TN Curriculum Standards:• 2.0-Understand the economic climate in the U.S. during theDepression Era.• 4.0-Recognize the effects of the Great Depression on the UnitedStates political and judicial system.• 5.0-Investigate the causes, effects, and attempts to deal with theGreat Depression.• 6.0-Understand the changes in American life as a result of the GreatDepression.• SPI 8.6-Identify New Deal Programs/Initiatives(i.e. Social Security, WPA, TVA, IndianReorganization Act, FDIC, CCC, Wagner/Fair LaborStandards’ Act)
“The only thing we haveto fear is fear itself”~Franklin Delano RooseveltInaugural address March 1933
FDR is the only president to have been electedfor 4 terms (1932, 1936, 1940, & 1944)
FDR & the Bonus Marchers• After FDR’s inauguration, the Bonus Marchersreassembled in D.C. to petition congress fortheir bonuses.• Unlike Hoover, FDR welcomed the group. Hearranged for the veterans to be housed inempty military backs and at the government’sexpense.• He invited their representatives to the WhiteHouse so that he could meet with them.
FDR & The Bonus Marchers• When FDR met with the delegates, heexplained to them that he supportedthem, but he could not support giving themtheir bonuses right now because the countrycouldn’t afford it.• He did promise to pass legislation that wouldhelp them and others suffering from thedepression.
Eleanor & the Bonus Marchers• Eleanor Roosevelttrudged through mudand heavy rain toexpress her sympathyto the veterans.• She even stayed to singtheir favorite songs withthem.• This made Americansappreciate Eleanor andFDR even more.
1st thoughts on politics• "From a personalstandpoint, I did notwant my husband to bepresident. I realized,however, that it wasimpossible to keep aman out of publicservice when that waswhat he wanted andwas undoubtedly wellequipped for”.
Traitor to his class?• FDR grew up wealthy and privileged, but hewas extremely sympathetic to the plight of thehardworking poor.• For this, they loved and supported him, even ifthey did not agree with all of his policies.• This made many elites view him as a traitor tohis class.
Addressing the nation• FDR was well aware of the fears thatAmericans had about his plan for economicrecovery.• There was warring between Democrats andRepublicans and even Democrats andDemocrats. Opinion seemed to be divided byregion, religion, and culture.• FDR used his “fireside chats” to calm thenation’s fears.
“fireside chats”• In his fireside chats, hespoke to Americans in avery informal andfriendly manner. Heexplained while he wasbailing out banks andwhy he was placingregulations onbusinesses.
Federal Emergency Relief Agency• The FERA provided morethan $500 million in fundingto feed the hungry andcreate jobs.• Approximately 4-5 millionhouseholds were servedthrough this program.• These households received$20- $30 in monthlybenefits.• FERA also created jobs forthe unemployed by fundingpublic works initiatives.• Those who worked underthe Civil WorksAdministration (CWA)usually earned between .40and .60 cents and hour.• Overall, the CWA paid outchecks over $800 million toformer unemployedAmericans.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)• FDR was extremely concerned with conservingthe country’s natural resources.• While the CCC, did provide employment formore than 3 million men, it is best known forits’ work in forestry.• CCC employees checked for soilerosion, tamed rivers, and planted more than2 billion trees.
Conserving resources• FDR was also concerned with conservinghydroelectric power.• The Hoover Dam was completed under theNew Deal.• It provided electricity for Nevada and floodcontrol and irrigation for Arizona and southernCalifornia.• Even with these benefits, the project wasmost welcomed because it created jobs.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)• Although the benefitsof having the TVAcannot be deniednow, FDR faced fierceopposition for trying toestablish it in 1933.• It was the mostcontroversial naturalresources developmentproject.• It was created toprovideimpoverished, ruralcommunities with acheap source ofelectricity.• It improved the lives ofmillions by bringingelectric power, floodprotection, and jobs.
Tennessee Valley Authority• 90% of rural Americans lacked electricity when FDRtook office.• Private electric companies refused to buildtransmission lines in these rural areas because they gotsuch a large amount of business from urban areas.• Under FDR, low cost loans were made available to localcooperatives for power plants and transmission lines.• Now, rural Americans could enjoy the same types ofconveniences that urban Americans had been enjoyingfor decades.
Let’s Check for Understanding-remember to vote from your SAFE ZONE!!
Challenges to the New Deal• Republicans and the business communityaccused FDR of being too radical and anti-business.• They said that his New Deal policies wouldundermine privateproperty, capitalism, economic prosperity, anddemocracy as a whole.• Democrats on the left said that he didn’t doenough to attack greedy corporations.
FDR vs. the Supreme Court• The New Deal program benefitted businessleaders the most, but they still launched anti-NewDeal campaigns that spreaded fear andresentment about regulations, taxes, and unions.• They began to complain that FDR was using toomuch power as president and becoming adictator.• The Supreme Court (highest court in the land)entered the debate and declared that FDR hadoverstepped his powers. They declared hismeasures unconstitutional.
• “After Eleanor Roosevelt left the White House in1945, she continued to be an influential figure in theDemocratic Party. President Truman appointed her amember of the first U.S. delegation to the UnitedNations in 1945 and she served as chairman of theHuman Rights commission.• She gave public lectures and speeches, supportedorganized labor, and worked on behalf of a variety ofcauses, such as child welfare, displacedpersons, minority rights, and womens rights. Shecontinued to write books and her syndicated My Daycolumn”.