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ACIDS + BASES
ACIDS• Properties: (other than tasting sour and being
corrosive)
1) React with metals
2) React with carbonates
3) Conduct ...
1) ACIDS REACT WITH METALS
If you swallowed a penny,
what would happen?
(DON’T TRY THIS AT HOME!!!)
1) ACIDS REACT WITH METALS
2HCl(aq) + Zn(s)  H2(g) + ZnCl2(aq)
2) ACIDS REACT WITH CARBONATES
What happens when you put baking soda
(sodium bicarbonate) into vinegar?
HC2H3O2(aq) + NaHC...
3) ACIDS CONDUCT ELECTRICITY
Acids are made of ions, so in water these ions
separate and can conduct electricity
HCl(aq) ...
IONIZATION IN WATER
H+
Cl-
H+
Cl-
H+
Cl-
Strong acids
ionize completely
in water, while
weak acids only
ionize slightly
NEGATIVELY-CHARGEDELECTRODE
POSITIVELY-CHARGEDELECTRODE
IONIZATION IN WATER
H+
Cl-
H+Cl-
H+
Cl-
H+
Cl-
- +
4) ACIDS TURN BLUE LITMUS PAPER RED
Blue litmus paper is an indicator and turns red when
it touches acid
5) ACIDS NEUTRALIZE BASES
Acids can neutralize bases, so adding an acid to a
base can neutralize their caustic nature
HCl(...
BASESProperties: (other than tasting bitter, feeling slippery)
1) Conduct electricity
2) Turn red litmus paper blue
3) Tur...
1) BASES CONDUCT ELECTRICITY
Bases are made of ions, so in water these ions
separate and can conduct electricity
NaOH(aq) ...
2) BASES TURN RED LITMUS PAPER BLUE
Red litmus paper is an indicator and turns blue when
it touches base
3) BASES TURN PHENOLPHTALEIN PINK
Phenolphtalein is colourless, and turns pink in bases
(above pH 8.2) while remaining col...
4) BASES NEUTRALIZE ACIDS
Bases can neutralize acids, so adding a base to an acid can
eliminate their corrosiveness
Exampl...
HOW TO MAKE ACIDS + BASES
ACIDS:
1) Non-metal + oxygen  non-metal oxide
2) Non-metal oxide + water  ACID!
EXAMPLE:
N2 + ...
ACID-BASE INDICATORS
Indicators change color depending on whether a substance is
acidic or basic
ACID-BASE INDICATORS
Different indicators change colour at specific pH ranges
pH
The strength of an acid or base is measured with pH
pH
power hydrogen
pH = power of hydrogen
pH
Calculating pH
Logarithm with base 10 Concentration of
hydrogen ions
pH = -log [H+]
pH Scale
At 25°C: From 0 to 14, with 7 being NEUTRAL
pH < 7  acidic
pH = 7  neutral
pH > 7  basic
pH Scale
pH Scale
Every pH level is 10x more concentrated than the level
above.
i.e. pH 4 is 10x more concentrated than pH 5
pH 3 i...
ACID NAMING
Polyatomic ion
name
Acid anion name Example
sulfate sulfuric H2SO4 sulfuric acid
chlorate chloric HClO3 chlori...
H2SO4(aq)
Sulfuric acid
OXYACID
Recall: Most acids have hydrogen
HCl(aq)
Hydrochloric acid
BINARY ACID
1) Naming:
ACID NAM...
bromic acid
BrO3H
1 1+ -
= HBrO3(aq)
2) Writing the chemical formula:
ACID NAMING
ACID NAMING
Polyatomic ion
name
Acid anion name Example
sulfite sulfurous H2SO3 sulfurous acid
chlorite chlorous HClO2 chl...
H2NO2(aq)
1) Naming:
ACID NAMING
nitrite
= nitrous acid
bromous acid
BrO2H
1 1+ -
= HBrO2(aq)
2) Writing the chemical formula:
ACID NAMING
HOMEWORK
Page 228 # 1, 3 – 8
05 acids + bases
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05 acids + bases

