Developing Classroom Speaking Activities; From Theory to Practice  Written By: Jack C Richards
Brown and Yule (1983) distinguished the difference between the interactional function of speaking and transactional functi...
Expanded version of Brown & Yule’s framework (after Jones 1996 & Burns 1998) Three Types of Talk: <ul><li>Talk as interact...
Talk as Interaction   <ul><li>This type of talk describes interactions which serves as a social function  (conversation). ...
Features of Talk as Interaction Richards (p.2) <ul><li>~Has a primary social function </li></ul><ul><li>~Reflects role rel...
Skills Involved in Using Talk as  Interaction Richards (p.3) <ul><li>Opening and Closing Conversations </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Talk as Interaction   <ul><li>There are 2 focuses of talk as transaction:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.) Focus 1 =giving and r...
Talk as Transaction   <ul><li>This type of talk focuses on what is said or done.  </li></ul><ul><li>The focus is to be cle...
The Main Features of Talk as Transaction are: Richards (p.4) <ul><li>It has a primary information focus </li></ul><ul><li>...
Skills Involved in Using Talk as Transaction   Richards (p.4) <ul><li>Explaining a need or intention </li></ul><ul><li>Des...
Talk as Performance   <ul><li>This type of talk transmits information before an audience such as morning talks, public ann...
The Main Features of Talk as  Performance   Richards (p. 5) <ul><li>There is a focus on both message and audience </li></u...
Skills Involved in Talk a a Performance   Richards (p.5) <ul><li>Using an appropriate format  </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting...
Implications for Teaching   <ul><li>Talk as an interaction can be taught through providing examples embedded in naturalist...
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Chapter 10 PowerPoint presentation

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Chapter 10 PowerPoint presentation

  1. 1. Developing Classroom Speaking Activities; From Theory to Practice Written By: Jack C Richards
  2. 2. Brown and Yule (1983) distinguished the difference between the interactional function of speaking and transactional functions.
  3. 3. Expanded version of Brown & Yule’s framework (after Jones 1996 & Burns 1998) Three Types of Talk: <ul><li>Talk as interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Talk as transaction </li></ul><ul><li>Talk as performance </li></ul>
  4. 4. Talk as Interaction <ul><li>This type of talk describes interactions which serves as a social function (conversation). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Features of Talk as Interaction Richards (p.2) <ul><li>~Has a primary social function </li></ul><ul><li>~Reflects role relationships </li></ul><ul><li>~Reflects speaker’s identity </li></ul><ul><li>~May be formal or casual </li></ul><ul><li>~Uses conversational conventions </li></ul><ul><li>~Reflect degrees of politeness </li></ul><ul><li>~Employs many generic words </li></ul><ul><li>~Uses conversational register </li></ul><ul><li>~Is jointly constructed </li></ul>
  6. 6. Skills Involved in Using Talk as Interaction Richards (p.3) <ul><li>Opening and Closing Conversations </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing Topics </li></ul><ul><li>Making Small Talk </li></ul><ul><li>Recounting personal incidents and experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Turn-talking </li></ul><ul><li>Using adjacency-pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Interrupting </li></ul><ul><li>Reacting to others </li></ul>
  7. 7. Talk as Interaction <ul><li>There are 2 focuses of talk as transaction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.) Focus 1 =giving and receiving information and the focus is on what is said or achieved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Asking someone for the time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.) Focus 2= obtaining goods or services. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Checking into a hotel room. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Talk as Transaction <ul><li>This type of talk focuses on what is said or done. </li></ul><ul><li>The focus is to be clear and accurate during talk. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Main Features of Talk as Transaction are: Richards (p.4) <ul><li>It has a primary information focus </li></ul><ul><li>The main focus is the message and not the participants </li></ul><ul><li>Participants employ communication strategies to make themselves understood </li></ul><ul><li>There may be frequent questions, repetitions, and comprehension checks </li></ul><ul><li>There may be negotiations and digression </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic accuracy is not always important </li></ul>
  10. 10. Skills Involved in Using Talk as Transaction Richards (p.4) <ul><li>Explaining a need or intention </li></ul><ul><li>Describing something </li></ul><ul><li>Asking questions </li></ul><ul><li>Confirming information </li></ul><ul><li>Justifying an opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Making suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifying understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Making comparisons </li></ul><ul><li>Agreeing and disagreeing </li></ul>
  11. 11. Talk as Performance <ul><li>This type of talk transmits information before an audience such as morning talks, public announcement, and speeches. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Main Features of Talk as Performance Richards (p. 5) <ul><li>There is a focus on both message and audience </li></ul><ul><li>It reflects organization and sequencing </li></ul><ul><li>Form and accuracy is important </li></ul><ul><li>Language is more like written language </li></ul><ul><li>It is often monologic </li></ul>
  13. 13. Skills Involved in Talk a a Performance Richards (p.5) <ul><li>Using an appropriate format </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting information in an appropriate sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining audience engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Using correct pronunciation and grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Creating an effect on the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Using appropriate vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Using appropriate opening and closing </li></ul>
  14. 14. Implications for Teaching <ul><li>Talk as an interaction can be taught through providing examples embedded in naturalistic dialogs. </li></ul><ul><li>Talk as transaction can be taught by providing sources for practicing how to use talk for sharing and obtaining information. </li></ul><ul><li>Talk as performance can be taught by providing examples or models of speeches, oral presentations, videos, and audio recordings. </li></ul>

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