end it; this includes an imperative sentence, which gives an authoritative or earnest command. Exclamatory Sentences: Hey! This is pretty simple! I can’t believe it! Look at the size of that dog! I’m glad I don’t feed it! Imperative Sentences: Stop! I mean it! Be quiet now! This is important! FUEL FOR THOUGHT BE CAREFUL NOT to overuse the exclamation mark in your writing. For emphasis, people tend to end their sentences with not only one, but sometimes two, three, or more. Yikes!!!!!!! PRACTICE LAP Place the correct punctuation at the end of each sentence. Check your answers on page 47. 1. The sun was shining in my window when I woke up 2. Did you see the tightrope walker at the circus 3. The honest stranger found a wallet and returned it to its owner 4. Ouch That hurt 5. Excellent work class, I am very proud of you
  30. 30. Capitalization and Punctuation Commas—A Common Sense Approach Of all the punctuation marks, commas are used more frequently than any other, and tend to cause writers the most headaches. Their usage is really a matter of personal style, which leaves some writers dropping them into sentences all over the place, and others placing them so sparingly, you’d think they were being charged for each one. All kidding aside, just how do you know when to use one and when not to? Here are some suggestions to help you avoid confusion, yet not cramp your style. ¯ When you have a series of three or more items in a sentence, use a comma to separate them. The items may be words or phrases. Words in a Series: Yellow, blue, red, and green are my favorite colors. Phrases in a Series: The cardinal flew around the house, above the tree, and under the power line. ¯ When you have two or more adjectives describing a noun or pronoun, use a comma to separate them. The young cat had gray, matted fur due to lack of care by its owner. ¯ If you have a series of items where the words or, and, or nor are connecting them, a comma is not necessary. Cats and dogs and hamsters are popular pets. I like more exotic pets like guinea pigs or parakeets or iguanas. However, I like neither snakes nor mice nor spiders as pets. 23
  31. 31. 24 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR INSIDE TRACK COMMON SENSE MUST prevail when using commas. Read your sentence to make certain that the meaning is not misconstrued with too many or too few commas. Consider the following: Robert danced with Barbara, Anne, Cassidy, and Katie Lee at the prom. Robert had a very busy evening at the prom and probably went home exhausted. Robert danced with Barbara Anne Cassidy and Katie Lee at the prom. While Robert did dance with two girls, Barbara Anne, whose last name is Cassidy, and Katie, whose last name is Lee, it’s unlikely he went home worn out. ¯ If a sentence begins with an introductory word or phrase, it is, in most cases, generally followed by a comma. The use of a comma after introductory sentence parts helps the reader from carrying the meaning of the introduction into the main part of the sentence, which can lead to misinterpretation. For example: Confusing: After eating the three little pigs and the big bad wolf played a round of golf to catch up on old times. (My, someone was very hungry!) Less Confusing: After eating, the three little pigs and the big bad wolf played a round of golf to catch up on old times. (Friendly bunch, aren’t they?) Confusing: Bugged Bob went to the manager to complain about his cold dinner. (What a strange name, Bugged Bob. Does he have a sister Irked Irene, or perhaps Mad Margaret?)
  32. 32. Capitalization and Punctuation Less Confusing: Bugged, Bob went to the manager to complain about his cold dinner. ¯ When a word or phrase immediately follows a noun, it should be set off by commas. The word or phrase is meant to rename or enhance the noun’s meaning by providing the reader with more information. This sentence interrupter is called an appositive. Brian, a varsity soccer player, trains daily at the gym to stay in shape. The phrase a varsity soccer player renames Brian and adds to our understanding about who he is. This phrase, however, can be removed and the sentence will remain complete—Brian trains daily at the gym to stay in shape. Let’s look at another: My teacher, Mr. Moyer, is also a football coach at the high school. Again, if we remove the appositive Mr. Moyer, the meaning of the sentence remains complete—My teacher is also a football coach at the high school. One more: The pies, pumpkin and chocolate cream, were the perfect ending to our dinner. We know exactly what kinds of pies were the perfect ending to dinner because of the appositive provided. If we remove the phrase, does the sentence meaning remain intact? Yes. Besides enhancing a noun, appositives typically have two other functions in a sentence. They name a person being addressed in the sentence: See, Danielle, I told you the principal saw you running in the hall. Look, Courtney, I found my earring under my dresser. 25
  33. 33. 26 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR And they set off expressions of opinions, conclusions, etc.: George Washington, in fact, is known as the father of our country. Abraham Lincoln, on the other hand, was the most revolutionary president in American history. FUEL FOR THOUGHT OTHER EXPRESSIONS YOU may encounter are yes, no, well, indeed, nevertheless, however, I believe, of course, for once, obviously, in my opinion, to tell the truth, and on the contrary. PRACTICE LAP Place all missing commas in the following sentences. Then, check your answers at the end of the chapter. 6. Sal’s uncle Joe is a mail carrier in Mississippi. 7. Believe it or not Joe walks about five miles a day on his route. 8. Last month he was chased by a neighborhood dog Rex while working on his route. 9. Fortunately he was able to run jump a fence and hop into his truck for safety. 10. Joe’s customer Mr. Henderson was careful to keep Rex inside from then on.
  34. 34. Capitalization and Punctuation ¯ Use commas in dates, addresses, salutations (friendly letters only!), and closings of letters. · Dates Place a comma after the day of the week (if it’s mentioned), the day of the month, and the year (if the sentence continues only): Michael Jordan was born Sunday, February 17, 1963, in Brooklyn, New York. INSIDE TRACK NO COMMA IS necessary if you’re writing only the day and month or the month and year in a sentence: Michael Jordan was born February 17. Michael Jordan was born in February 1963. · Addresses In friendly and business letters, and in sentences, there are places in addresses you are expected to place commas: Sentence/Text Form: In order to receive credit for your payment, please remit check or money order to Lamp Lighters Co., 54321 Main St., Roxbury, NJ 07876. As you can see, commas need to be placed between the business or person’s name and the start of the street address, then after the street address, and then between the city and state. No commas are necessary between the state and the zip code. 27
  35. 35. 28 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR INSIDE TRACK WHEN MENTIONING A city and state in a sentence (without a zip code), a comma must also follow the state. Last week, my dad traveled to Chicago, Illinois, on business. The same rule holds true if you mention a country name: He sometimes travels to Paris, France, in the spring. Letter/Envelope Form: Lamp Lighters Co. 54321 Main St. Roxbury, NJ 07876 Only a comma between the city and state is necessary in this format. · Salutations and Closings When greeting someone in a friendly letter, use a comma after his or her name and after your closing: Dear Aunt Josie, Love, ¯ Use a comma before coordinating conjunctions that are followed by an independent clause (a sentence). Coordinating conjunctions are and, but, for, nor, or, yet, and so. I am 14 years old, and my brother, Jonathan, is 15. He is older than I am, yet I’m taller than he is, so people think I’m older. These can all be written as separate sentences: I am 14 years old. My brother, Jonathan, is 15. He is older than I am. I’m taller than he is. People think I’m older.
