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05 urine-hormone regulation


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05 urine-hormone regulation

  1. 1. Water Balance Three physiological characteristics controlled through the kidney: 1. Osmotic Pressure 2. Blood Pressure 3. pH Balance
  2. 2. Osmotic Pressure osmotic pressure – water pressure due to presence of solutes osmoregulation - regulation of osmotic pressure of bodily fluid and cells antidiuretic hormone (ADH) – regulates blood osmotic pressure through kidneys (a short peptide hormone)
  3. 3. Osmotic Pressure What type of situation would cause increased osmotic pressure? sweating / dehydration causes increased ADH production to: increase water reabsorption dilute solutes in blood ADH produced in hypothalamus transported to pituitary gland
  4. 4. osmoreceptors in hypothalamus detect increased osmotic pressure  sends signals to pituitary gland
  5. 5. Osmotic Pressure increased osmotic pressure decreased osmotic pressure osmoreceptors increased sensation of thirst increased water reabsorption by kidney pituitary gland; release ADH
  6. 6. Osmotic Pressure ADH increases H2O reabsorption dilutes blood concentrates urine What part of the nephron does ADH affect? collecting ducts
  7. 7. ADH Activity The following animation will contain some terminology not covered. Animation
  8. 8. Hormones and Enzymes Side Note: hormones only active when needed hormones usually produced, but activated by enzyme cleavage hormones readily available rather than waiting for the entire process of transcription / translation (too long!!)
  9. 9. Blood Pressure blood pressure – increase force of blood on blood vessels aldosterone – hormone which increases Na+ reabsorption in kidneys increased H2O in blood increased blood pressure
  10. 10. Blood Pressure aldosterone produced in adrenal gland, above kidney
  11. 11. Blood Pressure
  12. 12. Blood Pressure What part of the kidney would be affected by low blood pressure? glomerulus; high blood pressure needed for filtration decreased water pressure detected by juxtaglomerular apparatus receptors next to the glomerulus
  13. 13. Blood Pressure the enzyme renin, is released angiotensinogen renin angiotensin
  14. 14. Blood Pressure Two important functions of angiotensin: 1. causes blood vessel constriction 2. stimulates aldosterone release
  15. 15. low blood pressure blood pressure increases juxtaglomerular apparatus constrict blood vessels induce aldosterone release; increase Na+ reabsorption cells to release renin; produce angiotensin
  16. 16. pH Balance How do living systems regulate the amount of acid / base in their systems? buffers – conjugate acid-base pairs H3PO4 H2PO4- + H+
  17. 17. pH Balance conversion of CO2 to other compounds help regulate blood pH H2O + CO2 H2CO3 carbonic acid HCO3- + H+ carbonate ion HCO3- is reabsorbed in the proximal and distal tubules