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Punctuation review

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Punctuation review

  1. 1. Punctuation Review Commas, semicolons, colons, hyphens, dashes, ellipses, slashes, and apostrophes
  2. 2. Commas in a series between coordinate adjectives • Separate items in a series with commas. – Please bring with you to class a pencil, your notebook, and your textbook. • Separate two adjectives that describe the same noun by using a comma. – The dog’s cold, wet nose felt gross on my leg.
  3. 3. Separate two independent clauses with coordinating conjunctions • If a sentence contains two independent clauses, use a comma before the coordinating conjunction that separates the two independent clauses. – and, but , or, nor, for, so, yet – I plan to travel to Montgomery this weekend, and I will be attending a play at the Alabama Shakespeare Festival. *No comma needed with short sentences – We can stop here or we can wait for a while.
  4. 4. Direct addresses, question tags, and letters – By the way, Sarah, you do have your book, don’t you? – Dear Samantha, – Love, – Sincerely,
  5. 5. Set off introductory phrases and clauses, antithetical phrases, and long prepositional phrases. Introductory: If you need tutoring, make an appointment. Mild Interjection: Well, I guess I can make an exception. Adjective clause: The bride, who is a chemist, looked lovely. Appositive phrase: The parade, the longest I’ve ever seen, featured twelve bands.
  6. 6. Set off introductory phrases and clauses, antithetical phrases, and long prepositional phrases. Adverbial clause: After we had eaten, I realized my wallet was in the car. Participial phrase: Laughing heartily, Milan quickly left the room. Prepositional phrase: At the buzzer, the ball slid through the hoop. Antithetical phrase: I will test your knowledge of the novel, not the movie, on Friday.
  7. 7. Commas and quotations • Make sure to put the comma in the correct place when using quotations: Example: Correct--“Don’t forget to wait on me in the parking lot,” said Sarah. Incorrect— “Oh I won’t”, replied Matt.
  8. 8. Titles, addresses, numbers, references • 1640 Chartwell Avenue, Edina, Minnesota • September 11, 1982 • On January 2, 2004, Sarah was born in Montgomery, Alabama, to proud parents. • Bob Riley, Governor, is serving his last term. • January 1982 was a memorable year for Jason. (no comma needed if only month/year, month/day) • Read Slaughterhouse-Five, pages 15–20. • Perform a scene from Hamlet, Act II.
  9. 9. Semicolons and Colons
  10. 10. Semicolons • Use semicolons to separate two independent clauses that are closely related in content. – You must study diligently tonight; your success depends on it. • Use semicolons to separate items in a series that contain commas within the items in a series. – Today I need to go to the bank and make a deposit, open a savings account, and discuss my mortgage; go to the grocery store and pick up milk, bread, and eggs; and call the phone company to discuss my bill and add a new line. • Use semicolons between independent clauses joined by transitional expressions. – My parents are strict; for example, I can watch TV only on weekends.
  11. 11. Colons • Colons can be used for many reasons, two of those being the following: – To set off a list • Please be sure to bring the following items to the tryouts: a physical form, tennis shoes, and water. – To separate a word or group of words from an independent clause in which something was left unanswered. • To study effectively, I suggest that you rewrite the sample sentences leaving out one key ingredient: the punctuation.
  12. 12. • Use a colon for precise time measurements – 10:02 A.M. • biblical chapter and verse references – John 3:16 • business letter salutations. – Dear Ms. Delgado: • To introduce a quote – You can find this quote on the wall in the locker room: “Attitude is everything.”
  13. 13. Practice 1. Patty likes to act her sister gets stage fright. 2. The night was dark and gloomy the wind moaned over the treetops, and the coyotes howled all around. 3. The clown wore a long, blue raincoat big, red plastic gloves and floppy, yellow tennis shoes. 4. Our student council voted to have a Crazy Clothes Day however, the principal vetoed the idea. 5. You will need to bring the following equipment a sleeping bag, a warm sweater, and extra socks.
  14. 14. DGP 3/3 # 1-8, place semicolons and colons where they are needed 1. My dad put the following quotation on his desk “Treat others as you would like to be treated.” 2. The pastor cited Proverbs 29 11 and 29 22 as warnings against letting anger take control of you. 3. Matt was surprised to see Sarah, Jesse, Mom, Dad, and me we had kept his birthday party a secret. 4. Emma felt shy however, she soon made some new friends.