  36. 36. Capitalization and Punctuation It is better, though, to combine them to avoid choppiness. ¯ Commas are used in direct quotations (the exact words that a person says). · Direct Quotation Identifying the Speaker First: Kevin said, “There’s a big rip in the back of your pants!” These are the exact words of Kevin. · Direct Quotation with an Interrupter: “There’s a big rip,” Kevin said, “in the back of your pants!” Notice that the first part of Kevin’s sentence ends with a comma (after rip), and again after the interrupting words Kevin said. · Indirect Quotation: Kevin said that there is a big rip in the back of your pants. This is someone conveying what Kevin said. No commas are needed. ¯ Use commas with titles and degrees only when they follow a person’s name. Commas: In an emergency, call Jackson Foster, MD. Lorraine Devonshire, PhD, has become president of our state college. No Commas: Call Dr. Foster in an emergency. Dr. Lorraine Devonshire has become president of our state college. ¯ Use commas when writing long numbers. When writing numbers, especially long ones, your teachers expect you to place commas in them to help readers understand the number more easily. For instance, if you had the number 6307200 or 378432000, it would take quite a bit of thought to decipher the numbers; what with 29
  37. 37. 30 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR counting how many numbers there are and then mentally grouping them into threes to divide them into their billions, millions, hundred thousands, thousands, hundreds, and so on. With the help of commas, numbers are easily interpreted: The average student spends 6,307,200 minutes, or 378,432,000 seconds, in school from first grade through high school graduation! INSIDE TRACK TO PLACE COMMAS properly in long numbers, begin at the far right of the number and place a comma after every three digits: The 2006 population of New Jersey, an area of 8,729 square miles, was 8,724,560. Numbers from 1 to 999 don’t require a comma. Nor do phone numbers, page numbers, zip codes, years, serial numbers, and house numbers. However, when you are writing a series of numbers, commas should be placed in between each number: Study pages 112, 113, and 114 in your textbook to prepare for tomorrow’s quiz on commas. Red Bank, New Jersey, has four zip codes: 07701, 07702, 07703, and 07704. PRACTICE LAP Add periods and commas where necessary in the following sentences. Then, check your answers at the end of the chapter. 11. Mr Eatmore S Pinach president of the Ban Brussels Sprouts Association (BBSA) is heading a worldwide protest against the sale and consumption of the so-called wild cabbage.
  38. 38. Capitalization and Punctuation 12. It seems its popularity has soared to new heights since the latest campaign The Brussels Sprout Tout has gone on tour throughout Europe Asia and North America. 13. The operation has prompted many widespread international antisprout movements among dark leafy greens lovers led by China’s Bok Choy Switzerland’s Swiss Chard and North America’s renowned Dan D Lyon Green. 14. Donations to support the cause are greatly appreciated so please feel free to give your time or money generously. 15. Send all correspondence and contributions to BBSA 481 Bountiful Blvd Verdant Valley CA 98765. Colons and Semicolons—The Introducers and Connectors of Punctuation Colons are used to introduce a particular bit of information. Unlike commas, which seem to have a million and one rules to follow, a colon simply introduces anything: a word, a sentence, a list, a quotation, a phrase. It says “here is an example” or “an example is going to follow” to the reader (figuratively, of course). Now, that’s not to say you can simply throw colons into your writing. There is some simple, yet important, colon etiquette to follow: ¯ Use a colon to introduce a list. Please bring the following items to school on the first day: pencils, a pen, notebook paper, and a binder. A more detailed list of needed items will be given in class. While colons usually signify a list to follow, the colons themselves may NOT follow a verb or preposition: Incorrect: On the first day of school, please bring: pencils, a pen, notebook paper, and a binder. 31
  39. 39. 32 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR Incorrect: On the first day of school, please bring pencils, a pen, notebook paper, and a binder to: Mr. Stewart, Mrs. Hodges, or Ms. Louise. TIP: To play it safe, use a phrase like as follows or the following before the colon (for example, the list is as follows: OR bring the following:). ¯ Use a colon to introduce an excerpt or long quotation. In his first inaugural address to the United States of America, President John F. Kennedy said: . . . In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course. Since this country was founded, each generation of Americans has been summoned to give testimony to its national loyalty . . . And so, my fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country. ¯ Use a colon to introduce the subtitle of a movie or book. Ethan’s favorite movie is Star Wars VI: Return of the Jedi. Scott read Crispin: At the Edge of the World two times already this summer. ¯ Use a colon to separate hours from minutes when writing the time. It’s now 4:43 P.M. The school record for the one-mile relay is 5:32:47. ¯ Use a colon in the salutation of a formal or business letter. Dear Sir: To Whom It May Concern: Dear Mr. President: The Semicolon—The Super Comma The semicolon, a.k.a. the “super comma,” connects two related sentences to emphasize their relationship to a reader. Typically, the second sentence that follows makes a comment of some sort about the first or offers further information about it—hence the relationship.
  40. 40. Capitalization and Punctuation ¯ Use a semicolon to separate two sentences (independent clauses) that are related in topic and meaning. Sentence 1: Waiting until the last minute, Jamon hurriedly finished his report. Sentence 2: He made many careless mistakes. Sentence 3: Waiting until the last minute, Jamon hurriedly finished his report; he made many careless mistakes. Jamon made careless mistakes because he hurried to do his report. This cause/effect is emphasized even more by being in the same sentence. ¯ Use a semicolon between two complete sentences that are separated by some transitional words or phrases, or conjunctive adverbs. Waiting until the last minute, Jamon hurriedly finished his report; consequently, he made many careless mistakes. FUEL FOR THOUGHT HERE ARE SOME common conjunctive adverbs: afterward accordingly besides consequently furthermore hence however indeed instead likewise moreover nevertheless nonetheless otherwise similarly so still then therefore thus 33
  41. 41. 34 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR PRACTICE LAP Add colons and semicolons where necessary in the following sentences. Then, check your answers at the end of the chapter. 16. Mom’s list included the following milk, eggs, butter, toothpaste, and soap. 17. I was supposed to be home at 1130 A.M., but I got home at 130 P.M. instead. 18. Pratishta couldn’t decide whether to watch Ace Ventura Pet Detective or Robin Hood Prince of Thieves. 19. The weather on Sunday was spectacular however we had to stay home to paint. 20. His new baby sister was precious her blue eyes were riveting. Quotation Marks—It Must Be the Real Deal Quotation marks, a.k.a. quotes, are used in writing to show the exact words someone said—exactly. This exact account is called a direct quotation. ¯ Direct quotations require the use of opening and ending quotation marks. Direct Quotation: “Mark always thinks he’s right,” said his little sister, Cheryl. Indirect Quotation: Mark’s little sister, Cheryl, says Mark, always thinks he’s right. Here, the same message is conveyed, but the reader is able to distinguish that the sentence with quotes are the exact wording from the speaker. The indirect quotation, called hearsay, means just that—someone saying what he or she heard someone else say . . . make sense?
