1Name_______________________________________________________Date________________Chapter 6Reasons for coming to the U. S. (pg. 215 in text)Plenty of land and workHigher standard of livingDemocratic political systemOpportunity for social advancement-Immigrants made up most of the population in Northern cities like NY, Chicago, Milwaukee, andDetroit.-They lived in ethnic communities like “Little Italy” and “Lower East Side” because there they couldspeak their own native languages and worship in their own synagogues. It gave them a sense of beingback in their homeland.-Immigrants that learned English and fully assimilated into American culture fared better than those thatdid not.Chinese Immigration-China had a large population (430 million) in the late 1800s and an even higher unemployment rate.There was widespread poverty.-The Taiping Rebellion broke out in China and those that could left by the thousands. They came toAmerica to work on the railroad. They located to mostly Western cities. They worked as skilled laborersor as merchants.*Many native-born American business owners kept them out of their businesses, so Chinese immigrantsbegan opening their own busineses.- Japanese immigrants also began leaving their homeland for economic opportunities in America.Nativism-The huge waves of immigrants from Europe led to an extreme dislike of immigrants by native- bornAmericans. This feeling was known as NATIVISM.-Nativists were against immigration because:They believed that there were more Catholic immigrants coming in than there were ProtestantAmericans.They feared that they would undermine the labor unions by working for less
2-Nativists began to form anti-immigrant organizations. These organizations agreed not to hire or votefor any Catholics.*Another group that was despised by these anti-immigrant/anti-Catholic groups was the Irish. Sincethey had to take the lowest paying or the dirtiest jobs, they were thought to be lazy, ignorant, andunworthy of any sympathy at all.-Legislators moved to pass laws to limit immigration. By the late 1800s, they passed laws banningconvicts and mentally disabled people from immigrating to the U. S. Immigrants also had to pay a 50cents tax per person to come.Chinese Exclusion-Legislators (particularly in California) passed laws that banned Chinese immigration for 10 years.Chinese immigrants that were already in the country were banned from becoming citizens.-Although the Chinese protested by campaigning and suing in court, Congress did not lift the ban until1943 (41 years after the fact).-When Japanese immigration increased, the San Francisco Board of Education required Chinese,Japanese, and Korean children to attend racially segregated schools.*Before, this had only applied to Chinese school-age children.-When Japanese officials in Japan found out about the forced segregation, they were furious. After theymade their frustrations known to Theodore Roosevelt (Teddy), he struck a deal with the school board.*He agreed to pass legislation to limit Japanese immigration in exchange for them integrating the schoolfor Asian immigrants. The deal between Roosevelt (Teddy) was known as the Gentleman’s Agreementsince it was not a formal treaty.-Legislators would later propose giving immigrants literacy tests before they could be admitted to theU.S.Separation by Class (pg. 224)-The wealthy people, the middle class people, and the working class (poor) lived in separate sections oftown (much like today).-Because of industry, more Americans moved from working class to middle class. The middle class wasmostly made up of doctors, lawyers, engineers, teachers, social workers,..etc. As they began to makemore money, they moved further away from the city (to escape crime and pollution).*Most middle class families at this time had at least 1 live in servant.
3-Most families that fell into the working class category could only dream of owning a home. They livedin crowded apartments known as tenement housing. Families also took in boarders to supplement theirlow wages.-Within the working class, white males made more than African-American men, immigrants, andwomen.*The whole family generally worked. The terrible working conditions that these children were forced towork in along with the fact that most of them were illiterate mobilized reformers.-If a worker was maimed or killed on the job, there was no established form of compensation.-Since there was no Medicaid, medicare, or social security at this time, 70% of people who were overthe age of 65 lived with their adult children.Urban Problems-As the population increased in the city, so did crime. There was a dramatic increase in theft andmurder in the late 1800s/early 1900s.-Alcohol was a major contributor to crime. It led to violence between men and against women at home.-Pollution, combined with an improper sewage disposal system, led to diseases.Urbanto iization-As the population grew in the United States in the late 1800s, there became an even greater need forpublic services. Immigrants and farmers poured into the cities looking for both jobs and houses.Businesses were looking for sites to make and sell goods.-There was a need for fire stations, police, and sanitation departments (raw sewage pile up and horsemanure left in street). There was also a need for the construction of bridges, parks, schools, streets,sewer systems, and utility systems.-These public needs gave city council members and district representatives full reign of citygovernments. With this type of access, they were able to picket the money that was meant for publicprojects.Political Bosses-Many immigrants received much-needed help from city leaders known as “bosses”. Bosses createdpolitical machines to dominate political life in many major American cities in the late 1800s.-They used bribes and favoritism to hold onto power. They found ways to rig elections often by buyingvotes. They appointed their friends to important jobs. This created what was called political machines.
4*The political machines made sure that the candidate that the political boss wanted in power wouldwin.-Even though the bosses were crooked/corrupt, they did perform important services. When they tookon public work projects, they created jobs for their supporters. This allowed then to win support fromboth poor and working class city dwellers.-Since there was no unemployment insurance or welfare at this time, the bosses were the ones whohelped residents deal with their financial issues.-They formed close relationships with the local voters. They got them jobs, paid for funerals, and evendonated turkeys at Christmas time. They even donated food during the hard times (made the residentsfeel cared for). This guaranteed their loyalty during election time.Immigrants and Political Machines-New immigrants were particularly loyal to the political machines. Political machines often metimmigrants as soon as they passed through the physical inspections at Ellis Island.*Tammany Hall assisted immigrants by finding them temporary housing and jobs. They also helpedimmigrants become naturalized citizens so that they could be eligible to vote for Tammany Hallcandidates. They did not however, offer programs that addressed poverty and poor housing conditions.-In some cities, immigrants became active members of political machines. They served as officeholders,organizers, and representatives. Irish Americans had slightly easier access to the U.S. political processthan many other immigrant groups because they spoke English.*They were often rewarded with jobs in the fire department and in the police department.-JFK’s grandfather was an Irish American immigrant that rose quickly through the ranks. Therelationship between the immigrants and the political machines was mutually cooperative. Theimmigrants needed jobs, the political machines needed votes.