  15. 15. Bell Ringer, cont. 5. By the time we had finished eating, it was quite late consequently, everyone else on the beach had gone home. 6. I have postcards from Paris, France Rome, Italy and Newcastle, England 7. While he was in the water, Mom had gathered driftwood, dug a shallow pit in the sand, and put a fire in it and Grandma had put shrimp, corn, and potatoes on the coals. 8. We didn’t leave for home right away instead, we spent the evening watching the darkening ocean, listening to the whispering waves, and watching the stars come out.
  16. 16. Practice # 2, cont. 5. You should arrive by 7 00 in the morning we do not want to be late. 6. To stay healthy, be sure to do the following eat right, exercise, and get enough rest. 7. After school I have to go to the field to practice drills, run laps, and lift weights go home and walk the dog, do my homework, and clean my room go in my room to study, call my best friend, and finally go to sleep.
  17. 17. Practice # 2, cont. 8. Remember the following quote “Excellence does not remain alone it is sure to attract others.” 9. First I had a snack and something to drink then I went jogging. 10. You are doing well in that class you have made all A’s so far. 11. Della broke the news to Jim she was afraid he wouldn’t think she was pretty anymore.
  18. 18. Hyphens and Dashes
  19. 19. Hyphens • Hyphenate compound adjectives that come before the noun they modify. – well-intentioned parent • Hyphenate compound words in which a vowel or consonant is repeated. – Re-elect • Hyphenate compound words such as mother-in-law. • Dates and page numbers – 1942-1945 – Pages 17-45 • Hyphenate compound numbers and fractions used as adjectives. – twenty-four chairs, one-half cup
  20. 20. • Hyphenate words that begin with the prefix ex, self, great, half, all, quasi, etc. – Self-motivated • Hyphenate words with the suffix elect or style. – president-elect – bride-elect • Do not hyphenate compound words beginning with an adverb ending in –ly – poorly made dress
  21. 21. Dashes • Use dashes to set off explanatory material. – Why does Abigail behave the way that she does? Her motives – jealousy and vengeance - drive her to do the unthinkable. • Use dashes to show an abrupt break in thought. – His girlfriend – although I don’t know why he likes her – won the concert tickets. – “Why—why can’t I come, too?” Kim asked hesitatingly.
  22. 22. Commas/Dashes • Many words and phrases break into the main thought of a sentence. You use commas to set them off. • Examples: – The student, who is at the top of his class, wants to become a doctor. – Anne, his sister, does not agree with him.
  23. 23. Commas/Dashes cont. • Sometimes, the break demands a stronger emphasis. In such cases, a dash is used. • Examples: • Judy– Ms. Lane, I mean– will be your new supervisor. • Our dog—she’s a short-haired dachshund—is too affectionate to be a good watchdog. • “Why—why can’t I come, too?” Janet asked.
  24. 24. Practice 1. Until 1959, the U.S. flag had forty eight stars. 2. She was named to the all American team. 3. We were surprised in fact amazed to learn that the game had been called off. 4. The valedictorian that is the student with the highest average will be given a special award. 5. Twenty six students most of them from the advanced math class represented our school at the all state chess match.
  25. 25. Practice, cont. 6. The ex treasurer of our club an extremely self confident person is now running for class president. 7. Grandmother murmured, “Please turn out the ” and then fell asleep. 8.We met the cofounder of the company at the conference. 9. In twenty five days, my grandparents will celebrate their forty fifth wedding anniversary. 10. I think she is getting married around mid November.
  26. 26. Bell Ringer 4/1 # 1-10 on your paper, write “C” if the hyphens and dashes in the sentence are correct, and “I” if they are not. 1. Elyse came in twenty-seventh in the senior class academic rankings. 2. She was a student at Auburn from 2005 2009. 3. My brother thinks he is all knowing– and often tries to prove it. 4. We will surely win the all-Scholastic tournament this season. 5. Read pages- 589 599 and answer questions- 1 5.
