Age of Jefferson

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Age of Jefferson

  1. 1. Age of Jefferson The 3rd American President
  2. 2. Election of 1800 • John Adams vs Thomas Jefferson • Jefferson Platform: – Laissez-faire government [small] – Strict Interpretation of Constitution – Farming based economy • Adams Platform: – Big Federal government – Loose Interpretation of Constitution – Business/Industry based economy
  3. 3. Election of 1800 • Jefferson Wins! • Special Election: First time a government changes without a revolution or death! • “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists”
  4. 4. Thomas Jefferson • Jefferson in Office: – Reduces: Government size, armed forces and federal budget – Repeals: Whiskey Tax – Sedition Act: Does NOT renew law, pardons people convicted and changes immigrant laws – Kept National Bank and paid states debts! [Federalist Policies]
  5. 5. Thomas Jefferson • Judicial Review [1801] – Marbury v Madison: “Midnight Judges” appointed by President Adams. Jefferson denied them! – Supreme Court reviews case, sides with Madison and Jefferson. Case establishes Judicial Review
  6. 6. Thomas Jefferson • Westward Frontier/Mississippi River • Port of New Orleans: Controlled by Spain – Port would close to American farmers – Pinckney Treaty: Not always followed • France: Napoleon Bonaparte gets port and land from Spain in 1800 – Jefferson fears Napoleon [violent and unstable] – Haiti Revolt angers Napoleon, agrees to sell
  7. 7. Thomas Jefferson • Purchase Plan: Robert Livingston and James Monroe sent to France – 10 million for Port of New Orleans – Napoleon: Offers ALL of Louisiana for 15 million – Bought: Louisiana Purchase DOUBLES the size of the United States
  8. 8. Louisiana Purchase • Louisiana Purchase Treaty of 1803 – Jefferson switched his thinking and bought the land
  9. 9. END
  10. 10. Lewis & Clark Zebulon Pike
  11. 11. Lewis & Clark • Expedition: 1804. To explore the new territory and report back to Jefferson – Meriweather Lewis: Jefferson Private secretary – William Clark: Virginia explorer
  12. 12. Lewis & Clark • Expedition: From St. Louis to Pacific Ocean – Explore all areas – Record all findings – Create Maps/Routes – Interact with Natives
  13. 13. Lewis & Clark • Sacajawea: Native-American woman helps Lewis & Clark navigate the Rocky Mountains and communicate with Natives
  14. 14. Zebulon Pike • Led 2nd expedition into new territory • 1805: Discovered Leech Lake in Minnesota. Thought it was the source of the Mississippi River • 1806: Explored the Arkansas River, Red River, Pikes Peak [Colorado] & was captured by Spanish in New Mexico.
  15. 15. END
  16. 16. War With Tripoli
  17. 17. War With Tripoli • Threats from Overseas • Impressment – British Navy ships kidnapping Americans and seize cargo • Barbary States – Pirates attack American traders – Demand tribute from America to stop!
  18. 18. War with Tripoli • Naval Blockade – U.S. Marines blockade Tripoli, defeat the small nation – U.S. Navy leader Stephen Decatur becomes national hero
  19. 19. Jefferson Foreign Policy • Embargo Act [1807]: Bans trade with ALL foreign nations – War: Britain vs. France 1803 – Trade: America trades with BOTH sides, and makes BOTH sides angry! – Jefferson created Embargo Act
  20. 20. Jefferson Foreign Policy • Nonintercourse Act – Allowed Americans to trade with other foreign nations – NOT with England and France
  21. 21. END
  22. 22. James Madison • 4th President of the United States • Nation in trouble with Britain – Native-American: Britain supplies weapons for attacks – Impressment: Kidnapping sailors/ships – Trade Laws: Still in effect – War Hawks: Wanted war with Britain
  23. 23. Conflict with Native-Americans • 1791: Little Turtle Fight • 1794: Wayne vs Miami’s • 1795: Treaty of Greenville • 1803: Ohio Becomes a State • 1808: Battle of Tippecanoe
  24. 24. War Hawks • Group of politicians pushing for war – Led by Henry Clay [Kentucky] – Nationalistic feelings – Wanted revenge for Impressment – Wanted to conquer Canada
  25. 25. War Hawks • STOP: Seizure of American ships & sailors • STRONG: Show American strength to foreign countries • SEIZE: Take Canada from Britain • SEIZE: Take Florida from Spain • STOP: Native-American uprising in West
  26. 26. War of 1812
  27. 27. War of 1812 • NYC Harbor: British ships attack American ships • 1812: Congress declares WAR! • Britain blockades American ports
  28. 28. War of 1812 • War at Sea – USS Constitution [Old Ironsides] – American Captain Isaac Hull – Defeats British ship The Guerriere
  29. 29. War of 1812 • War out West • Canada: – U.S. General William Hull invades Canada [Detroit, Niagara River, Montreal] – British General Isaac Brock wins ALL battles – Canada did not WANT freedom from Britain
  30. 30. War of 1812 • Battles • Battle of Thames – American soldiers defeat Indian Federation • Battle of Horseshoe Bend – General Andrew Jackson defeats Creek Indians in South
  31. 31. War of 1812 • Battle of Washington D.C. [1814] – British attack and burn White House – Dolley Madison saves many important documents and art work from the wreckage
  32. 32. War of 1812 • Battle of Baltimore – Americans stop British at Fort McHenry – Soldier Francis Scott Key writes Star-Spangled Banner after witnessing victory
  33. 33. War of 1812 • Battle of New Orleans – Andrew Jackson defeats British and becomes a national hero
  34. 34. War of 1812 • Treaty of Ghent – Rush-Bagot Agreement [1817]: NO warships in the Great Lakes [America] – Positives: War is over, New National Heroes [Jackson, Hull, Decatur] – Negatives: NO mention of impressment, neutrality violations and NO settlement of the Canadian/U.S. border issues
  35. 35. War of 1812 • “Nothing was adjusted…Nothing was settled” John Quincy Adams
  36. 36. END

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