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PERIODIC TRENDS
PERIODIC TRENDS
Recall: Periodic Law
- Elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number
- Elements with similar properties occur at regular intervals
PERIODIC TRENDS
Recall: Groups in the periodic table
i.e. Alkali metals
Na
K
-Alkali metals have one half-filled s orbital
-Hence they readily lose an electron to achieve
stability
PERIODIC TRENDS
Recall: Groups in the periodic table
i.e. Transition metals
-Transition metals are elements where the
highest-energy electrons are in d orbitals
-They may lose electrons in their d and s orbitals
when forming ions to achieve stability
Fe2+ Fe3+
PERIODIC TRENDS
Recall: Groups in the periodic table
i.e. Halogens
-Halogens are missing one electron to
achieve a stable p sub-shell
PERIODIC TRENDS
Recall: Valence electrons
-electrons in the outermost principal quantum level of an atom
How many valence electrons are there in each group?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
PERIODIC TRENDS
Recall: Trends
PERIODIC TRENDS
Trend: Atomic Radius
INCREASES
INCREASES
Why?
ATOMIC RADIUS
Electrons are attracted by the nucleus (+), but repelled by other
electrons (-).
Thus electrons ‘shield’ other electrons from the attraction of the
nucleus.
This shielding reduces the full nuclear charge to an effective
nuclear charge (Zeff), the nuclear charge an electron actually
experiences.
O
2p
2s
1s
nucleus
Forces of attraction are
reduced by repulsion
Trend: Atomic Radius – Down a group
ATOMIC RADIUS
ANALOGY: The aromas from a cookie factory
ATOMIC RADIUS
O
2p
2s
1s
nucleus
Trend: Atomic Radius – Down a group
O
3p
3s
2p
2s
1s
nucleus
oxygen sulfur
-The more energy levels there are, the more the nucleus is shielded
from the outermost electrons
-Force of attraction between nucleus and outermost electrons
becomes weaker, making the atomic radius bigger
.: sulfur has a
larger radius
Electrons
shielding the
nucleus
ATOMIC RADIUS
Trend: Atomic Radius – Across a period
-Electrons within the same valence level contribute minimally to
shielding each other from the nuclear charge
-Thus the more protons there are, the greater the attraction
between the nucleus and the outermost electrons
3 protons 4 protons 5 protons 6 protons 7 protons 8 protons 9 protons 10 protons
IONIZATION ENERGY
Trend: Ionization energy
INCREASES
INCREASES
Why?
Energy required to remove the most weakly held (outermost) electron
from an atom
IONIZATION ENERGY
Trend: Ionization energy – Down a group
-The less shielding between the nucleus and outermost electrons,
the greater the force of attraction (.: greater ionization energy)
O
2p
2s
1s
S
3p
3s
2p
2s
1s
Electrons
shielding the
nucleus
Electrons
shielding the
nucleus
IONIZATIONENERGYINCREASES
IONIZATION ENERGY
Trend: Ionization energy – Across a period
-The greater the force of attraction between the nucleus and the
outermost electron, the more energy it requires to remove it
3 protons 4 protons 5 protons 6 protons 7 protons 8 protons 9 protons 10 protons
INCREASING IONIZATION ENERGY
IONIZATION ENERGY
Trend: Ionization energy
Graphing the first ionization energy reveals exceptions
Why?
IONIZATION ENERGY
He
1s
Li
2s
1s
It requires much more energy to remove the outermost electron
of helium than lithium
This will destabilize a
full orbital
.: greater ionization
energy is required
This will not destabilize
a full orbital
.: less ionization energy
is required
Trend: Ionization energy - Exceptions
IONIZATION ENERGY
Trend: Ionization energy - Exceptions
If removing the outermost electron destabilizes a sub-shell, then the
ionization energy is abnormally higher
The third electron in the p subshell requires more energy
to remove than the fourth electron
Removing the third electron produces this:
Having all three half-full orbitals is more stable than having one
orbital completely empty
vs
More stable
vs
IONIZATION ENERGY
Trend: Ionization energy - Exceptions
Stability: Rank the following from most to least stable
Increasing
stability
Most
stable
Least
stable
IONIZATION ENERGY
IONIZATION ENERGY
Trend: Ionization energy - Exceptions
4s and 3d are close in energy, so there is no great change in ionization
energy in between.
RECALL:
ELECTRONEGATIVITY
Trend: Electronegativity
INCREASES
INCREASES
The trend may be explained by the effect of shielding of the nucleus,
which makes its effective nuclear charge weaker when there are more
energy levels or fewer protons.
Ability of an atom to attract electrons in a chemical bond
ELECTRON AFFINITY
Trend: Electron Affinity
This trend has several exceptions. Why?
Amount of energy released when an atom gains an electron.
Atoms that gain stability when an electron is added will release more
energy
ELECTRON AFFINITY
Trend: Electron Affinity
Decrease in
stability means
that Group 2
elements
won’t release a
lot of energy if
an electron is
added
Half-full sub-shell
is more stable,
thus group 4
elements release
more energy
when electron is
added
Noble gases
already have a
stable sub-shell.