  27. 27. Bell Ringer 4/1, cont. 6. The basic tools—hammer, wrench, and screwdriver are all in your kit. 7. “Please make yourself at home—do you smell something burning?” 8. Shanna exercises every day an hour each morning to prepare for the track meet. 9. The signs of spring—warmer weather, blooming flowers, and singing birds—are in evidence. 10. If your knee is swollen, then you should take an anti inflammatory supplement.
  28. 28. Practice # 3 1. The singer she is a self made star was discovered on YouTube. 2. My brother he lives in Birmingham now is a self motivator. 3. The trees at Toomer’s Corner you can tell by looking at them are in bad shape. 4. Daisy our well trained dachshund is just like part of the family. 5. Jill Ms. Hayes, I mean will be your new sponsor.
  29. 29. Practice # 3, cont. 6. The ex ambassador’s lecture focused on the post Civil War era. 7. Our street you can’t miss it is at the bottom of the hill. 8. “You you mean you didn’t get my letter? But but that’s impossible!” 9. My favorite author the one who wrote the entire book series is an ex lawyer. 10. “Do you want to eat what’s the score by the way? while you watch the rest of the game?”
  30. 30. Ellipses, Slashes, and Apostrophes
  31. 31. Ellipses
  32. 32. • If words are omitted at the end of a quoted sentence, use ellipsis marks followed by the necessary ending punctuation mark. – The regulation states, "All agencies must document overtime . . . ." The original sentence read, The regulation states, "All agencies must document overtime or risk losing federal funds." Rule 1
  33. 33. Rule 2 • Sometimes sentences are meant to trail off. Use ellipsis marks without any ending punctuation in this situation. Example "I thought that you might . . ."
  34. 34. Rule 3 • If words are omitted within a quoted sentence, use ellipsis marks where you have left out the word(s). – "According to our records, Callan received . . . awards for best actress." Original According to our records, Callan received two Emmys and two Oscar awards for best actress."
  35. 35. Rule 4 • If sentences are omitted between other sentences within a quotation, use ellipsis marks after the ending punctuation mark of the preceding sentence. – The regulation states, "Agencies may risk losing federal funds. . . . All agencies will be audited annually." NOTE: The first period has no space before it because it is the ending punctuation mark for the first sentence. After the ellipsis marks, one space follows before the next sentence.
  36. 36. Rule 5 • If your quoted material begins with the middle of a sentence, use the ellipsis marks at the beginning of the quotation. – Abraham Lincoln, in his Gettysburg address, said, ". . . our fathers brought forth . . . a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that 'all men are created equal.'" NOTE: The second set of ellipsis marks in the above example is used where words within the quoted sentence have been omitted. The original reads, "Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, upon this continent, a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that 'all men are created equal.' "
  37. 37. Rule 6 • When you omit one or more paragraphs within a long quotation, use ellipsis marks after the last punctuation mark that ends the preceding paragraph. • All ellipses information was taken from The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation. • http://www.grammarbook.com/punctuation/ellips e.asp
  38. 38. Slashes
  39. 39. Slashes • Separates successive divisions in an extended date: fiscal year 1998/99. • Represents per: 35 km/hr, 1,800 ft./sec. • Means or between the words and and or: Take water skis and/or fishing equipment when you visit the beach this summer.
  40. 40. Slashes • Use slashes to separate lines of poetry. Leave a space before and after the slash to show when the line of poetry ends. – The opening of Robert Frost's poem “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” goes like this: “Whose woods these are / I think I know, / His house is in the village, though. / He will not see me stopping here / To watch his woods fill up with snow.”
  41. 41. Slashes • Use slashes to show choice. – Be sure to use the right temperature scale (Fahrenheit/Centigrade). • Use slashes in fractions or formulas. – 1/2, ¾ • All slash information taken from Fact Monster. • http://www.factmonster.com/cig/grammar- style/slash-burn.html
  42. 42. Apostrophes
  43. 43. Apostrophes • Indicates the possessive case of singular and plural nouns, indefinite pronouns, and surnames combined with designations such as Jr., Sr., and II – my sister's husband, my three sisters' husbands, anyone's guess, They answer each other's phones, John Smith, Jr.'s car.
