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12 scientific method


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12 scientific method

  2. 2. WHAT IS SCIENCE? Science is investigating things
  3. 3. WHAT IS SCIENCE? What is investigation? Investigation involves 1)observing things; 2)asking questions; 3)proposing solutions; 4)testing these solutions.
  4. 4. WHAT IS SCIENCE? What is a hypothesis? A hypothesis is a prediction. It’s also been called an “educated guess”
  5. 5. WHAT IS SCIENCE? The scientific method follows this flow chart. Everything you learn from science class came from this method.
  7. 7. WHAT IS SCIENCE? Problem: How do you make a paper airplane fly as far as possible? With a partner, make a paper airplane that flies the farthest. Goal: You will compete against other paper planes. The airplane that flies the farthest wins.
  8. 8. WHAT IS SCIENCE? Rules: -Each group gets to make one airplane -Your paper airplane can only be made of paper
  9. 9. WHAT IS SCIENCE? So what affects how far a paper airplane flies?
  10. 10. WHAT IS SCIENCE? -size -weight -slimness -sharpness -balance -winglets -wingspan etc… So what affects how far a paper airplane flies?
  11. 11. WHAT IS SCIENCE? Is it size, weight, slimness, sharpness, balance, winglets, wingspan, etc… ? Some paper airplanes fly farther than others If the nose of the plane is heavier, then it will fly farther Fly the plane, see if it flies far If the plane flies far, then the heavier nose did help the plane fly farther If the plane doesn’t fly far, then the heavier nose didn’t do anything This is the scientific method!
  12. 12. WHAT IS SCIENCE? A cartoon representation of the scientific method:
  13. 13. WHAT IS SCIENCE? You must report your findings in a formal lab report The formal lab report follows the scientific method
  14. 14. WHAT IS SCIENCE? Part 1: Title Should be written as the “independent variable versus the dependant variable”. Example: Amount of Fast Food Eaten Vs. Body Weight
  15. 15. WHAT IS SCIENCE? Part 2: Purpose   Explain why you are doing  the experiment. It is written as “The purpose of this experiment is…” Example: The purpose of this experiment is to determine the relationship between the amount of fast food eaten and body weight.
  16. 16. WHAT IS SCIENCE? Part 3: Hypothesis   What do you think will  happen? Written in the form on an “if- then” statement   Example: If the amount of fast food eaten is increased, then the amount of weight gained will increase.
  17. 17. WHAT IS SCIENCE? Part 4: Materials   To conduct an experiment,  you need materials. What  materials are needed? All materials are listed in point form.   Example: -Big Mac burgers -100 volunteers -Ikea brand bathroom scale -McDonald’s fries -Coca Cola cans
  18. 18. WHAT IS SCIENCE? Part 5: Procedure   Explain what you are doing. The procedure is written in  past tense with a passive voice.   Example: Fifty volunteers were given three Big Macs, three cans of Coca Cola, and three medium fries daily for thirty days.
  19. 19. WHAT IS SCIENCE?   Past tense:  A description of events that happened in the past    Example:   Present tense:  The dog is going for a walk   Past tense:  The dog went for a walk.
  20. 20. WHAT IS SCIENCE? Passive Voice:   The words I, you, we, he/she, etc. are not used.     Example: Active Voice:  Jane threw the ball   Passive Voice:     Active Voice:  We made observations   Passive Voice:  The ball was thrown Observations were made
  21. 21. WHAT IS SCIENCE? Why is a passive voice important? Science aims to be objective, which means that it is not influenced by emotions, identity, or bias; these can blind us to the truth.
  22. 22. WHAT IS SCIENCE? Part 5: Procedure   A clear and concise  procedure is VERY important,  because someone should be  able to repeat your  experiment and get the same  results. Try the snowflake activity
  23. 23. WHAT IS SCIENCE? Part 6: Observations   Record what you see in a  table. Include charts and  graphs in this section.  Sample calculations go here  as well.   Example: Average mass before experiment Average mass after experiment Fast food  eaters 180 lb 230 lb No fast food 180 lb 190 lb
  24. 24. WHAT IS SCIENCE? Part 7: Discussion   What do your results mean  and why?  What are some sources of  error?   Example: The results suggest that eating more fast food made people gain more weight. This may be because fast food is high in calories, and increased calories lead to increased body weight. …
  25. 25. WHAT IS SCIENCE? Part 7: Discussion   Sources of error?   …A source of error was that it was not known if the non-fast-food eaters exercised more than the fast- food eaters, which may have made them gain less weight. Include a suggestion for  improvement: If this experiment were to be conducted again, then everyone will be restricted to doing the same amount of exercise each day.
  26. 26. WHAT IS SCIENCE? Part 8: Conclusion   Was the hypothesis correct? Example: In conclusion, the amount of weight gain increased when the amount of fast food eaten was increased. Recall the hypothesis: If the amount of fast food eaten is increased, then the amount of weight gained will increase.
  27. 27. WHAT IS SCIENCE? Summary:   1)Title 2)Purpose 3)Hypothesis 4)Materials 5)Procedure 6)Observations 7)Discussion 8)Conclusion