04 archae + bacteria

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  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XuKjBIBBAL8 Killer Fungi (cordyceps) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EWB_COSUXMw&feature=related (snail w worms) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vMG-LWyNcAs&feature=related (parasitic wasp and caterpillar) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rLtUk-W5Gpk&feature=relmfu (parasitic wasp and aphids) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7UsvkfzTMFQ&feature=fvwrel (mutualism: wasp and parasitic mites)
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XuKjBIBBAL8 Killer Fungi
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XuKjBIBBAL8 Killer Fungi
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XuKjBIBBAL8 Killer Fungi
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XuKjBIBBAL8 Killer Fungi
  • 04 archae + bacteria

    1. 1. Kingdom Archaea      They thrive in extreme conditions that mimic the Earth’s early atmosphere Scientists believe that Archaea are the first living things on Earth because they felt like it…. LOLOOL…
    2. 2. <ul><li>Examples of extreme conditions: </li></ul>Kingdom Archaea <ul><li>boiling/acidic water </li></ul><ul><li>hydrothermal vents </li></ul><ul><li>super-salty pools </li></ul><ul><li>Antarctic permanent ice </li></ul>These are conditions that would normally kill other creatures, thus Archaea are classified by the type of environment they thrive in.
    3. 3. <ul><li>Thermoacidophiles </li></ul>Three Groups of Archaea         Methanogens Able to tolerate extreme temperature & acidity Example: volcanoes, hot springs Energy obtained from sulfur Halophiles Thrives in high salt environments Example: Dead Sea Lives in oxygen free environments Example: swamp, marsh, sewage Energy obtained by converting inorganic molecules leaving methane gas as a waste product
    4. 4. Kingdom Bacteria <ul><li>Beneficial Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen cycle: bacteria critical to soil fertility, converts ammonia to usable compounds: </li></ul><ul><li>ammonia  nitrite  nitrate </li></ul><ul><li>Certain bacteria makes foods edible: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vinegar, butter, cheese, yogurt, and sour-dough bread </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bacteria in Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria used in sewage treatment, odor control, and septic tank maintenance: </li></ul><ul><li>digests organic matter and waste </li></ul>
    5. 5. Bacteria in Disease Tuberculosis Lysteriosis Lyme disease Meningitis Gonorrhea <ul><li>Streptococcus mutans  tooth decay </li></ul><ul><li>Clostridium botulinum  food poisoning </li></ul><ul><li>Treponema pallidum  syphilis </li></ul>
    6. 6. Bacterial Classification <ul><li>Shape – 3 types (more details to follow) </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Wall – 2 types (more details to follow) </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Source – 2 types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic: obtain energy from light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemosynthetic: obtain energy from inorganic compounds </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Bacterial Shapes <ul><li>Cocci ( singl. coccus) – round </li></ul><ul><li>Resists drying </li></ul><ul><li>Bacilli (bacillus) – rod-shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbs more nutrients due to greater surface area </li></ul><ul><li>Spirilli (spirillum) – spiral-shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Moves through fluids with the least resistance </li></ul>
    8. 8. Bacterial Shapes i
    9. 9. Bacterial Shapes
    10. 10. Groupings <ul><li>Prefix diplo- </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged in pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Prefix staphylo- </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged in clusters (like grapes) </li></ul><ul><li>Prefix strepto- </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged in chains </li></ul>
    11. 11. Groupings
    12. 12. Practice Naming Bacteria A <ul><li>Answers: </li></ul><ul><li>Staphylococci </li></ul><ul><li>Streptococci </li></ul><ul><li>Diplobacilli </li></ul><ul><li>Streptobacilli </li></ul><ul><li>Streptococci </li></ul><ul><li>Diplospirilli </li></ul><ul><li>Streptobacilli </li></ul>D C B G F E
    13. 13. 1884: Hans Grams discovered a method of classifying bacteria using what is now named the “ Gram Stain .” What is Gram Stain? A dye that highlights basic differences in the arrangements of molecules in bacterial cell walls Bacterial Cell Wall Structure Gram-negative bacilli from a pneumonia infected lu ng Gram-positive Purple stain Thick protein layer Gram-negative Pink stain Thin protein layer
