American Expansion and Reform


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American Expansion and Reform

  1. 1. Railroads, Inventions, and the Age of “Big Business”<br />American Expansion<br />
  2. 2. 1st Transcontinental Railroad<br />Pacific Railway Act of 1862<br />U.S. Government hired Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railway Company to build railways across the whole United States.<br />Central Pacific<br />Started in Sacramento, CA<br />Built toward the East<br />Union Pacific<br />Started in Omaha, NE<br />Built toward the West<br />The two railroad companies met in Promontory, Utah to drive the “Golden Spike” on May 10, 1869<br />
  3. 3.
  4. 4. Promontory, Utah May 10, 1869<br />
  5. 5. The Workers<br />Workers were mainly Chinese, Irish immigrants, and African American citizens:<br />Central Pacific—Chinese<br />Union Pacific—Irish and African American<br />Working conditions were poor<br />Reasons:<br />Weather—frigid winds, hot desert<br />Rough and dangerous terrain-- mountainous, blasting<br />
  6. 6. Effects of the Railroad on the West:<br />Workers moved west<br />Iron and steel industries grew because of increased demand from the railroads<br />Demand for coal increased<br />Many towns grew up along the railroad, increasing the population out west<br />Time zones were created<br />
  7. 7. Time Zones<br />Scheduling was a major concern—Accidents!<br />Towns set clocks according to the sun.<br />Time differences from town to town created confusion.<br />1883: National System of Time Zones<br />Time zones were created to help with this. How many total time zones does the USA have?<br />
  8. 8. Who were they? <br />Powerful individuals who controlled the nation’s rail traffic…<br />Example: Vanderbilt<br />Some railroad companies began to consolidate.<br />Consolidate-to combine (separate companies)<br />Rebates—discounts given to the biggest shippers<br />Smaller railroad companies could not compete and soon were out of business.<br /> Railroad Barons:The beginnings of “Big Business”<br />
  9. 9. Telegraph<br />Transatlantic Cable—Cyrus Field (1866)<br />Typewriter—Christopher Sholes’s (1968)<br />Telephone—Alexander Graham Bell (1876)<br />Kodak camera—George Eastman (1888)<br />And…..THE CAR!!<br />New Technologies<br />
  10. 10. Henry Ford made the car affordable for everyone.<br />What made it less expensive?<br />Assembly line—workers perform the same task over and over, getting really fast at it<br />Mass production—to produce large amounts of the same goods quickly<br />Results—lots of goods at a cheaper price<br />How did the automobile change American industry and society?<br />
  11. 11. Factors of Production<br />In order for a factory to get started, it needs three things…<br />Land<br />Labor<br />Capital<br />What is capital?<br />Machines, buildings, tools, money<br />How does a company or corporation raise capital?<br />Company—owners get a loan from a bank<br />Corporation—sell stock<br />Stock—shares of ownership in a corporation<br />Shareholders—partial owners who bought stock<br />Dividends—cash payments to stock owners when the corporation makes a lot of money<br />
  12. 12. Click this link to see a video from “Common Craft,” a fantastic instructional video site.<br />www.commoncraft/stock-markets-video<br />How does “selling stock” work?<br />
  13. 13. Oil Industry-John D. Rockefeller<br />Steel Industry-Andrew Carnegie<br />These men got EXTREMELY rich (imagine Bill Gates of Microsoft) off of the very limited government regulation of business.<br />Other “Big Business”<br />
  14. 14. Trust—a group of companies managed by the same board of directors<br />Rockefeller bought up the majority stock of other companies from individuals by offering the stock of his company as a trade—which paid a higher dividend.<br />This put his company, Standard Oil, in control of all of the other smaller, independent companies.<br />What is a trust?<br />
  15. 15. Monopoly—total control of an industry by a single company or producer<br />By owning the majority stock of many other companies, Rockefeller was able to drive his competitors out of business.<br />He encouraged his customers not to purchase from them and he used his power to get special shipping rates from the railroad companies.<br />What is a monopoly?<br />
  16. 16. Horizontal (same)<br /> You can form a monopoly by taking control of the businesses within your industry. There are two types:<br />Vertical (connected)<br />
  17. 17. Philanthropy—the use of money to help society<br />Both Carnegie and Rockefeller gained a ton of wealth during this time. As they got older, they decided to give some of it back to society.<br />How did they do this?<br />Created schools/universities<br />Carnegie Hall—concert hall<br />Public libraries<br />Institutes for medical research<br />What is a philanthropist?<br />