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05 acids + bases

  1. 1. ACIDS + BASES
  2. 2. ACIDS• Properties: (other than tasting sour and being corrosive) 1) React with metals 2) React with carbonates 3) Conduct electricity 4) Turn blue litmus paper red 5) Neutralize bases ACIDS ARE CORROSIVE
  3. 3. 1) ACIDS REACT WITH METALS If you swallowed a penny, what would happen? (DON’T TRY THIS AT HOME!!!)
  4. 4. 1) ACIDS REACT WITH METALS 2HCl(aq) + Zn(s)  H2(g) + ZnCl2(aq)
  5. 5. 2) ACIDS REACT WITH CARBONATES What happens when you put baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) into vinegar? HC2H3O2(aq) + NaHCO3(aq)  CO2(g) + H2O(l) + NaC2H3O2(aq)
  6. 6. 3) ACIDS CONDUCT ELECTRICITY Acids are made of ions, so in water these ions separate and can conduct electricity HCl(aq)  H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) Hydrogen ion is what makes an acid acidic
  7. 7. IONIZATION IN WATER H+ Cl- H+ Cl- H+ Cl- Strong acids ionize completely in water, while weak acids only ionize slightly
  8. 8. NEGATIVELY-CHARGEDELECTRODE POSITIVELY-CHARGEDELECTRODE IONIZATION IN WATER H+ Cl- H+Cl- H+ Cl- H+ Cl- - +
  9. 9. 4) ACIDS TURN BLUE LITMUS PAPER RED Blue litmus paper is an indicator and turns red when it touches acid
  10. 10. 5) ACIDS NEUTRALIZE BASES Acids can neutralize bases, so adding an acid to a base can neutralize their caustic nature HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq)  H2O(l) + NaCl(aq) Hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide  water + salt (sodium chloride) Corrosive + caustic  non-corrosive + non-corrosive
  11. 11. BASESProperties: (other than tasting bitter, feeling slippery) 1) Conduct electricity 2) Turn red litmus paper blue 3) Turns phenolphthalein pink 4) Neutralize acids BASES ARE CAUSTIC
  12. 12. 1) BASES CONDUCT ELECTRICITY Bases are made of ions, so in water these ions separate and can conduct electricity NaOH(aq)  Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq) hydroxide ion makes bases basic
  13. 13. 2) BASES TURN RED LITMUS PAPER BLUE Red litmus paper is an indicator and turns blue when it touches base
  14. 14. 3) BASES TURN PHENOLPHTALEIN PINK Phenolphtalein is colourless, and turns pink in bases (above pH 8.2) while remaining colourless in acids.
  15. 15. 4) BASES NEUTRALIZE ACIDS Bases can neutralize acids, so adding a base to an acid can eliminate their corrosiveness Example: Antacids to neutralize stomach acid 2HCl(aq) + CaCO3(aq)  CaCl2(aq) + H2CO3(aq) H2CO3(aq)  H2O(l) + CO2(g)
  16. 16. HOW TO MAKE ACIDS + BASES ACIDS: 1) Non-metal + oxygen  non-metal oxide 2) Non-metal oxide + water  ACID! EXAMPLE: N2 + 2O2  2NO2 NO2 + H2O  HNO3 BASES: 1) Metal + oxygen  Metal oxide 2) Metal oxide + water  BASE! EXAMPLE: Mg + O2  MgO MgO + H2O  Mg(OH)2
  17. 17. ACID-BASE INDICATORS Indicators change color depending on whether a substance is acidic or basic
  18. 18. ACID-BASE INDICATORS Different indicators change colour at specific pH ranges
  19. 19. pH The strength of an acid or base is measured with pH pH power hydrogen pH = power of hydrogen
  20. 20. pH Calculating pH Logarithm with base 10 Concentration of hydrogen ions pH = -log [H+]
  21. 21. pH Scale At 25°C: From 0 to 14, with 7 being NEUTRAL pH < 7  acidic pH = 7  neutral pH > 7  basic
  22. 22. pH Scale
  23. 23. pH Scale Every pH level is 10x more concentrated than the level above. i.e. pH 4 is 10x more concentrated than pH 5 pH 3 is 100x more concentrated than pH 5
  24. 24. ACID NAMING Polyatomic ion name Acid anion name Example sulfate sulfuric H2SO4 sulfuric acid chlorate chloric HClO3 chloric acid carbonate carbonic H2CO3 carbonic acid phosphate phosphoric H3PO4 phosphoric acid Recall: Polyatomic ions have modified names in acids
  25. 25. H2SO4(aq) Sulfuric acid OXYACID Recall: Most acids have hydrogen HCl(aq) Hydrochloric acid BINARY ACID 1) Naming: ACID NAMING
  26. 26. bromic acid BrO3H 1 1+ - = HBrO3(aq) 2) Writing the chemical formula: ACID NAMING
  27. 27. ACID NAMING Polyatomic ion name Acid anion name Example sulfite sulfurous H2SO3 sulfurous acid chlorite chlorous HClO2 chlorous acid carbonite carbonous H2CO2 carbonous acid phosphite phosphorous H3PO3 phosphorous acid Oxyacids with polyatomic ions that end in “ite” are given the ending “ous”
  28. 28. H2NO2(aq) 1) Naming: ACID NAMING nitrite = nitrous acid
  29. 29. bromous acid BrO2H 1 1+ - = HBrO2(aq) 2) Writing the chemical formula: ACID NAMING
  30. 30. HOMEWORK Page 228 # 1, 3 – 8

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