  44. 44. Apostrophes • Indicates joint possession when used with the last of two or more nouns in a series. – Doe and Roe's report. • Indicates individual possession or authorship when used with each of two or more nouns in a series – Smith's, Roe's, and Doe's reports.
  45. 45. Apostrophes • Use an apostrophe to show possession. • With singular nouns not ending in s, add an apostrophe and s. – Examples: girl, girl's manuscript; student, student's ideas • With singular nouns ending in s, add an apostrophe and s. – Examples: Charles, Charles's book; hostess, hostess's menu *A proper name ending in s may add only an apostrophe if the addition of an ‘s would make the name awkward to pronounce. -Examples: Ulysses’ plan, Mrs. Jones’ car, Nicholas Sparks’ novel
  46. 46. Apostrophes • Use an apostrophe and s to show the plural of a letter. • Mind your p's and q's. • Computers will be even more important in the late 1990's. • Use an apostrophe and s to show the plural of a word referred to as a word. • There are too many distracting like's and um's in her speech.
  47. 47. Apostrophes • Use an apostrophe to show where a letter or number has been omitted. – To show that letters have been left out of contractions. • can't, won't, I'll – To show that numbers have been left out of a date. • the '70s, the '90s – All apostrophe information taken from Fact Monster – http://www.factmonster.com/cig/grammar- style/apostrophes.html
  48. 48. Parentheses and Brackets
  49. 49. Parentheses and Brackets • Use parentheses to set off supplemental material. Punctuate within the parentheses only if the punctuation is part of the parenthetical expression. • I saw Bill Cosby (he is my favorite comedian) last night. • Use brackets to enclose information inserted by someone besides the original writer. • The paper continues, “The company knows he [Watson] is impressed.”
  50. 50. Quotation Marks • Use quotation marks to enclose a direct quotation—a person’s exact words. • Examples: • Kim said, “This car is making a funny noise.” • “Maybe we should pull over,” suggested Amy.
  51. 51. • An interrupting expression is not apart of a quotation, and should not be inside the quotation marks. • Example: – “Let’s sit here,” Jennifer whispered, “not way down there in front.”
  52. 52. Marks of punctuation used with quotations 1. Commas and periods are always placed inside closing quotation marks. • “I haven’t seen the movie,” she remarked, “but I understand it’s excellent.” 2. Semicolons and colons are always placed outside closing quotation marks. • The following actresses were cited for “best performance in a leading role”: Sally Field, Meryl Streep, and Sandra Bullock.
  53. 53. Marks of punctuation used with quotations 3. Question marks and exclamation points are placed inside the closing quotation marks if the quotation is a question or an exclamation; otherwise, they are placed outside. Examples: “Is it too cold in here?” the manager asked as I shivered. It’s not an insult to be called a “bookworm”!
  54. 54. Continued.. • Use quotation marks to enclose titles of articles, short stories, poems, songs, individual episodes of TV shows, chapters, and other parts of books. • Also, for an original expression. • Examples: – The poem “On Ageing” by Maya Angelou is one of my grandmother’s favorites. – My cousin uses the expression “the cat’s meow” to describe something she likes.
  55. 55. When to use italics—or underline • Use underlining (italics) for titles of books, plays, films, periodicals, works of art, television shows, ships, aircraft, and so on. Examples: • He subscribes to Sports Illustrated. • Tonight we will watch Survivor on television. • Titanic, Apollo 13
  56. 56. Apostrophe, Quotation Mark, and Italics Practice 1. I wish, she said, that we went to the same school. 2. As a baby sitter, I have read the childrens book The Pokey Little Puppy at least a dozen times. 3. Although In a Station of the Metro is a poem, it only contains two lines. 4. The concert ended with an inspiring rendition of God Bless America. 5. Tim Tebows book, Through My Eyes, is a recollection of his football career and an inspiration to everyone.
  57. 57. Practice, Cont. 6. Shari asked if she could borrow my copy of Southern Living. 7. Listen carefully! said Ms. Hayes. Every student who plans to go on the trip must have a note from home. 8. In England, Matt told Mom that he wanted to swim in a moat. 9. The princesses gowns were very beautiful. 10. On American Idol, she sang the song I Will Always Love You, which is one of Whitney Houstons.

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