08a metabolism regulation


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08a metabolism regulation

  1. 1. Metabolism What is a healthy metabolism? What is an unhealthy metabolism?
  2. 2. Glands Three glands help to regulate metabolism: 1. thyroid gland 2. parathyroid gland 3. anterior pituitary
  3. 3. Thyroid Gland regulates glucose metabolism regulates growth and tissue differentiation Where is it located? base of neck, anterior to larynx
  4. 4. Thyroid Hormones Produces two hormones: 1. thyroxine (T4) 2. iodothyronine (T3)
  5. 5. Thyroid Hormones both T3 & T4 are derived from the amino acid tyrosine although derived from a soluble amino acid, T3 & T4 are more hydrophobic in nature and will diffuse into cells
  6. 6. Thyroid Hormone Regulation What is the signal to indicate that thyroid hormone levels should be changed? change in metabolic rate What detects this change? hypothalamus releases thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH) to signal to the pituitary What does TRH do? signals pituitary to release thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
  7. 7. decreased metabolism decreased blood sugar hypothalamus increase sugar metabolism TRH pituitary gland to release TSH thyroid gland to release thyroxine
  8. 8. Thyroid Disorders Three thyroid disorders to know: 1. hyperthyroidism 2. hypothyroidism 3. goiters
  9. 9. 1. Hyperthyroidism high thyroxine release Cause: “hot” nodules / Grave’s disease (whole thyroid) Symptoms: high glucose metabolism  weight loss with increased appetite  anxiety  increased heat release Treatment: suppressive medication
  10. 10. 2. Hypothyroidism low thyroxine release Causes: iodine deficiency Symptoms: low glucose metabolism  weight gain  fatigue  decreased heat release Treatment: synthetic hormone medication
  11. 11. Thyroid Disorders: Goiters Why is table salt iodized? low iodine levels result in enlarged thyroid glands - goiter
  12. 12. Calcium Where is calcium stored? 99% of calcium stored in bones for structure Roles of calcium: 1. required for muscle contraction 2. important in neuronal communication 3. bone structure maintenance
  13. 13. Bone Structure living bones are complex tissues osteoblasts – cell which build bones osteoclasts – cells which break down bones (release calcium)
  14. 14. Parathyroid Glands smaller glands within the thyroid gland responsible for increasing Ca2+ levels in blood produces parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  15. 15. hypocalcemia increased Ca2+ levels parathyroid gland increased Ca2+ uptake in intestines (diet) & kidneys (reabsorption) increases osteoclast activity activation of vitamin D; required for Ca2+ absorption release PTH
  16. 16. Calcium Level Regulation different organ and hormone responsible to decrease high calcium levels organ = thyroid hormone = calcitonin
  17. 17. hypercalcemia decreased Ca2+ levels thyroid gland inhibits Ca2+ absorption by intestines decreases osteoclast activity release calcitonin
  18. 18. Hormone Structures PTH peptide hormone calcitonin peptide hormone vitamin D steroid-based hormone
  19. 19. Parathyroid Disorders Two types of parathyroid disorders: 1. hypoparathyroidism 2. hyperparathyroidism
  20. 20. 1. Hypoparathyroidism Causes: absent parathyroid from birth accidental removal upon thyroid removal Symptoms: decreased Ca2+ levels in blood sensitive nerves uncontrollable spasms of the limbs Treatment daily calcium and vitamin D supplements
  21. 21. 2. Hyperparathyroidism Causes: tumors on the parathyroid gland Symptoms: kidney stones aches & pains osteoporosis depression & fatigue Treatment: removal of parathyroid tissue