  42. 42. Capitalization and Punctuation ¯ Don’t place quotes around someone’s thoughts (his or her ideas that are not spoken aloud). Correct: These math problems are pretty difficult—will I pass this test? Elisabeth thought. Incorrect: “These math problems are pretty difficult—will I pass this test?” Elisabeth thought. ¯ Use quotes to convey uncertainty or misgivings. You know, Tracy, I don’t know how you can call this a “friendship” when all you do is avoid me every chance you get. We have been socalled “friends,” well, “forever,” and I can’t believe you would do “this” to me! Sometimes, like in the sample you just read, people can get carried away with using quotes to show emphasis, so just be cautious. FUEL FOR THOUGHT HERE ARE SOME helpful guidelines about quotations to guide you: ¯ Capitalize the first letter to begin a quotation: “I feel like eating peppermint ice cream; do you?” asked Alexa. ¯ Periods, question marks, and exclamation marks usually go inside the closing quotes. Colons and semicolons do NOT: Mrs. Kirby, the librarian, told me about the “rule of thumb”: Read the first page and hold up one finger for each word I don’t know. If I get to my thumb, the book is too hard. ¯ Use a comma before the opening quotes when words that identify the speaker come right before the quote: Sandy chided, “Your dog is staring at me and it’s giving me the creeps.” ¯ When there is an interrupter to identify the speaker in the middle of the quote, each part of the quotation is enclosed in quotation marks. The first part of the quote ends with a comma 35
  43. 43. 36 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR enclosed in the end quotes. The interrupting words are followed by a comma before the opening quotes: “Soon I’ll be 14,” bragged Frank, “so I can get a part-time job!” Notice also that so is not capitalized. That is because it is not starting a new sentence, but is a continuation of Frank’s first sentence. ¯ If a speaker is saying two separate sentences, each sentence begins with a capital letter within the opening quotes. As well, a period, not a comma, is used to punctuate the interrupter: “You’re lucky, Frank,” remarked Lauren. “Fourteen doesn’t come for me until next October.” PRACTICE LAP Identify any words or sentences that require quotation marks, and properly place commas and endmarks in the following sentences. Then, check your answers at the end of the chapter. 21. Remember, class, said Mr. McDermott, tomorrow is Spirit Day, so wear green! 22. I don’t think I have anything green, thought Julie. I wonder if Kevin will let me borrow his football jersey. 23. This will be the third thing you’ve borrowed from me this week! Kevin said to Julie. Including the jersey, you have to make sure you return my CD and my yearbook. 24. Smiling, Julie replied, I’ll go get your yearbook and CD right now. I wanted to show Carol a picture of Mike Wiley, a boy she likes. 25. Uh, that’s more information than I needed to know, Jules. Just go get my stuff, jibed Kevin, on his way out the door.
  44. 44. Capitalization and Punctuation The Apostrophe—It’s Not Just a Matter of Possession Plurals, possessives, contractions . . . the apostrophe plays many important, and highly misused, roles in English grammar. Why, just down the road, a local business owner proudly displays several flashing neon signs advertising his tasty wares: Taco’s, Salad’s, and Soup’s to Go! This, unfortunately, is an all-too-common appearance in stores from coast to coast. Do you know what’s wrong with this sign? None of the words in the sign needs an apostrophe because each item is a regular plural (plural means more than one). Only on rare occasions do you need to add an apostrophe to create a plural, which we’ll talk about later in the lesson. Let’s talk about contractions first. Contractions—The Long and the Short of It In informal writing, like a letter to your friend or your Aunt Josephine, you can use shortened versions of words, called contractions. Contract means “to squeeze together or shorten,” and contractions are two words that have been shortened or squeezed together to make one. For instance, instead of writing cannot, you write the contraction form of the word: can’t. So what happens to the n and the o? The apostrophe stands in for them (cannot = can’t). What is the contraction for I am? Right! I’m is the answer. FUEL FOR THOUGHT HERE ARE SOME more contractions: AM WILL HAVE/HAS HAD/WOULD I I’m I’ll I’ve I’d YOU you’re you’ll you’ve you’d HE he’s he’ll he’s he’d SHE she’s she’ll she’s he’d IT it’s it’ll it’s it’d THEY they’re they’ll they’ve they’d WE we’re we’ll we’ve we’d 37
  45. 45. 38 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR Here are the helping verbs in negative form: IS + not = isn’t ARE + not = aren’t WAS + not = wasn’t WERE + not = weren’t HAVE + not = haven’t HAS + not = hasn’t HAD + not = hadn’t CAN + not = can’t DO + not = don’t DID + not = didn’t SHOULD + not = shouldn’t WOULD + not = wouldn’t COULD + not = couldn’t INSIDE TRACK REMEMBER THAT ONLY in informal writing is it acceptable to use contractions. Your teachers will likely discourage you from using contractions in schoolwork, such as reports and essays. Possessives—Whose Is It, Anyway? Possessives are nouns that show ownership—that something belongs to something else. Be careful, because these can be tricky. First, before adding an apostrophe, you need to make certain that the word you’re using actually implies possession. Take the word story, for example: Singular: The ghost story had a scary plot. Plural: The ghost stories had a scary plot. Neither of these sentences uses the word story or stories in a possessive way.
  46. 46. Capitalization and Punctuation ¯ To make a singular noun possessive, add an ’s. Singular Possessive: The ghost story’s plot was scary. Here, the sentence implies that the plot belonging to the one ghost story was scary. The story possesses the plot, thus making it the story’s plot. Let’s try another one: My younger brothers name is Christian. Where does the apostrophe need to be placed? What word is implying possession of something? Right, brother’s—the name, Christian, belongs to my younger brother. The word brother needs an ’s. ¯ To make a plural noun ending in ’s possessive, add an apostrophe AFTER the final ’s. Plural Possessive: The ghost stories’ plots were scary. Here, the sentence implies that the plots belonging to more than one ghost story were scary. The stories possess the plots, thus making them the stories’ plots. Let’s try another one: The boys soccer trophies were placed on the table in rows. Again, where does the apostrophe need to be placed? What word is implying possession of something? Right, boys’—the trophies belong to the boys. The word boys needs an apostrophe AFTER the ’s in boys. Do all plural nouns end in s? Most do, but not all. There are some nouns that take on a completely different spelling when they turn plural, like children, for example. Or women. Can you think of others? How about geese, mice, people, feet, men, teeth. . .? There are many more. In any of these cases, these words are treated like the singular nouns, and ’s is added to them to form a possessive. The geese’s V formation in the sky was impressive as they flew overhead. 39
  47. 47. 40 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR ¯ To make a singular noun ending in s possessive, you can add an ’s OR add an apostrophe after the s. To some, it may seem odd to add an ’s after another s somehow, but that’s one correct way to do it! Marty Reynolds’s jacket was left on the school bus yesterday. You may also write the sentence like this: Marty Reynolds’ jacket was left on the school bus yesterday. It is best to follow the way your teacher wishes to avoid problems. PRACTICE LAP See if you can find all of the apostrophe mistakes in these sentences. You can check your answers at the end of the chapter. 26. I do’nt believe Iv’e ever seen a five-toed cat before, have you? 27. Miss Marples’ detective skills are as clever as Sherlock Holmes’s flair for solving crimes. 28. These childrens picture book’s have become too easy for you. Lets choose a more challenging book to read this time. 29. Werent you at my sister Tracys’ birthday party two week’s ago? 30. I heard that your fathers got two sports cars! Hyphens and Dashes—So Alike, Yet So Different Aside from their similar looks—hyphens getting the short end of the bargain, so to say—they each perform completely different jobs in our writing. Hyphens, for instance, divide words at the ends of lines, hyphenate numbers and compound words, and help out some prefixes and suffixes to help avoid confusion.
