02 plants and us


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  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rLtUk-W5Gpk&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vMG-LWyNcAs&feature=channel
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  • 02 plants and us

    1. 1. PLANTS & US
    2. 2. Identify this plant: PLANTS & US
    3. 3. <ul><li>This is a coffee plant </li></ul><ul><li>-Coffee plants are evergreen shrubs or small trees that grow in shaded areas </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee “beans” are actually the seeds of coffee berries </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee plants are native to Africa </li></ul>PLANTS & US
    4. 4. Coffee is the second most-valuable-traded commodity in the world (second only to petroleum) Its demand has resulted in the mass development of coffee plantations . PLANTS & US
    5. 5. <ul><li>Coffee plantations: </li></ul><ul><li>Damage the environment (and animal habitats) through the mass clearing of land in order to create plantations </li></ul><ul><li>Are monocultures , which lack diversity and are more susceptible to disease and pests </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, a number of pest control methods are necessary to protect the crops </li></ul>PLANTS & US
    6. 6. Pest control: Mechanical control -physically trapping pests PEST CONTROL PLANTS & US
    7. 7. Pest control: Crop rotation and mixed planting -When farmers do not grow monocultures in the same location year after year, pest populations do not have the same opportunities to establish and prosper PEST CONTROL PLANTS & US
    8. 8. Pest control: Crop rotation and mixed planting PEST CONTROL PLANTS & US
    9. 9. Pest control: Biological control -Predatory insects, mites, and disease-causing micro-organisms prey on and infect pest species (i.e. parasitic wasps and lady bugs) PEST CONTROL PLANTS & US
    10. 10. Pest control: Baiting pest -Pheromone baits can be used to confuse mating insects -can be used for trapping too PEST CONTROL PLANTS & US
    11. 11. Pest control: Chemical control - Using chemicals (i.e. pesticides) to remove pests PEST CONTROL PLANTS & US
    12. 12. Pest control: Chemical control - Pesticides -Can be dangerous to non-pest organisms (including beneficial organisms) and humans -Overuse or improper use can lead to pesticide resistance PEST CONTROL PLANTS & US
    13. 13. <ul><li>Pest control can also be managed through growing plants without relying on fields and soil </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroponic culturing </li></ul><ul><li>Growing plants on mineral nutrient solutions without soil </li></ul>PEST CONTROL PLANTS & US
    14. 14. Advantages: - No soil is needed -The water stays in the system and can be reused - thus, lower water costs -It is possible to control the nutrition levels in their entirety- thus, lower nutrition costs -Stable and high yields - Pests and diseases are easier to eliminate than in soil because of the container's mobility PEST CONTROL PLANTS & US
    15. 15. <ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Creates an environment which encourages salmonella bacteria growth </li></ul><ul><li>Some plants cannot grow effectively (and may begin to wilt) due to the constant high moisture levels </li></ul><ul><li>Gases do not dissolve very well in the water solution, so gas exchange where the plants contact water is limited </li></ul>PEST CONTROL PLANTS & US
    16. 16. <ul><li>Aeroponic culturing </li></ul><ul><li>roots are continuously or discontinuously kept in an environment saturated with fine drops (a mist or aerosol) of nutrient solution </li></ul><ul><li>More plant species can grow with this method because water exposure is catered to the needs of the plant, and air can reach more parts of the plant </li></ul>PEST CONTROL PLANTS & US
    17. 17. To maximize crop yields, farmers often rely on fertilizers. Fertilizers -supply plants with nutrients -focuses on 3 macronutrients for plants: Nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (P) Potassium (K) Fertilizers PLANTS & US
    18. 18. Fertilizers -the overuse of fertilizers can result in the drying of roots and damage to the plant -plants that have received too much fertilizer exhibit “ fertilizer burn ” Fertilizers PLANTS & US
    19. 19. <ul><li>Aside from coffee, humans use plants for many other purposes: </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cereals, fruits & veggies, food for livestock </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxol, Aspirin, Morphine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clothing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton, linen, hemp </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Building material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fuel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood, bio-diesel </li></ul></ul>PLANTS & US
    20. 20. <ul><li>Plants as Food </li></ul>PLANTS & US
    21. 21. <ul><li>Plants as Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Some plants contain chemicals that protect the plant by partially debilitating the herbivores that ate them. </li></ul><ul><li>These chemicals are psychotropic (they alter perception, emotion, or behaviour). </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Marijuana contains tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) which has been used in medicine to increase appetite, decrease nausea, and reduce muscle spasms </li></ul>PLANTS & US
    22. 22. <ul><li>Plants for Clothing </li></ul>Cotton Hemp PLANTS & US
    23. 23. <ul><li>Plants for Buildings </li></ul>PLANTS & US
    24. 24. <ul><li>Plants for Fuel </li></ul>PLANTS & US
    25. 25. <ul><li>More uses: </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul>PLANTS & US
    26. 26. <ul><li>More uses: </li></ul><ul><li>Fragrances </li></ul>PLANTS & US
    27. 27. <ul><li>More uses: </li></ul><ul><li>Gardens </li></ul>PLANTS & US
    28. 28. <ul><li>More uses: </li></ul><ul><li>Gardens: </li></ul><ul><li>Plants have tropisms that enable gardeners to achieve various “looks” for their garden </li></ul><ul><li>Tropism = A directional growth response to unequal stimulation from the external environment. </li></ul>PLANTS & US
    29. 29. <ul><li>Phototropism: </li></ul><ul><li>Light affects the growth of the plant </li></ul><ul><li>The parts of the plant that are positively phototrophic are the leaves and stems </li></ul><ul><li>The parts that are negatively phototrophic are the roots. </li></ul><ul><li>Auxin allows the cells on the shaded side of the plant to grow and elongate. This causes the plant to lean towards the light source. </li></ul>PLANTS & US
    30. 30. <ul><li>Gravitropism: </li></ul><ul><li>Gravity affects the growth of plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Roots are positively gravitropic </li></ul><ul><li>Stems and leaves are negatively gravitropic (they tend to grow in a direction against gravity) </li></ul>PLANTS & US
    31. 31. <ul><li>Thigmotropism: </li></ul><ul><li>Plants that are affected by touch and contact . </li></ul><ul><li>Vines are examples of thigmotropism. They coil around each other. </li></ul>PLANTS & US
    32. 32. <ul><li>Nastic response: </li></ul><ul><li>Plants change in response to stimuli (sunlight, water droplets, temperature, etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. flowers open and close in response to different sunlight levels. </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. Venus fly trap closes when trigger hairs are touched </li></ul>PLANTS & US