ADE605Theory & Approaches in Art EducationAPPROACH, STRATEGY AND METHOD IN TEACHINGSyamsul Nor Azlan Mohamad Faculty Of EducationUniver siti Teknologi MARA
TEACHING APPROACH• In teaching, the term approach refers to the way a subject/course is being taught in order to achieve long term objectives
The criteria of teaching approach• How teaching is conducted in order to achieve long term objectives• The objectives are not achievable in just one or two teaching sessions• Based on certain teaching theory, model or principle• Possess axiomatic element (true statement, evidence is not needed)• Consists of strategy, method and techniques
TEACHING STRATEGIES• Refers to the wisdom in selecting teaching approach, teaching method, techniques and activities in order to achieve teaching objectives
THE CRITERIA OF TEACHING STRATEGY• Involves planning, organizing and implementing of teaching method, technique and activity• The teaching strategy must match with the selected teaching approach• Concerns with long-term teaching objectives
EXAMPLES OF TEACHING STRATEGIES• Expository and Discovery Teaching• Guided Discovery Teaching• Discussion Strategies• Problem-based Learning
TEACHING METHOD• Refers to a series of systematic action by teachers in order to achieve short term teaching objectives• It is an organized effort and procedure based on the selected strategy
THE CRITERIA OF TEACHING METHOD• A series of systematic and sequential action by teachers• It is used to gain short term teaching objectives
EXAMPLES OF TEACHING METHODS• Direct Instruction• Interactive Teaching• Demonstration• Problem solving• Simulation• Project• Team Teaching• Inclusion
TEACHING TECHNIQUE- Refers to the teacher’s application skills in implementing the selected teaching method- The steps in teaching- Teacher needs to consider students’ background in choosing teaching techniques
TEACHING ACTIVITIES• Refers to actions or work done by students during the teaching & learning session• Examples : revision work, group discussion, drawing and etc
INDUCTIVE APPROACH• The concept of inductive teaching : It is based on the claim that knowledge is built primarily from a learner’s experiences and interactions with phenomenaThe process in Inductive Approach Observation Research Specific examples Identify Making Analyze generalization
THE PRINCIPLES IN USING INDUCTIVE APPROACH- Prepare suitable examples- Do not provide explanation or elaboration- Vary specific examples- Encourage students to give examples- Present one-by-one example- Prepare teaching aids- Utilize all students’ senses- The T &L process should be sequential
TEACHER’S ROLECreate opportunities and context in which students can successfully make the appropriate generalizations and to guide students when necessary
PHASES IN USING INDUCTIVE APPROACH •Decide on teaching objectives- Phase 1 • Prepare examples planning • Prepare questions •Prepare teaching aids •Set induction Phase 2 •Present examples Exposure •Observe examples Phase 3 •Observe patternsFormation of concept •Analyze patterns Observe patterns •Summarize patterns Phase 4 •Making generalization Making conclusion •Explain formula, principle, theory •Making cognitive summary Phase 5 •Making social summary Closing •Provide further activities
DEDUCTIVE APPROACH• It is based on the idea that a highly structured presentation of content creates optimal learning for students• It starts with the introduction of formulas or principles and follows by their applications in specific examples
TEACHING & LEARNING PROCESS USING DEDUCTIVE APPROACH Application of formulaKnown formula Deductive Approach Possess new formula
PRINCIPLES IN USING DEDUCTIVE APPROACH Practice, ProvideDefine general Apply & find examples/illustrations concept examples of the that demonstrate the concept at idea hand-Most ‘demonstration’ or ‘cookbook’ labs aredeductive in nature.-Students have already been introduced to the ideain their text or in lecture-The lab serves to show them directly andconcretely something that they already know orhave been taught conceptually
PHASES IN USING DEDUCTIVE APPROACH •Decide on teaching objectives- Phase 1 • Prepare problem/hypothesis planning • Prepare generalization/ principle/theory •Prepare teaching aids •Present problem/hypothesis Phase 2 •Flashback on related generalization/ Exposure principle/theory •Elaborate on known generalization/ principle/theory Phase 3 •Relate problem/hypothesis with the Application known generalization/principle/theory •Apply the generalization/principle or theory to the problem/hypothesis •Prove hypothesis Phase 4 •Form new conclusionMaking conclusion •Explain new conclusion •Making cognitive summary Phase 5 •Making social summary Closing •Provide further activities
ECLECTIC APPROACH• Using both Deductive and Inductive approaches.• Mostly used in the teaching of Science & Mathematics
Example : Teaching the concept of vertebra Inductive approach Deductive approach Fish Application Cat Duck Having Vertebra Chicken Backbone Goat Frog BirdLizard
INTEGRATION APPROACH• An integration of various elements such as knowledge (subject-content), moral values, skills ( generic skills & ICT, study skills) for the effectiveness of the teaching & learning session
The Integration approach is illustrated in the diagrambelow: Intellectual Language competence Proficiency Thinking Knowledge Integration/ skills Combination Moral Technological values Skills Basic 3M The integration of knowledge, values and Language
Three essential steps involved in planning• Identify a topic• Specify an objective• Selection and preparation of examples
What is a good example?• According to Klausmeir (1992), a good example includes the important characteristics if you are teaching a concept. It will illustrate the relationship or connections between concepts if you are teaching a generalization.