  48. 48. Capitalization and Punctuation ¯ Use a hyphen with the prefixes great-, all-, half-, ex-, self-, and the suffix -elect: great-grandfather all-knowing half-hearted ex-girlfriend self-control mayor-elect ¯ great-grandmother all-powerful half-truth ex-president self-reliant governor-elect Use a hyphen to join capital letters to form a new word: X-ray T-square T-shirt R-rated or at the syllable break and between double letters of a word at the end of a line of writing: - Jan-u-ary ¯ ten-nis - ad-o-les-cent - but-ter-fly Use a hyphen to write numbers 21–99 in word form and to write fractions as words: Twenty-nine forty-six one-third eight-tenths or write numbers as a score or a date: The final score of the Force vs. Sonics play-off game was 16-18. The newspaper dated 3-17-06 contains the detailed article. The date may also be written using slashes instead: 3/17/06. ¯ Use a hyphen to clarify some words where re- means to redo something, or where the spelling of two words put together would be awkward: Michael tried to recollect how he planned to re-collect the books he mistakenly deposited in the library bin. 41
  49. 49. 42 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR Michael is trying to remember how he planned to get the books back that he gave to the library by mistake. The shell-like glass dish was badly chipped. l Without the hyphen, shell-like would have been written shelllike, which is an awkward combination of three l’s together. ¯ Use a dash to emphasize a “by-the-way” or incidental thought in your writing: Her father brought two-dozen roses—beautiful pink and white ones wrapped in tulle—to her graduation party! ¯ Use a dash to set off a short series or list in a sentence: Acceptable: At the zoo, we saw many exotic animals like bongos, capybaras, echidnas, kinkajous, and an okapi. Better Choice: At the zoo, we saw many exotic animals—bongos, capybaras, echidnas, kinkajous, and an okapi. INSIDE TRACK A DASH CAN be used much like a colon. It gives your writing a less formal tone, where colons are more formal. Parentheses and Brackets—By the Way Between the two punctuation marks, you are bound to see many more parentheses than brackets in writing simply because they are more “functional.”
  50. 50. Capitalization and Punctuation ¯ When you want to provide your reader with extra information in the middle, or even the end, of your sentence, you can place that information inside parentheses (this is called a parenthetical comment). Margie (who is one of the best dancers on the team) took a spill on stage last night and twisted her ankle. Important: You can take the information in the parentheses out of the sentence, and the sentence still will make sense to the reader. ¯ Dates and page numbers are commonly placed inside parentheses. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827), one of the world’s most famous composers, continued to write musical masterpieces even though he went deaf in his thirties. More information about Beethoven can be found in Chapter 22 (pages 97–113). ¯ Parentheses can be used to enclose numbers or letters meant to itemize information. To make your bed, choose your favorite sheets and (a) place the fitted sheet snuggly around the mattress; (b) drape the flat sheet on top (preferably straight and even) and tuck the bottom of the sheet between the mattress and box spring; (c) place your pillow inside the pillowcase and put it at the head of the bed; and (d) cover the bed with a quilt or blanket to stay toasty-warm. All that’s left is to hop in and snooze! Note: (a), (b), (c), and (d) may be replaced with (1), (2), (3), and (4). ¯ When you want to insert an editorial (your own comments) within quoted material, use brackets. Bill said, “It [the Super Bowl] was great! They [the Colts] played like champions today!” 43
  51. 51. 44 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR ¯ Use brackets to alter the capitalization of a word in a quote in order to make it fit in your sentence or paragraph scheme. For example: The directions specifically say to “[t]urn off the power before trying to connect the VCR to the television.” The directions would have originally read Turn off the power . . . in the source this quote came from. Italics and Underlining—The Attention Getters Before modern technology, writing was done mostly by hand. The option of italicizing words was all but impossible, so underlining was used to emphasize words. Today, we use both interchangeably, with just the touch of a button. ¯ Italicize or underline the titles of long works, such as books, magazines, newspapers, movies, TV shows, albums, plays, long poems, and musicals. Natalie Babbitt’s Tuck Everlasting Natalie Babbitt’s Tuck Everlasting The Chicago Sun The Chicago Sun Robert Frost’s poem Birches Robert Frost’s poem Birches Use quotation marks around the titles of stories, songs, short poems, articles, and other smaller works. INSIDE TRACK DON’T BE FICKLE and use italics in one paragraph or entry, and then underline in the next one. You must be consistent in your choice. Pick one and then stick with it the entire time.
  52. 52. Capitalization and Punctuation ¯ Italicize foreign words in your writing. The French word bonjour means “hello.” ¯ Italicize or underline words in sentences you want to emphasize for the reader. Can you tell the difference in the meanings of these four sentences? Maria was sad. [Okay, Maria was sad.] Maria was sad. [Oh, it was Maria who was sad.] Maria was sad. [Good, Maria’s no longer sad.] Maria was sad. [I see; she wasn’t glad, she was sad.] When we read, we have to sometimes interpret the speech patterns of the writer (or speaker). Using italics allows us to help our readers in that interpretation. The Ellipsis—You Don’t Say . . . When you encounter three single-spaced periods in your reading . . . it means one of a couple of things: ¯ An ellipsis indicates that some words before or after the dots have been left out. “. . . but I didn’t do it!” sobbed AJ. Grandpa went on. “You know, when I was a little boy I had to walk seven miles, barefoot, in the snow . . . and then over that mountain over there, and then . . .” ¯ An ellipsis indicates a pause in between words or thoughts. “I’m not afraid of the dark . . . but I’d still like the light on until I fall asleep,” Raymond whispered. 45
  53. 53. 46 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR When you write and want to use an ellipsis, be careful not to leave out important information that would intentionally mislead the reader of the speaker’s message: Journalist Jess D. Faks reports that actress superstar, Holly Wood, said in her acceptance speech, “I owe ALL of my success to . . . me . . . not . . . my fans and my manager.” Hmm . . . it seems that Mr. Faks decided to omit some very important words from his citation. If Mr. Faks had not misused the ellipses, we would have known what Holly had REALLY said: “I owe ALL of my success to many special people who have supported me through my highs and lows: my parents and teachers, and of course, I cannot forget my fans and my manager.” PRACTICE LAP Can you identify the mistakes in the following sentences? You may check your answers at the end of the chapter. 31. The vice president elect spoke briefly about the president. 32. The Gary Paulsen novel Brian’s Winter, a story of survival in the Canadian wilderness, would make a good G rated movie for kids. 33. Some ski resorts use gondolas and Tbars to transport skiers to the top of the mountain. 34. Twenty two is my lucky number. What’s yours? 35. Louisa May Alcott 1832–1888 was thirty five when she wrote Little Women.
