Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Cosmas and Damian, the medical saints from the east

916 views

Published on

Den 42ende internasjonale kongress i Istanbul, 8-11 september 2015, Istanbul University, Convention Center.

Published in: Education
  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD FULL eBOOK INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, CookeBOOK Crime, eeBOOK Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Be the first to like this

Cosmas and Damian, the medical saints from the east

  1. 1. COSMAS AND DAMIAN, THE MEDICAL SAINTS FROM THE EAST Nina Aldin Thune kunsthistorie.com farmasihistorie.com
  2. 2. Farmasihistoris k Museum Oslo Roof from Svaneapoteket, Larvik, made in 1907
  3. 3. Svaneapoteket i Larvik Individuals from The History of Pharmacy and among them the saints Cosmas and Damian
  4. 4. Pierre Julien
  5. 5. Francois Ledermann • Les saints Côme et Damien, patrons des médecins, chirugiens et pharmaciens, dans le monde et en Suisse • Die Heiligen Kosmas und Damian in der Schweiz
  6. 6. Cosmas and Damian Icon from Chios Who were the two holy brothers? Where did they come from? How was the cult? Is there any connection to History of Medisin and Pharmacy?
  7. 7. • Cosmas and Damian were born in the 3rd century A.D • They studied science in Syria and became well known for their skills in medicine. Both of them became doctors and they practiced this profession in Cilicia in seaports of Ayas and Adana, located on the southern coast of Turkey • They practiced medicine without accepting fees from their patients, called anargyrci "the silverless" or "the unmercenaries" • The brothers lived during the time of the Roman emperor Diocletian (283-305), one of the most vicious persecutors of Christians • In this time period, Lysias, the governor of Egea, was under strict orders from Diocletian to neutralize the Christians. • After their death they performed miracles, counting among the most famous ones the presence of a camel in their funeral to tell the people how they were supposed to be buried, or the transplant of a leg. • Over 48 miracles were credited to the twins, including, amongst others, the development of remedies against plague, scabs, scurvy, kidney stones and bed-wetting.
  8. 8. They were born in Aigai (Adana, Yumurtal›k) and practiced medicine in the area between Silifke and Adana known in earlier periods and during the Middle Ages as Cilicia,
  9. 9. - Patronage: surgeons, physicians, dentists, protectors of children, barbers, pharmacists, veterinarians, orphanages, day-care centers, confectioners, children in house, against hernia, against the plague.
  10. 10. • The oldest testimony to the veneration of Saints Cosmas and Damian relates to the basilica built in their honour at Cyrrhus, north of Antioch in Syria • Their veneration spread rapidly throughout the Empire; in the East, where the famous Cosmidion was founded at Constantinople in 439
  11. 11. Constantinople • Cosmidion dedicated to Cosmas and Damian • The monastery built in the fifth century became healing place with a dormitory and bath • The church built by Paulina of Syrian origin before 480 • Healing with Incubation, the patient was asleep when the miracle took place • Incubation also used in the temples of Asklepios • Healing during sleep practiced in the cult of Cosmas and Damian • Some reported that the saints had visited them during their sleep and cured them instantly of their illness or disease. Others reported that the pair had prescribed medicines for their recovery.
  12. 12. • When Emperor Justinian I (reigned 527-565) of Constantinople suffered gravely from an illness, he called upon the saints for a cure. His prayers were answered so quickly that he vowed to build a church in their honor. He had their relics removed from Syria, where they had been buried, to Constantinople where he built a cathedral for them. The church soon became a place of pilgrimage.
  13. 13. - «At the far end of the bay, on the ground which rises steeply in a sharp slope, stands a sanctuary dedicated from ancient times to Saints Cosmas and Damian. When the Emperor himself once lay seriously ill, giving the appearance of being actually dead »
  14. 14. - «These Saints came to him here in a vision, and saved him unexpectedly and contrary to all human reason and raised him up»
  15. 15. - «So when any persons find themselves assailed by illnesses which are beyond the control of physicians, in despair of human assistance they take refuge in the one hope left to them, and getting on flat-boats they are carried up the bay to this very church. »
  16. 16. - «And as they enter its mouth they straightway see the shrine as on an acropolis, priding itself in the gratitude of the Emperor and permitting them to enjoy the hope which the shrine affords.»
  17. 17. Procopius of Caesarea c. AD 500 – c. AD 560 «In gratitude he gave them such requital as a mortal may, by changing entirely and remodelling the earlier building, which was unsightly and ignoble and not worthy to be dedicated to such powerful Saints, and he beautified and enlarged the church and flooded it with brilliant light and added many other things which it had not before»