SUMMARY
Trends:

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Tang 04 periodic trends

  • 2. PERIODIC TRENDS Recall: Periodic Law - Elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number - Elements with similar properties occur at regular intervals
  • 3. PERIODIC TRENDS Recall: Groups in the periodic table i.e. Alkali metals Na K -Alkali metals have one half-filled s orbital -Hence they readily lose an electron to achieve stability
  • 4. PERIODIC TRENDS Recall: Groups in the periodic table i.e. Transition metals -Transition metals are elements where the highest-energy electrons are in d orbitals -They may lose electrons in their d and s orbitals when forming ions to achieve stability Fe2+ Fe3+
  • 5. PERIODIC TRENDS Recall: Groups in the periodic table i.e. Halogens -Halogens are missing one electron to achieve a stable p sub-shell
  • 6. PERIODIC TRENDS Recall: Valence electrons -electrons in the outermost principal quantum level of an atom How many valence electrons are there in each group? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  • 8. PERIODIC TRENDS Trend: Atomic Radius INCREASES INCREASES Why?
  • 9. ATOMIC RADIUS Electrons are attracted by the nucleus (+), but repelled by other electrons (-). Thus electrons ‘shield’ other electrons from the attraction of the nucleus. This shielding reduces the full nuclear charge to an effective nuclear charge (Zeff), the nuclear charge an electron actually experiences. O 2p 2s 1s nucleus Forces of attraction are reduced by repulsion Trend: Atomic Radius – Down a group
  • 10. ATOMIC RADIUS ANALOGY: The aromas from a cookie factory
  • 11. ATOMIC RADIUS O 2p 2s 1s nucleus Trend: Atomic Radius – Down a group O 3p 3s 2p 2s 1s nucleus oxygen sulfur -The more energy levels there are, the more the nucleus is shielded from the outermost electrons -Force of attraction between nucleus and outermost electrons becomes weaker, making the atomic radius bigger .: sulfur has a larger radius Electrons shielding the nucleus
  • 12. ATOMIC RADIUS Trend: Atomic Radius – Across a period -Electrons within the same valence level contribute minimally to shielding each other from the nuclear charge -Thus the more protons there are, the greater the attraction between the nucleus and the outermost electrons 3 protons 4 protons 5 protons 6 protons 7 protons 8 protons 9 protons 10 protons
  • 13. IONIZATION ENERGY Trend: Ionization energy INCREASES INCREASES Why? Energy required to remove the most weakly held (outermost) electron from an atom
  • 14. IONIZATION ENERGY Trend: Ionization energy – Down a group -The less shielding between the nucleus and outermost electrons, the greater the force of attraction (.: greater ionization energy) O 2p 2s 1s S 3p 3s 2p 2s 1s Electrons shielding the nucleus Electrons shielding the nucleus IONIZATIONENERGYINCREASES
  • 15. IONIZATION ENERGY Trend: Ionization energy – Across a period -The greater the force of attraction between the nucleus and the outermost electron, the more energy it requires to remove it 3 protons 4 protons 5 protons 6 protons 7 protons 8 protons 9 protons 10 protons INCREASING IONIZATION ENERGY
  • 16. IONIZATION ENERGY Trend: Ionization energy Graphing the first ionization energy reveals exceptions Why?
  • 17. IONIZATION ENERGY He 1s Li 2s 1s It requires much more energy to remove the outermost electron of helium than lithium This will destabilize a full orbital .: greater ionization energy is required This will not destabilize a full orbital .: less ionization energy is required Trend: Ionization energy - Exceptions
  • 18. IONIZATION ENERGY Trend: Ionization energy - Exceptions If removing the outermost electron destabilizes a sub-shell, then the ionization energy is abnormally higher
  • 19. The third electron in the p subshell requires more energy to remove than the fourth electron Removing the third electron produces this: Having all three half-full orbitals is more stable than having one orbital completely empty vs More stable vs IONIZATION ENERGY Trend: Ionization energy - Exceptions
  • 20. Stability: Rank the following from most to least stable Increasing stability Most stable Least stable IONIZATION ENERGY
  • 21. IONIZATION ENERGY Trend: Ionization energy - Exceptions 4s and 3d are close in energy, so there is no great change in ionization energy in between. RECALL:
  • 22. ELECTRONEGATIVITY Trend: Electronegativity INCREASES INCREASES The trend may be explained by the effect of shielding of the nucleus, which makes its effective nuclear charge weaker when there are more energy levels or fewer protons. Ability of an atom to attract electrons in a chemical bond
  • 23. ELECTRON AFFINITY Trend: Electron Affinity This trend has several exceptions. Why? Amount of energy released when an atom gains an electron. Atoms that gain stability when an electron is added will release more energy
  • 24. ELECTRON AFFINITY Trend: Electron Affinity Decrease in stability means that Group 2 elements won’t release a lot of energy if an electron is added Half-full sub-shell is more stable, thus group 4 elements release more energy when electron is added Noble gases already have a stable sub-shell.