  54. 54. Capitalization and Punctuation ANSWERS Reminder: (1) Periods signify the end of declarative and imperative sentences, (2) question marks are used after a question, and (3) exclamations signify strong feelings or emotion. 1. The sun was shining in my window when I woke up. 2. Did you see the tightrope walker at the circus? 3. The honest stranger found a wallet and returned it to its owner. 4. Ouch! That hurt! 5. Excellent work class. I am very proud of you! Reminder: Use commas (1) to separate series of three or more items in a sentence, (2) with an introductory word or phrase, and (3) before and after a word or phrase that is meant to rename or describe a noun that precedes it (an appositive). 6. Sal’s uncle, Joe, is a mail carrier in Mississippi. 7. Believe it or not, Joe walks about five miles a day on his route. 8. Last month, he was chased by a neighborhood dog, Rex, while working on his route. 9. Fortunately, he was able to run, jump a fence, and hop into his truck for safety. 10. Joe’s customer, Mr. Henderson, was careful to keep Rex inside from then on. Reminder: Also use commas (1) in dates and addresses, (2) to set off expressions, and (3) with titles and degrees. 11. Mr. Eatmore S. Pinach, president of the Ban Brussels Sprouts Association (BBSA), is heading a worldwide protest against the sale and consumption of the so-called “wild cabbage.” 12. It seems its popularity has soared to new heights since the latest campaign, The Brussels Sprout Tout, has gone on tour throughout Europe, Asia, and North America. 13. The operation has prompted many widespread international anti-sprout movements among dark, leafy greens lovers, led by China’s Bok Choy, 47
  55. 55. 48 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR Switzerland’s Swiss Chard, and North America’s renown Dan D. Lyon Green. 14. Donations to support the cause are greatly appreciated, so please feel free to give your time or money generously. 15. Send all correspondence and contributions to BBSA, 481 Bountiful Blvd., Verdant Valley, CA, 98765. Reminder: Use colons to (1) introduce a list, (2) introduce the subtitle of a movie or book, and (3) separate hours from minutes when writing the time. Use a semicolon (4) to separate two related sentences and (5) between two complete sentences that are separated by transitional words or phrases. 16. Mom’s list included the following: milk, eggs, butter, toothpaste, and soap. 17. I was supposed to be home at 11:30 A.M., but I got home at 1:30 P.M. instead. : 18. Pratishta couldn’t decide whether to watch Ace Ventura: Pet Detective or : Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves. 19. The weather on Sunday was spectacular; however, we had to stay home to paint. 20. His new baby sister was precious; her blue eyes were riveting. Reminder: (1) Direct quotations require the use of opening and ending quotation marks; (2) don’t place quote around someone’s thoughts; and (3) use quotes to convey uncertainty or misgivings. 21. “Remember, class,” said Mr. McDermott, “tomorrow is Spirit Day, so wear green!” 22. I don’t think I have anything green, thought Julie. I wonder if Kevin will let me borrow his football jersey. 23. “This will be the third thing you’ve borrowed from me this week!” Kevin said to Julie. “Including the jersey, you have to make sure you return my CD and my yearbook.” 24. Smiling, Julie replied, “I‘ll go get your yearbook and CD right now. I wanted to show Carol a picture of Mike Wiley, a boy she likes.” 25. “Uh, that’s more information than I needed to know, Jules. Just go get my stuff,” jibed Kevin, on his way out the door.
  56. 56. Capitalization and Punctuation Reminder: (1) Contractions are two words shortened or squeezed together with an apostrophe; (2) to make a singular noun possessive, add an ’s; (3) to make a plural noun ending in s possessive, add an apostrophe AFTER the final s; (4) to make a singular noun ending in s possessive, add an ’s OR add an apostrophe after the s; (5) when writing abbreviations with more than one period, add an ’s to denote more than to make it plural. 26. I don’t believe I’ve ever seen a five-toed cat before, have you? 27. Miss Marple’s detective skills are as clever as Sherlock Holmes’ (or Holmes’s) flair for solving crimes. 28. These children’s picture books have become too easy for you. Let’s choose a more challenging book to read this time. 29. Weren’t you at my sister Tracy’s birthday party two weeks ago? 30. I heard that your father’s got two sports cars! Reminder: Use hyphens (1) with some prefixes, (2) to join capital letters to form a new word, (3) to write numbers 21–99 in word form or as a date. Also, (4) dates and page numbers can be placed inside parentheses, and (5) italicize or underline the titles of long works, like books. 31. The vice president-elect spoke briefly about the president. 32. The Gary Paulsen novel Brian’s Winter, a story of survival in the Canadian wilderness, would make a good G-rated movie for kids. (Brian’s Winter may also be italicized.) 33. Some ski resorts use gondolas and T-bars to transport skiers to the top of the mountain. 34. Twenty-two is my lucky number. What’s yours? 35. Louisa May Alcott (1832–1888) was thirty-five when she wrote Little Women. (Little Women may also be italicized.) 49
  57. 57. 3 Spelling Spell Well . . . with a Few Exceptions J ust how important is spelling anyway? Well, it can make the difference between someone understanding and appreciating your idea and someone walking away baffled. How important is that to you? You know, it wasn’t that long ago when students had only dictionaries to turn to in order to check their spelling errors, and not the ones on the Internet, but the books on shelves that lined the walls in classrooms and libraries. In this high-tech age, when computers line the walls of classrooms and libraries, and are turning into common household items, many think that dictionaries are becoming a thing of the past—what with the convenience of “spell check” just the click of a mouse away. But don’t be too quick to throw that dictionary away just yet! It could come in handy more than you think. Take a look at this. Ewe mite knot awl weighs sea yore riding miss takes write a weigh, sew ewe halve two Czech care fully. Men knee mite yews tulles, like ay computer, two tri too fined and altar thee mist aches, butt sum thymes it seas write thru them. The English language has 26 letters in its alphabet (21 consonants and 5 vowels) and 19 different vowel combinations to make up a total of 44 sounds, called phonemes. It would be easy if all you had to do was memorize 44 sounds to help you spell words . . . but, alas, this is English, and these 44
  58. 58. 52 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR sounds are spelled in almost 1,000 different ways, thus making the household dictionary not obsolete, but a necessity. Spelling rules and patterns can help you learn to spell many words, although you must keep in mind that you’ll regularly run into rule exceptions. Let’s take a look at some basic spelling rules. COMMON SPELLING RULES Words with ei or ie Have you heard this mnemonic before? Write i before e except after c or when sounding like a as in neighbor and weigh. I before E Except after C When Sounding Like A thief friend ceiling weigh neighbor relief achieve deceive receive vein sleigh niece believe conceit reign eight receipt deceit INSIDE TRACK FOLLOWING ARE SOME exceptions to the rule. either, neither, seize, seizure, leisure, weird, foreign, height, glacier, ancient, being, feisty, protein, counterfeit, sovereign