  18. 18. Stephen «From there(the Church of St. Nicholas at Blachernae) we went farther outside the city to a field near the sea. The large monastery (there) is in honor of Cosmas and Damian.»
  19. 19. Russian Anonymous «You go east from Blachernae: there is a monastery of Cosmas and Damian where the gold- covered heads of Cosmas and Damian repose»
  20. 20. • Reliquary Pendant in The British Museum, London • Inscribed: reverse: + Η • ΒΕΒΑΙΑ • ΣΩΤΗΡΙΑ • ΚΑΙ • ΑΠΟΣΤΡΟΦΗ • ΠΑΝΤΩΝ • ΤΩΝ • ΚΑΚΩΝ (Secure deliverance and aversion [from] all evil); edge of lid: + ΤΩΝ • ΑΓΙΩΝ • ΚΩΣΜΑ • ΚΑΙ • ΔΑΜΙΑΝΩΥ (of Sts. Cosmas and Damian) • Might stem from the proximity of shrines dedicated to the Virgin Mary and to Cosmas and Damian around Blachernae, Constantinople • This reliquary was a type of medical amulet, intended to protect the wearer from illness
  21. 21. East • Orthodox icons of the saints depict them vested as laymen holding medicine boxes. Often each will also hold a spoon with which to dispense medicine. The handle of the spoon is normally shaped like a cross to indicate the importance of spiritual as well as physical healing, and that all cures come from God. • Kõrk Dam Altõ Kilise, Cappadocia • Uzumlu Kilise, Cappadocia • Icons
  22. 22. Thessaloniki • Church of Agios Georgios • Built in 306 AD on the orders of the tetrarch Galerius, • Cosmas and Damian among other Saints • Not twins, but brothers in ornant position
  23. 23. • Trained and skilled as physicians, they received from God the gift of healing people's illnesses of body and soul by the power of prayer • They even treated animals • The gift of healing from God in a manuscript Menologion of Basil II (Fol. 152) 10-11 century
  24. 24. Basilica of Saints Cosmas and Damian Rome • Santi Cosma e Damiano was the first church to be founded in the Forum. In 527, Pope Felix IV (526-30) converted a rectangular apsed hall in the Forum of Peace into a church by the simple addition of an apse mosaic. • Claudius Galen lectured in the Library of the Temple of Peace ("Bibliotheca Pacis"). • The mosaics are masterpieces of 6th- and 7th-century art. In the middle is Christ, with Saint Peter presenting Saint Cosmas and Saint Theodorus (right), and Saint Paul presenting Saint Damian and Pope Felix IV; the latter holds a model of the church.
  25. 25. Santa Maria Antiqua, Roma • built in the 5th century in the Forum Romanum • partially destroyed in 847, when an earthquake caused parts of the imperial palaces to collapse and cover the church. • The Chapel of Physicians or 'Chapel of Medical Saints'
  26. 26. West • From the sixth century, the saints have been remembered in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. In the First Eucharistic Prayer the priest reads the names of those whom “we venerate,” first listing the apostles, then five Popes: Linus, Cletus, Clement, Sixtus, and Cornelius. Next Cyprian, the bishop of Carthage, is listed, followed by Lawrence, a deacon, and then five laymen: Chrysogonus, John and Paul, Cosmas and Damian. • Iconographical cycles of the life and work • Sculpture, paintings, manuscripts illumination, stained-glass • Jacobus de Voragine (1275). The Golden Legend or Lives of the Saints
  27. 27. Saint Mark Altarpiece, Fra Angelico • The Healing of Palladia • Before the Proconsul Lysias • Cosmas and Damian rescued from the Sea by an Angel/Lysias Attacked by Demons • Burning • Lamentation, • Crucifixed and Stoned • Beheading • Burial of Cosmas and Damian, • The Healing of Justinian
  28. 28. Profession • The changes to the iconography were closely related to the professionalisation of medicine and pharmacy. • Costume reflected what physicians wore at the time
  29. 29. Filippo Lippi • , Madonna and Child Enthroned with SS. Francis, Damian, Cosmas and Anthony of Padua (Novitiate altarpiece), Uffizi, Florence, ca. 1445.
  30. 30. Pesellino • Nativity, Beheading of Cosmas and Damian, Miracle of Anthony of Padua preaching at the Miser’s Funeral, Uffizi, Florence; Miracle of the Black Leg, St. Francis receiving the Stigmata, Louvre, Paris, after 1442.
  31. 31. Rogier van den Weyden The Medici Madonna 1460–1464 housed in the Städel, Frankfurt, Germany
  32. 32. Rogier van den Weyden Cosmas dressed as an academic physician of the 15th century Netherlands, holding a urine flask Damián as a pharmacist as indicated by the ointment jar in his other hand.
  33. 33. • Painting by one of the masters of Nürnberg created for St. Augustine's altar in the church of St. Veit in the city of Nürnberg 1487 • Book of Hours of Our Lady of Hennessy by Simon Bening ( 1483/1484–1561) Bruges 1530 • Pharmaziehistorisches Museum Amsterdam 1540
  34. 34. Bergen Limburg Saint Denise Cosmas and Damian
  35. 35. Pharmacy Logo from Farmacia Santi Cosma e Damiano, Torino Löwen Apotheke, Mainz Pharmacy Museum, Montpellier Barmherzigen Brüder, Vienna French Pharmacists’ Order, Paris Farmasihistorisk museum.Oslo Museum of History of Medicine Zurich Farmacia Santi Cosma e Damiano, Torino
  36. 36. • St. Michael's Church, Munich might containing the alleged skulls of Cosmas and Damian
  37. 37. References: historie.com/fagwiki/Kosmas_og_Damian
  38. 38. THANKS!

×