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03 plants and us


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03 plants and us

  1. 1. PLANTS & US
  2. 2. PLANTS & US Identify this plant:
  3. 3. PLANTS & US This is a coffee plant -Coffee plants are evergreen shrubs or small trees that grow in shaded areas -Coffee “beans” are actually the seeds of coffee berries -Coffee plants are native to Africa
  4. 4. PLANTS & US Coffee is the second most-valuable-traded commodity in the world (second only to petroleum) Its demand has resulted in the mass development of coffee plantations.
  5. 5. PLANTS & US Coffee plantations: -Damage the environment (and animal habitats) through the mass clearing of land in order to create plantations -Are monocultures, which lack diversity and are more susceptible to disease and pests -As a result, a number of pest control methods are necessary to protect the crops
  6. 6. PLANTS & US Pest control: Mechanical control -physically trapping pests PEST CONTROL
  7. 7. PLANTS & US Pest control: Crop rotation and mixed planting -When farmers do not grow monocultures in the same location year after year, pest populations do not have the same opportunities to establish and prosper PEST CONTROL
  8. 8. PLANTS & US Pest control: Crop rotation and mixed planting PEST CONTROL
  9. 9. PLANTS & US Pest control: Biological control -Predatory insects, mites, and disease- causing micro-organisms prey on and infect pest species (i.e. parasitic wasps and lady bugs) PEST CONTROL
  10. 10. PLANTS & US Pest control: Baiting pest -Pheromone baits can be used to confuse mating insects -can be used for trapping too PEST CONTROL
  11. 11. PLANTS & US Pest control: Chemical control - Using chemicals (i.e. pesticides) to remove pests PEST CONTROL
  12. 12. PLANTS & US Pest control: Chemical control - Pesticides -Can be dangerous to non-pest organisms (including beneficial organisms) and humans -Overuse or improper use can lead to pesticide resistance PEST CONTROL
  13. 13. PLANTS & US Pest control can also be managed through growing plants without relying on fields and soil Hydroponic culturing -Growing plants on mineral nutrient solutions without soil PEST CONTROL
  14. 14. PLANTS & US Advantages: -No soil is needed -The water stays in the system and can be reused- thus, lower water costs -It is possible to control the nutrition levels in their entirety- thus, lower nutrition costs -Stable and high yields -Pests and diseases are easier to eliminate than in soil because of the container's mobility PEST CONTROL
  15. 15. PLANTS & US Disadvantages: -Creates an environment which encourages salmonella bacteria growth -Some plants cannot grow effectively (and may begin to wilt) due to the constant high moisture levels -Gases do not dissolve very well in the water solution, so gas exchange where the plants contact water is limited PEST CONTROL
  16. 16. PLANTS & US Aeroponic culturing -roots are continuously or discontinuously kept in an environment saturated with fine drops (a mist or aerosol) of nutrient solution -More plant species can grow with this method because water exposure is catered to the needs of the plant, and air can reach more parts of the plant PEST CONTROL
  17. 17. PLANTS & US To maximize crop yields, farmers often rely on fertilizers. Fertilizers -supply plants with nutrients -focuses on 3 macronutrients for plants: Nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (P) Potassium (K) Fertilizers
  18. 18. PLANTS & US Fertilizers -the overuse of fertilizers can result in the drying of roots and damage to the plant -plants that have received too much fertilizer exhibit “fertilizer burn” Fertilizers
  19. 19. PLANTS & US Aside from coffee, humans use plants for many other purposes: Food Cereals, fruits & veggies, food for livestock Medicine Taxol, Aspirin, Morphine Clothing Cotton, linen, hemp Building material Wood Fuel
  20. 20. PLANTS & US Plants as Food
  21. 21. PLANTS & US Plants as Medicine Some plants contain chemicals that protect the plant by partially debilitating the herbivores that ate them. These chemicals are psychotropic (they alter perception, emotion, or behaviour). Ex. Marijuana contains tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) which has been used in medicine to increase appetite, decrease nausea, and reduce muscle spasms
  22. 22. PLANTS & US Plants for Clothing Cotton Hemp
  23. 23. PLANTS & US Plants for Buildings
  24. 24. PLANTS & US Plants for Fuel
  25. 25. PLANTS & US More uses: Aesthetics
  26. 26. PLANTS & US More uses: Fragrances
  27. 27. PLANTS & US More uses: Gardens
  28. 28. PLANTS & US More uses: Gardens: Plants have tropisms that enable gardeners to achieve various “looks” for their garden Tropism = A directional growth response to unequal stimulation from the external environment.
  29. 29. PLANTS & US Phototropism: Light affects the growth of the plant The parts of the plant that are positively phototrophic are the leaves and stems The parts that are negatively phototrophic are the roots. Auxin allows the cells on the shaded side of the plant to grow and elongate. This causes the plant to lean towards the light source.
  30. 30. PLANTS & US Gravitropism: Gravity affects the growth of plants. Roots are positively gravitropic Stems and leaves are negatively gravitropic (they tend to grow in a direction against gravity)
  31. 31. PLANTS & US Thigmotropism: Plants that are affected by touch and contact. Vines are examples of thigmotropism. They coil around each other.