  59. 59. Spelling PRACTICE LAP For the following questions, choose either ie or ei to spell each word given correctly. Then, check your answers at the end of the chapter. 1. rel 2. dec 3. ch 4. w f 5. sh 6. v n 10. for f 7. s ve 11. y ld rd 8. fr ght 12. n ce ve ld ght 9. gn Doubling the Final Consonant t n t When a one-syllable word (bat, can, put) ends with a consonant (bat, can, put) a a u that is preceded by one vowel (bat, can, put), you should double the final consonant before adding a suffix that begins with a vowel (e.g., -ed, -ing, -er). For instance: t t t bat batting batted batter n n n can canning canned canner When a multisyllable word (patrol, forget, occur) ends with a consonant l t r o e u (patrol, forget, occur) that is preceded by a vowel (patrol, refer, occur), and ends T F C with a stressed syllable (pa-TROL, re-FER, oc-CUR), you should double the final consonant before adding a suffix that begins with a vowel (e.g., -ed, -ing, -al, -ence, -ant). For instance: l l l repel repelling repelled repellant r r r refer referring referred referral r r r occur occurring occurred occurrence 53
  60. 60. 54 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR FUEL FOR THOUGHT IF THE MULTISYLLABLE word ends with a consonant preceded by a vowel, but has its final syllable unstressed (TRA-vel, HON-or, REV-el), do not double the final consonant before adding the suffix (e.g., -ing, -ed, -er, -ary). For instance: travel traveling traveled traveler honor honoring honored honorary revel reveling reveled reveler Also, words ending in -x, -y, or -w do not double the final consonant before adding a suffix. For instance: mix mixing mixed mixer crow crowing crowed crower play playing played player Last, words whose final consonant are preceded by two vowels do not double the final consonant before adding a suffix. For instance: reveal revealing revealed revealer wait waiting waiting waiter When a prefix being added to a word ends with the same letter the main word begins with, include both letters in the new word. For instance: s s mis + spell = misspell n n un + necessary = unnecessary l l il + logical = illogical
  61. 61. Spelling Likewise, when a suffix is being added to a word that ends with the same letter the suffix begins with, include both letters in the new word. For example: l l musical + ly = musically n n open + ness = openness n n even + ness = evenness INSIDE TRACK ACCORDING TO THIS rule, eighteen should be spelled eight + teen = eightteen, but it is not. Finally, when you are making a compound word and the final consonant letter of the first word is the same as the first consonant letter of the second word, include all letters, even if the letters are repeated. For example: n n can + not = cannot k k book + keeper = bookkeeper s s news + stand = newsstand INSIDE TRACK ACCORDING TO THIS rule, pastime should be spelled past + time = pasttime, but it is not. 55
  62. 62. 56 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR PRACTICE LAP Choose the correct ending to spell each word correctly. Then, check your answers at the end of the chapter. 13. steal   stealling stealing 14. shop   shopped shoped 15. tax   taxing taxxing 16. step   stepping steping 17. compel   compelling compeling 18. portray   portrayed portrayyed 19. draw   drawwing drawing 20. need   needed needded 21. perplex   perplexxing perplexing 22. keep   keeping keepping The Silent E When a word ends with a silent e, the e is dropped before adding the suffix that begins with a vowel (e.g., -ing, -ed, -er, -able). For instance: e use using e debate debating e move moving used user debated debater moved mover usable debatable movable
  63. 63. Spelling When a suffix is being added that begins with a consonant (e.g., -ly, -ment, -ful), leave the e at the end of the word. For instance: e e love lovely e e agree agreement e e grace graceful FUEL FOR THOUGHT WORDS THAT END in -ce and -ge and have a suffix beginning with -a or -o added to it (e.g., -able and -ous) keep the final e. For instance: outrage outrageous enforce enforceable courage courageous service serviceable Also, words that end in -ee keep the final e before some suffixes beginning with a vowel (e.g., -ing, -able). For instance: agree agreeing agreeable see seeing seeable foresee foreseeing foreseeable Finally, there are words that don’t follow the aforementioned rules and whose spelling will need to be memorized. For instance: argument truly ninth These words keep the final e because dropping it would lead the reader to think it was a completely different word. For instance: singe singeing Without the e, the word would read “fa-la-la” singing, not “oh, this is burning” singeing. For another instance: dye dyeing Without the e, the word would read “soon to be not living” dying, not “I prefer this shade of red for streaking my hair” dyeing. 57
  64. 64. 58 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR PRACTICE LAP Choose the correct ending to spell each word given correctly. Then, check your answers at the end of the chapter. 23. compete   competting competing 24. hope   hopful hopeful 25. pale   paling paleing 26. state   stated statted 27. compile   compilling compiling 28. like   likly likely 29. manage   management managment 30. take   taken takn 31. amaze   amazeing amazing 32. arrive   arrived arriveed Words Ending in -Y When -y is the final letter, change the -y to -i before adding the suffix. For instance: y happy y lazy y faulty i i happily happiness i i lazily laziness i i faultily faultiness
  65. 65. Spelling INSIDE TRACK IF THE SUFFIX being added to the word ending in y begins with an -i (e.g., -ing), the y should remain. For example: try trying qualify qualifying horrify horrifying When the -y at the end of the word is preceded by a vowel, the -y is not changed but remains the same when a suffix is added. For instance: y y employ employing y y annoy annoying y y enjoying enjoy y y employed employment y y annoyed annoyance y y enjoyed enjoyment INSIDE TRACK HERE ARE SOME words that don’t follow this rule. day daily gay gaily pay paid say said lay laid PRACTICE LAP Identify the word in each group that is spelled correctly. Then, check your answers at the end of the chapter. 33. beauty   beautyful beautiful beautuful 34. fancy   fanciful fanceful fancyful 35. duty   dutiful duteful dutyful 59
  66. 66. 60 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR 36. fuzzy   fuzzyness fuzzieness fuzziness 37. lazy   laziness lazyness lazieness -tion, -cian, or -sion? The “shun” sound, spelled three different ways (-tion, -cian, -sion), is pronounced the same in all three spellings. Each suffix, though, is used with different kinds of root words. How will you know which one to choose? It’s simple. Take a look. Here is a list of words ending in -cian. Can you see a pattern for the spelling rule this suffix will follow? c electrician c beautician c musician c magician c physician c optician c politician c mathematician All of these -cian words involve people and their careers or hobbies. So, -cian is used only when the spelling word has to do with people. The suffixes -tion and -sion are never used with these “people words.” Okay, let’s see if you can identify the next spelling pattern for the spelling rule for the suffix -sion. d extend d suspend s suppress s extension s suspension s suppression d comprehend d apprehend s aggress s comprehension s apprehension s aggression Notice that all of the root words end in -s or -d. When the root word ends in -s or -d, the suffix -sion is used to make the noun form of verbs ending in -s or -d. Additionally, one more rule applies to the -sion suffix. Can you spot it? division conclusion adhesion exclusion vision Do you hear a heavy “zhun” sound instead of the soft “shun” sound in these words? When a word contains a heavy “zhun,” it is spelled with -sion only.