  18. 18. Working conditions during the early 1800’s to the late 1800’s were harsh: 12 hours, 6 days a week, unsafe and unhealthy environments.<br />(Coal miners/cave ins, steelworkers/burns, loss of limbs in machines, etc.)<br />Sweatshop—crowded and dangerous urban factory, often women and children labor worked there<br />*Laws to protect workers were often ignored.<br />Unions<br />
  19. 19. Fought for better pay and safer working conditions<br />Trade unions—members had a skill (skilled labor)<br />Knights of Labor —national labor union that included women, African Americans, and unskilled workers<br />American Federation of Labor –national labor union of skilled workers, led by Samuel Gompers<br />How did labor unions help?<br />
  20. 20. Many members of unions were immigrants<br />Collective bargaining –union representatives met with factory owners to negotiate changes or improvements for union members.<br />Unions organized strikes to force changes<br />Strike—to stop work for a period of time<br />Violence –sometimes strikes ended in violence (Haymarket Riot)<br />How did company owners react?<br />Strikebreakers -replaced workers with new workers<br />Blacklist-list of union “trouble makers” shared by owners that prevented some workers from getting a job<br />Characteristics of unions:<br />
  21. 21. Immigrants came to the U.S. for opportunity: political freedom, jobs (farm/factory), religious opportunity<br />1st wave—early 1800’s—Western Europe<br />2nd wave—late 1800’s—Eastern/Southern Europe<br />Immigration Stations:<br />Ellis Island —New York City (Europeans)<br />Angel Island –San Francisco (Chinese/Japanese)<br />Immigrants<br />
  22. 22. How did most get here? By boat<br />steerage—cramped quarters on the lower decks of ships (think Titanic)<br />Where did they settle?<br />Ethnic enclave —immigrants settled in areas with others who were from their ethnic group for support: similar language, culture, jobs<br /> (China Town, Little Italy, etc.)<br />Many tried to assimilate into American culture.<br />assimilate –to become part of<br />Most lived in tenements, an apartment building in the slums—poor, run down neighborhoods<br />Immigrants<br />
  23. 23. Tenement Life for Immigrants<br />Tenement--Crowded, multi-family apartments in the slums of the city.<br />
  24. 24. Tenement Life for Immigrants<br />Often no indoor plumbing or water, unsafe building conditions.<br />Disease and death risks were high, and children became homeless with loss of parents.<br />
  25. 25. Many Americans began to dislike immigrants:<br />Competition for jobs<br />Different cultures/languages/religions<br />Blamed them for increased crime, unemployment, lack of education<br />Nativism—pro American and anti-immigrant<br />These people wanted to limit immigration.<br />Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)—law stopped Chinese from entering U.S. for 10 years<br />Immigration Act of 1917—law required immigrants to be able to read/write in a language in order to enter<br />Anti Immigrant Feelings<br />
  26. 26. The ProgressivesA Period of Reform<br />What areas were reformed?<br />Big Business<br />Labor Conditions<br />Government Democracy<br />Society/Urban Life<br />Who helped? The “Muckrakers”<br />
  27. 27. Theodore Roosevelt<br />What did he improve?<br />“Trustbuster”—He helped reduce the influence of trusts through government regulation.<br />Conservation—He pushed to conserve the nation’s natural resources and set aside land for wildlife sanctuaries<br />Food Inspection—He supported the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act (Dept. of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration)<br />1st Progressive President?<br />
  28. 28. Large companies formed monopolies, oligopolies, and trusts and abused their power. It hurt competition and consumer choices/prices<br />Railroad (Interstate Commerce Act)<br />Steel (Sherman Anti-trust Act)<br />Oil<br />Big Business Reform<br />
  29. 29. Americans and immigrants worked in unsafe conditions, long hours and received low wages.<br />Workers formed unions:<br />Knights of Labor<br />American Federation of Labor<br />Worker’s Compensation <br />Labor Conditions and Reform<br />
  30. 30. Spoils System ended<br />Pendleton Act created the Civil Service Commission to provide workers for government jobs<br />17th Amendment<br />Replaced the practice of state legislators choosing senators with the direct election of senators by the voters.<br />Initiative<br />Referendum<br />Recall<br />Government Reforms<br />
  31. 31. Temperance movement<br />Social push to reduce the consumption of alcohol<br />Immigrant life/tenements<br />Settlement houses, public education<br />Prohibition<br />18th Amendment was passed to make the consumption, production, and transportation of alcohol illegal<br />Urban and Social Reforms<br />
  32. 32. America’s Food Supply<br />Meat<br />Patent Medicines<br />Upton Sinclair’s book The Jungle exposed the truth behind the meat packing industry.<br />Medicines were being made with false labels and questionable or dangerous ingredients and sold to consumers.<br />