    14. 14. A B Examples of Gram Stains Gram-positive anthrax bacteria ( bacilli ) in cerebrospinal fluid sample. If present. (The other cells are white blood cells ). Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus Mixture: gram-negative (pink) bacilli and gram-positive (purple) cocci C
    15. 15. (no mixing of genetic material between organisms) <ul><li>Binary = 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Fission = division / split </li></ul><ul><li>A type of cell division where 2 genetically identical products of the same size are formed </li></ul>Asexual Reproduction through… BINARY FISSION Occurs when conditions are favourable and constant (predictable). But why?… 1. Duplicate genetic material 2. Cell elongates 3. Septum (wall) begins to form 4. Cells separate
    16. 16. (mixing of genetic material between organisms) <ul><li>Occurs when conditions begin to alter such that it’s less than ideal. What advantage does this have?… </li></ul>Sexual Reproduction through… CONJUGATION <ul><li>Cells linked by a bridged called the pili (pilus) </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic information passes through pili from one cell to another </li></ul><ul><li>Receiving cell undergoes binary fission </li></ul>
    17. 17. (mixing of genetic material between organisms) Sexual Reproduction through… CONJUGATION Sex pilus
    18. 18. (mixing of genetic material between organisms) Sexual Reproduction
    19. 19. (no growth, dormancy) <ul><li>During unfavourable conditions, a bacteria enters a dormant phase to protect itself. </li></ul><ul><li>It forms a tough outer covering to enclose its DNA. The resulting product looks like a seed and is called an endospore . </li></ul><ul><li>When favourable conditions return, endospore loses its outer coat allowing the bacteria to grow again. </li></ul>Spore Formation
    20. 20. Comparing Reproductive Strategies ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE ASEXUAL SEXUAL SPORE
    21. 21. Comparing Reproductive Strategies ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE ASEXUAL <ul><li>Conserves energy </li></ul><ul><li>One parent </li></ul><ul><li>Very fast reproduction rate </li></ul><ul><li>Not easily affected by environmental conditions </li></ul>SEXUAL SPORE
    22. 22. Comparing Reproductive Strategies ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE ASEXUAL <ul><li>Conserves energy </li></ul><ul><li>One parent </li></ul><ul><li>Very fast reproduction rate </li></ul><ul><li>Not easily affected by environmental conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid reproduction leads to competition </li></ul><ul><li>Identical to parent: no diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Higher risk for extinction </li></ul>SEXUAL SPORE
    23. 23. Comparing Reproductive Strategies ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE ASEXUAL <ul><li>Conserves energy </li></ul><ul><li>One parent </li></ul><ul><li>Very fast reproduction rate </li></ul><ul><li>Not easily affected by environmental conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid reproduction leads to competition </li></ul><ul><li>Identical to parent: no diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Higher risk for extinction </li></ul>SEXUAL <ul><li>Genes can be manipulated </li></ul><ul><li>Different from parents </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic variation increases the likelihood of the species surviving in changing (or unfavourable) conditions </li></ul>SPORE
    24. 24. Comparing Reproductive Strategies ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE ASEXUAL <ul><li>Conserves energy </li></ul><ul><li>One parent </li></ul><ul><li>Very fast reproduction rate </li></ul><ul><li>Not easily affected by environmental conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid reproduction leads to competition </li></ul><ul><li>Identical to parent: no diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Higher risk for extinction </li></ul>SEXUAL <ul><li>Genes can be manipulated </li></ul><ul><li>Different from parents </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic variation increases the likelihood of the species surviving in changing (or unfavourable) conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Uses more energy </li></ul><ul><li>Requires two parents </li></ul><ul><li>Slow </li></ul><ul><li>Affected by environmental conditions </li></ul>SPORE