  67. 67. Spelling INSIDE TRACK VERBS WITH THE ending -mit use the suffix -mission to make the noun form of the word. For instance: permit permission submit commit commission submission Last, if the root word ends in -t or -te, then -tion is used to make the noun form of the verb. For instance: t protect t reject t contribute t protection t rejection t contribution t project t attribute t educate t projection t attribution t education PRACTICE LAP Choose the correct ending for the following words. Then, check your answers at the end of the chapter. 38. confuse 39. opposite   opposi (-sion, -cian, -tion) 40. confess   confes (-sion, -cian, -tion) 41. elect   elec 42. magic   magi 43. describe   descrip 44. collide   colli   confu (-sion, -cian, -tion) (-sion, -cian, -tion) (-sion, -cian, -tion) (-sion, -cian, -tion) (-sion, -cian, -tion) 61
  68. 68. 62 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR 45. extend   enten (-sion, -cian, -tion) 46. explode   explo (-sion, -cian, -tion) 47. beauty   beauti (-sion, -cian, -tion) The Letter Q With the rapid growth and assimilation of world cultures in the United States over the past century, and the swift development of technology making the world “smaller” every day, American English becomes more and more infused with the influence of foreign words. With that comes the ever-growing list of exceptions to the spelling rules, some of which you have seen already. In the English language, the letter q must be followed by a u in a word. Primarily, the use of the letter q in English is derived from the influence of the French language. Words such as queue, quarter, question, and picturesque are a ubiquitous part of everyday spoken language. You may run into other q words, such as Qatar, Iraq, Iraqi, Qantas, and Compaq in the news and in advertisements. All of these words are proper nouns, and simply because they are proper nouns, they become exceptions to this rule. Why? Because spelling rules apply only to common, everyday words, not special ones. PRACTICE LAP Use the clues to help you choose the correct q word from the word bank to place in the blank. The letter q may be found at the beginning, middle, or end of the words. Then, check your answers at the end of the chapter. Q WORD BANK quizzical quick quagmire quail quality question quake quack racquet bouquet unique physique plaque conquer banquet sequel frequently opaque 48. a bunch of flowers 49. a dilemma
  69. 69. Spelling 50. a large spread of food 51. the continuation of a story 52. a query 53. to shake 54. to overtake by force 55. not transparent or see-through 56. fast 57. reward of recognition 58. often 59. a small game bird PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES Adding prefixes, groups of letters that have a significant meaning, to the beginnings of words does not change the spelling of the original words (called root words). When a prefix is added, its meaning is combined with the original root word’s meaning to form a new word. English prefixes and suffixes commonly come from Latin and Greek words, although Old English (Anglo-Saxon) was borrowed from as well. Take the Greek prefix astro-, for example. Astro- means “star” in Greek. Can you think of words beginning with astro- that have to do with stars and space? What about astronaut, astrology, astronomy, or asteroid? Suffixes are added to the ends of words. Many suffixes actually change the original word’s part of speech when they are added. For example, the verb bowl becomes the noun bowler when the suffix -er is added. Adding suffixes often requires that the spelling of the original word alter in some way, which is what makes spelling so challenging. Like prefixes, suffixes are 63
  70. 70. 64 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR derived from Greek, Latin, and Old English (Anglo-Saxon) words. Following are some of these common prefixes and suffixes. Common Prefixes and Suffixes Prefix Meaning Example acro- high, top acrobatics aero- air aerobics agri- fields agriculture alti- high altitude ambul- walk, move around ambulance amphi- around, both amphibian anima- life, breath, soul animal ante- before, prior antecedent anthro- man anthropologist anti- against antipathy aqua- water aquarium arthro- joint arthropod atom- gas, vapor atmosphere audio- sound, hearing audience auto- self, itself automatic bi- two, double bicycle biblio- book bibliography bio- life biography cardio- heart cardiologist centi- hundred centipede chlor- green chlorophyll chrono- time chronology circum- round circumference co- together cooperation cour- heart courage crypto- secret cryptography deca- ten decade deci- tenth decimal dent- tooth dentist
  71. 71. Spelling Prefix Meaning Example dino- terrible dinosaur eco- house ecology equi- same equivalent geo- earth, land geography graph- written graphic hemi- half hemisphere hexa- six hexagon hydr- water hydration il- not illegal im- not impossible inter- between international intra- within intrapersonal liber- free liberty lingua- tongue linguistics magni- big, great magnify mega- great, large megaphone metro- measure metric micro- small, tiny microscope mini- small, little miniature mono- one, alone monologue multi- many multicolored neo- new neoclassical nocti- night nocturnal nom- name nominate non- not nonworking octa- eight octagon ortho- upright, straight orthodontist ped- foot pedestrian pedi- child pediatrics pre- before preview pro- for pronoun re- again replay sens- feeling sensory soli- alone, only solitary 65
  72. 72. 66 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR Prefix Meaning Example sub- below, under submarine terra- land terrain thermo- heat thermometer trans- across, beyond transportation un- not unhappy uni- one united vice- in place of vice president zoo- animal zoology Suffix Meaning Example -able can do capable -ancy condition vacancy -archy rule monarchy -chrome color monochrome -cide kill homicide -cracy rule democracy -derm skin dermatologist -ful characterized by cheerful -gram writing telegram -graph writing autograph -ist one who pianist -itis disease bronchitis -less without homeless -ment act of, result disappointment -meter instrument speedometer -ness state of, quality goodness -pathy feeling, suffering sympathy -phobia fear of claustrophobia -phone sound telephone -ward direction of westward -y full of salty
  73. 73. Spelling ANSWERS Reminder: Write i before e except after c or when sounding like a as in neighbor and weigh (with a few exceptions). 1. relief 5. shield 9. eight 2. deceive 6. vein 10. foreign 3. chief 7. sieve 11. yield 4. weird 8. freight 12. niece Reminder: (1) When a one-syllable word ends with a consonant that is preceded by a vowel, double the final consonant before adding a suffix that begins with a vowel; (2) when a multisyllable word ends with a consonant that is preceded by a vowel, and ends with a stressed syllable, double the final consonant before adding a suffix that begins with a vowel; (3) when a prefix or suffix is being added to a word that begins or ends with the same letter, include both letters in the new word. 13. steal   stealing 14. shop   shopped 15. tax   taxing 16. step   stepping 17. compel   compelling 18. portray   portrayed 19. draw   drawing 20. need   needed 21. perplex   perplexing 22. keep   keeping Reminder: (1) When a word ends with a silent e, the e is dropped before adding the suffix that begins with a vowel; and (2) when a suffix is being added that begins with a consonant, leave the e at the end of the word. 23. compete   competing 24. hope   hopeful 25. pale   paling 26. state   stated 27. compile   compiling 67
  74. 74. 68 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. like manage take amaze arrive           likely management taken amazing arrived Reminder: (1) When -y is the final letter, change the -y to -i before adding the suffix. 33. beauty   beautiful 34. fancy   fanciful 35. duty   dutiful 36. fuzzy   fuzziness 37. lazy   laziness Reminder: (1) Words with the -cian suffix involve people and their careers or hobbies; (2) when the root word ends in -s or -d, the suffix -sion is used to make the noun form of verbs; and (3) if the root word ends in -t or -te, then -tion is used to make the noun form of the verb. 38. confuse   confusion 39. oppose   opposition 40. confess   confession 41. elect   election 42. magic   magician 43. describe   description 44. collide   collision 45. extend   extension 46. explode   explosion 47. beauty   beautician Reminder: In English, the letter q must be followed by a u. 48. bouquet 54. conquer 49. quagmire 55. opaque 50. banquet 56. quick 51. sequel 57. plaque 52. question 58. frequently 53. quake 59. quail
  75. 75. 4 Verbs The Movers and Shakers of Language I magine having a lively conversation with your friend about a recent hit movie, each of you contorting your faces and waving your arms about, as in a game of charades. If we lacked verbs in our language, this would be about the only way that we could get our points across: by mimicking. Luckily, with the use of verbs—the movers and shakers of any written and spoken language—you can convey your ideas not only expressively, but also with a wide variety of colorful, vivid choices. For instance, let’s see in how many ways L. E. Phant and Pac A. Derm, a pair of loxodonta africanus, trek across the Kenyan savannah. The pair walk . . . then decide to stomp . . . and march . . . and then parade . . . after which, they lumber . . . trudge . . . and plod . . . then finally, overcome with exhaustion, they hobble and limp their way to the forest. Okay, so these action verbs are pretty obvious. But are they all? Well, no. Some are less physical, and more mental: want, need, require, think, suppose, know, wonder, hope, feel, mean, remember, understand, see, find, consider, love, like, etc. The action is there; it’s just not visible.
