Role of Kidney
renal system – referring to the kidney
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

blood filtration
waste excretion
acid / base balance...
Kidney Blood Flow
Blood enters the kidney through the renal artery.
renal arteries stem from the aorta

Filtered blood ex...
Blood and the Nephron
Renal artery blood is filtered through
nephrons. About a million
nephrons make up the kidney.
Nephro...
Blood Flow
The renal artery is split into afferent arterioles.
blood brought to glomerulus (a capillary bed)
blood leave...
Nephron
Nephrons begin surrounding the glomerulus with
the Bowman’s capsule structure.
fluids to become urine flow to nar...
Kidney Structure
renal cortex – outside of
kidney; location of
Bowman’s capsule
renal medulla – middle of
kidney; location...
Urine Flow
Urine leaves the renal pelvis through the ureters
and travels to the bladder. Fluid leaves the body
through the...
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
UTI’s are caused by bacterial growth in the urethra
or bladder.
Symptoms:
frequent urinatio...
efferent arteriole

proximal
tubule

glomerulus
Bowman’s
capsule

distal
tubule

collucting
duct

afferent arteriole

Loop...
aorta
inferior vena
cava

renal
cortex
renal
medulla

renal artery
renal vein
kidney
ureter
bladder

urethra

renal
pelvis...
Three Functions of Urine Formation
1.

filtration – movement of fluids from the glomerular
blood to the Bowman’s capsule

...
Filtration
Nutrients move from glomerulus into Bowman’s
capsule due to high blood pressure (65 mm Hg;
normal ~ 25 mm Hg)
Nutrient Flow
Solute

Glomerulus  Bowman’s
Capsule?

water

yes

NaCl

yes

H+ ions

yes

amino acids

yes

glucose

yes
...
Reabsorption
Reabsorption saves us from having to continuously
replenish our body with fluid.
20% of fluid flowing into k...
Reabsorption vs. Secretion
Reabsorption

Secretion

protein transporters

protein transporters

move nutrients into
inte...
1. Bowman’s Capsule
water and dissolved solutes leave
glomerulus; enter Bowman’s
capsule

water
Na+
H+
Clglucose
amino aci...
2. Proximal Tubule
selective reabsorption of
nutrients (need transporters)
pH determined by HCO3reabsorption and H+ secret...
3. Loop of Henle – Descending Limb
only permeable to H2O (osmosis)
impermeable to salt
fluids in tube are being
concentrat...
4. Loop of Henle – Ascending Limb
only permeable to salt (need ionic
transporters)
impermeable to water

NaCl
5. Distal Tubule

HCO3Na+, ClH2O

selective reabsorption of nutrients
(need transporters)
pH determined by HCO3reabsorptio...
6. Collecting Duct
urine formation by concentration
nephron fluid
any urea and urine that is
reabsorbed is less than that ...
Kidney Stones
crystallization of some urine
solutes
a 2 – 3 mm stone can
obstruct flow to the ureter
Treatment:
increased...
04 urinary tractkidney
04 urinary tractkidney
04 urinary tractkidney
04 urinary tractkidney
04 urinary tractkidney
04 urinary tractkidney
04 urinary tractkidney
04 urinary tractkidney
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04 urinary tractkidney

  1. 1. Role of Kidney renal system – referring to the kidney 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. blood filtration waste excretion acid / base balance blood pressure regulation hormone secretion
  2. 2. Kidney Blood Flow Blood enters the kidney through the renal artery. renal arteries stem from the aorta Filtered blood exits the kidney through the renal vein. renal veins flow into the inferior vena cava
  3. 3. Blood and the Nephron Renal artery blood is filtered through nephrons. About a million nephrons make up the kidney. Nephrons collect liquid to be excreted. Fluids are exchanged between the nephron before blood is returned to renal vein.
  4. 4. Blood Flow The renal artery is split into afferent arterioles. blood brought to glomerulus (a capillary bed) blood leaves through the efferent arterioles  no veins involved Efferent arterioles are the beginning of a network of peritubular capillaries, that wrap around the nephron.
  5. 5. Nephron Nephrons begin surrounding the glomerulus with the Bowman’s capsule structure. fluids to become urine flow to narrow proximal tubule urine flows through loop of Henle urine flows through distal tubule Urine from multiple nephrons flow into the collecting duct.
  6. 6. Kidney Structure renal cortex – outside of kidney; location of Bowman’s capsule renal medulla – middle of kidney; location of loop of Henle renal pelvis – location of the ends of collecting ducts
  7. 7. Urine Flow Urine leaves the renal pelvis through the ureters and travels to the bladder. Fluid leaves the body through the urethra. When ~200 mL of urine has collected in the bladder, the walls stretch and signals are sent to the brain. At ~600 mL, urine will involuntarily be released.
  8. 8. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) UTI’s are caused by bacterial growth in the urethra or bladder. Symptoms: frequent urination sensation of needing to urinate (even if there is little to pass) blood in urine discharge in urine (cloudiness)
  9. 9. efferent arteriole proximal tubule glomerulus Bowman’s capsule distal tubule collucting duct afferent arteriole Loop of Henle
  10. 10. aorta inferior vena cava renal cortex renal medulla renal artery renal vein kidney ureter bladder urethra renal pelvis nephrons ureter
  11. 11. Three Functions of Urine Formation 1. filtration – movement of fluids from the glomerular blood to the Bowman’s capsule 2. reabsorption – transfer of fluids from nephron into peritubular capillaries 3. secretion – transfer of fluids from peritubular capillaries into nephron
  12. 12. Filtration Nutrients move from glomerulus into Bowman’s capsule due to high blood pressure (65 mm Hg; normal ~ 25 mm Hg)
  13. 13. Nutrient Flow Solute Glomerulus  Bowman’s Capsule? water yes NaCl yes H+ ions yes amino acids yes glucose yes plasma proteins no red blood cells (erythrocytes) no platelets no
  14. 14. Reabsorption Reabsorption saves us from having to continuously replenish our body with fluid. 20% of fluid flowing into kidney is filtered into nephrons less than 1% of nephron fluid is used to make urine
  15. 15. Reabsorption vs. Secretion Reabsorption Secretion protein transporters protein transporters move nutrients into interstitial fluid and blood move wastes from blood to interstitial fluid to nephron kidney tissue will only reabsorb a certain level of nutrients – threshold level
  16. 16. 1. Bowman’s Capsule water and dissolved solutes leave glomerulus; enter Bowman’s capsule water Na+ H+ Clglucose amino acids vitamins minerals urea uric acid
  17. 17. 2. Proximal Tubule selective reabsorption of nutrients (need transporters) pH determined by HCO3reabsorption and H+ secretion HCO3-, K+ Na+, ClH2O amino acids glucose vitamins H+ NH3
  18. 18. 3. Loop of Henle – Descending Limb only permeable to H2O (osmosis) impermeable to salt fluids in tube are being concentrated H2O
  19. 19. 4. Loop of Henle – Ascending Limb only permeable to salt (need ionic transporters) impermeable to water NaCl
  20. 20. 5. Distal Tubule HCO3Na+, ClH2O selective reabsorption of nutrients (need transporters) pH determined by HCO3reabsorption and H+ secretion H+ NH3 K+
  21. 21. 6. Collecting Duct urine formation by concentration nephron fluid any urea and urine that is reabsorbed is less than that was filtered into nephron NaCl urea water
  22. 22. Kidney Stones crystallization of some urine solutes a 2 – 3 mm stone can obstruct flow to the ureter Treatment: increased water consumption surgery

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