    25. 25. Comparing Reproductive Strategies ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE ASEXUAL <ul><li>Conserves energy </li></ul><ul><li>One parent </li></ul><ul><li>Very fast reproduction rate </li></ul><ul><li>Not easily affected by environmental conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid reproduction leads to competition </li></ul><ul><li>Identical to parent: no diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Higher risk for extinction </li></ul>SEXUAL <ul><li>Genes can be manipulated </li></ul><ul><li>Different from parents </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic variation increases the likelihood of the species surviving in changing (or unfavourable) conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Uses more energy </li></ul><ul><li>Requires two parents </li></ul><ul><li>Slow </li></ul><ul><li>Affected by environmental conditions </li></ul>SPORE <ul><li>Able to resist unfavourable conditions (e.g. extreme heat, cold, damaging chemicals, drying) </li></ul><ul><li>Long life span </li></ul>
    26. 26. Comparing Reproductive Strategies ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE ASEXUAL <ul><li>Conserves energy </li></ul><ul><li>One parent </li></ul><ul><li>Very fast reproduction rate </li></ul><ul><li>Not easily affected by environmental conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid reproduction leads to competition </li></ul><ul><li>Identical to parent: no diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Higher risk for extinction </li></ul>SEXUAL <ul><li>Genes can be manipulated </li></ul><ul><li>Different from parents </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic variation increases the likelihood of the species surviving in changing (or unfavourable) conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Uses more energy </li></ul><ul><li>Requires two parents </li></ul><ul><li>Slow </li></ul><ul><li>Affected by environmental conditions </li></ul>SPORE <ul><li>Able to resist unfavourable conditions (e.g. extreme heat, cold, damaging chemicals, drying) </li></ul><ul><li>Long life span </li></ul><ul><li>Slow process </li></ul><ul><li>No growth during dormancy </li></ul>
    27. 27. Kingdom Fungi <ul><li>Yeast </li></ul>Mold Mushroom
    28. 28. Mushroom: Specialized reproductive part of fungus Mycelium: loose, branching network of hyphae under the soil making up the main bulk of a fungus Septum: porous walls that divide the hyphae into cells Chitin: material that forms the cell wall of fungi Hyphae: network of fine filaments Fungi Structure
    29. 29. The septa of a hyphae is often porous (pictured below) -this allows cytoplasm to travel through it Septum
    30. 30. <ul><li>Hyphae releases digestive enzymes over its food </li></ul><ul><li>2. Molecules that are broken down outside the body then diffuse in </li></ul><ul><li>3. The more extensive the mycelium, the greater the surface area for absorption </li></ul>Process of Extracellular digestion 1 1 2
    31. 31. Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism Commensalism Parasitism
    32. 32. Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism + / + Commensalism Parasitism
    33. 33. Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism + / + E. Coli in human intestine E. Coli receive food / shelter Humans receive vitamins Commensalism Parasitism
    34. 34. Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism + / + E. Coli in human intestine E. Coli receive food / shelter Humans receive vitamins Commensalism + / 0 Parasitism
    35. 35. Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism + / + E. Coli in human intestine E. Coli receive food / shelter Humans receive vitamins Commensalism + / 0 Barnacles on jaws of whale Barnacles eat food filtered by whale. No effect on whale. Parasitism
    36. 36. Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism + / + E. Coli in human intestine E. Coli receive food / shelter Humans receive vitamins Commensalism + / 0 Barnacles on jaws of whale Barnacles eat food filtered by whale. No effect on whale. Parasitism + / -
    37. 37. Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism + / + E. Coli in human intestine E. Coli receive food / shelter Humans receive vitamins Commensalism + / 0 Barnacles on jaws of whale Barnacles eat food filtered by whale. No effect on whale. Parasitism + / - Many diseases: malaria, tetanus Mistletoe grow on host trees. Uses trees to obtain nutrients.
    38. 38. Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism
    39. 39. Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism
    40. 40. Symbiotic Relationships Commensalism
    41. 41. Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism
    42. 42. Symbiotic Associations Ectosymbiosis Endosymbiosis
    43. 43. Symbiotic Associations Ectosymbiosis One organism lives on the surface another organism (e.g. barnacles on whales, mistletoe on trees) Endosymbiosis
    44. 44. Symbiotic Associations Ectosymbiosis One organism lives on the surface another organism (e.g. barnacles on whales, mistletoe on trees) Endosymbiosis One organism lives within the tissue of another organism (e.g. E. coli in humans, malaria, tetanus)
    45. 45. Barnacles on whale - ectocommensalism Mistletoe on tree - ectoparasitism

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