  76. 76. 70 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR LINKING AND HELPING VERBS: MAKE THE CONNECTION! The linking verb does not express action, but expresses a state of being or a condition. Specifically, this kind of verb links, or connects, a noun to an adjective or other noun. Rosemarie is thoughtful. (Thoughtful describes Rosemarie; is links the two.) Mark became a soccer coach. (Coach identifies Mark; became links the two.) The bananas looked ripe. (Ripe describes bananas; looked links the two.) Identifying some linking verbs can be tricky because they look like action verbs. Their job, however, is to clarify the condition of the related noun in the sentence. Following is a short list of verbs that perform multiple tasks, and act not only as action verbs, but also as linking verbs. appear become seem smell prove act feel sound turned grow stay fall look taste get prove come remain lie How can one tell the difference with these tricky verbs? Take the word feels: Meghan gently pets the cat and feels its soft fur. Meghan is performing the action, to feel. Can you visualize her hand petting and feeling the cat’s soft fur? The cat begins to purr because it feels content. The word feel connects the adjective content to the noun cat. Feel is acting as a linking verb, not an action verb.
  77. 77. Verbs Let’s try another one. Mom remained calm even though she burned last night’s dinner. The odor of charred fish remained in the house for a week. In the first sentence, remained links Mom and the adjective calm, which describes how Mom felt, whereas in the second sentence, remained is an action verb, implying that the odor stayed behind. An easy way to tell if a verb is an action or linking verb is to substitute the verb with a verb form of to be, or another linking verb, like seem or become. If you substitute the verb and it still makes sense, then you have a linking verb. If it doesn’t, then it’s an action verb. Take a look at these examples. The leaves turn orange and red every autumn. Now, replace turn with the verb are. The leaves are orange and red every autumn. Or use the verb seem. The leaves seem orange and red every autumn. Let’s try another one. When I turn the hair dryer on, it is very noisy. Now, replace turn again with the verb was. When I was the hair dryer on, it is noisy. Or use became here. When I became the hair dryer on, it is noisy. These just don’t make sense, because the word turn in this sentence is an action verb, not a linking verb. 71
  78. 78. 72 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR PRACTICE LAP See if you can tell whether the verbs in the following sentences is an action verb or a linking verb. Remember to use the seem/became trick if you need help. Then, check your answers at the end of the chapter. 1. The ghost appeared in the window. 2. The ghost appeared disgruntled as it passed by the window. 3. Can you prove the theory of relativity? 4. Your answer could prove faulty if you are not careful. 5. We arrived late and had to stay overnight at a hotel this weekend. 6. Mom asked us to stay quiet as we walked down the hallway. 7. Have you tasted my newest candy bar creation? 8. Yes, the Summit Sensation tasted delectable. 9. The lunch bell sounds melodic, especially when you have a hungry stomach. 10. At noon, the clock sounds the bell to inform the students that it’s lunchtime.
  79. 79. Verbs Sometimes, you’ll encounter another type of verb in your writing and reading called a helping verb. Helping verbs enhance the main verb by providing more information about its tense. Some common helping verbs are am, are, be, can, could, do, have, had, has, may, might, should, was, were, and would, among others. A main verb can have as many as three helping verbs. For instance: Nathan was playing guitar yesterday. He has been playing for quite a while now. Next year, he will have been playing for 11 years total. PRINCIPLE PARTS OF VERBS: PART AND PARCEL Participles, verb forms that act like verbs or adjectives, are broken into four principle parts: 1. Present—the verb form that is usually found as the main or first entry in the dictionary, e.g., throw, sleep, dance, sit, ride, etc. Sometimes, an s is added to the end of the verb when it is used in conjunction with a singular noun. 2. Present participle—the verb form used with to be verbs to express ongoing action, e.g., am throwing, is sleeping, are dancing, was sitting, were riding, etc. The suffix -ing is added to the present infinitive and is always accompanied by a helping verb, forming what is called a verb phrase. When the verb is acting as an adjective, a helping verb is not required. 3. Past—the verb form that describes actions that happened in the past, e.g., threw, slept, danced, sat, rode, etc. All regular verbs in past tense end in -ed. Irregular verbs end in a variety of ways. 4. Past participle—a verb form that must be accompanied by the helping verb have with the past tense form of the verb (regular or irregular), e.g., have thrown, has slept, had danced, have sat, has ridden, etc. When the verb is acting as an adjective, a helping verb is not required. 73
  80. 80. 74 Express Review Guides: GRAMMAR Regular Verbs Present Present Participle* Past Past Participle** walk, walks am walking walked have walked jump, jumps are jumping jumped had jumped listen, listens are listening listened has listened Irregular Verbs Present Present Participle* Past Past Participle** sing, sings is singing sang has sung think, thinks was thinking thought have thought see, sees were seeing saw has seen Irregular Verbs Whose Form Does Not Change Present Present Participle* Past Past Participle** cost, costs is costing cost has cost cut, cuts am cutting cut have cut hurt, hurts are hurting hurt has hurt * Uses am, is, are, was, or were ** Uses have, has, or had VERB TENSES: CONSIS-TENSE-CY IS THE KEY! When you speak or write, you help your listeners and readers understand when something happens, has happened, or will happen using three basic tenses: present, past, and future. To avoid confusion, you should be consistent with tenses as you speak and write. If your passage begins in past tense, then continue in past tense; likewise if you are using present or future. Consistency is the key! Present Tense—implies present action or action that happens again and again I meet my friends every day at school. We have many of the same classes. Past Tense—implies that the action already happened I met them at lunchtime today. We sat at the same table.

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