Procedures in implementing Expository andDiscovery Teaching strategy
• write the abstraction• Conduct lessons base on the objectives• Present positive examples• Give classification exercises
FUNCTIONS OF CLASSIFICATION EXERCISE• It reinforces the concept• It encourages active student participation• It helps the teacher assess students’ understanding
Advantages of Expository teaching• Time -efficient• Teacher control
Teachers plan the learning process and provide enough guidance to make sure learning takes place
Steps for planning using Guided Discovery teaching strategy• Identifying a topic• Forming an objective• Selecting examples• Ordering the examples
Implementation phaseStudents are to construct the abstraction using the teacher’s guidance
• Questioning skills are an integral part of guided discovery lessons
• Questioning strategies can also motivate learners (encourage participations)
At the end of the learning session,teacher can place the abstractionbeing taught on the board for the class to see• To provide concrete record of the lesson for the class to view• To accommodate to students ’ different learning styles
FEATURES :• not designed to teach specific types of content like concepts or generalizations• less teacher-directed• more time-consuming
AIM: TO REACH IMPORTANT CLASSROOM GOALS SUCH AS:• to understand the connections and relationships between ideas• to become an active listener• to develop leadership skills• to summarize group opinions• to develop self-directed learning skills• to develop analysis, synthesis and evaluative skills• to arrive at a consensus• to handle controversy and differences of opinion
uses a problem as afocal point for student investigation and inquiry
common characteristics• Begin with a problem or question• Students have primary responsibility for investigating problems and pursuing questions.• The teacher’s role is as a facilitator
Goals of problem based lessons• To develop students’ understanding and ability to systematically investigate a question or problem.• To promote the development of self-directed learning.• To ensure content-acquisition
SIMULATIONIt is a representation or re-creation of a real object, problem,event or situation.The learner is an activeparticipant, engaged indemonstrating a behavior orpreviously acquired skills orknowledge.
According to Morgan (2000),simulations can be used to stimulate interest in a topic provide information enhance skill development change attitudes, and assess performance.
Goals of simulation• Develop changes in students’ attitudes• Change specific behaviors• Prepare participants for assuming new roles in the future• Help individuals understand their current roles• Increase students’ ability to apply principles
Goals of simulation• Reduce complex problems or situations to manageable elements• Illustrate roles that may affect students’ lives even though they may never assume• Motivate learners• Develop analytical processes
Sociodrama• An acting activity• based on story which reflects a certain situation, involving conflicting issues and includes characters of conflict social values• Example: the story of Hang Tuah and Hang Jebat.
• Teachers have to prepare the scripts and select pupils• Pupils need to be given ample time to read and prepare themselves to act according to the plot.• The conflicting situations will allow the students to think critically and rationally in order to solve the problems.
• Through sociodrama, students are trained to express their opinions and feelings, arrange ideas and thoughts, so that they will react spontaneously when they face similar conflicting situations in future.• After the act, teacher will have a discussion with pupils regarding their act to analyze the characters & arrive at a conclusion or solution
Role play• It is a spontaneous act which involves a group of pupils without the use of any scripts.• The time spent on acting is usually short: 5-6 minutes only.• After the role play there should be a discussion to assess the performance of the actors, follow by a consensus solution on the created problem.
Principles of simulationa) Teacher ought to plan and create a problematic situation in writing or oral form in the class.b) Teacher gives brief explanation regarding the problem, roles or characters and the time allocated for the simulation session.
Principles of simulationc) Select pupils who are good in communicative skills to act.d) For sociodrama, the acting script ought to be prepared and distributed in advance to pupils who are identified to act.
Principles of simulatione) If necessary, supply acting masks for the pupils to act.f) During the simulation session, ensure other pupils who play the role as spectators are really paying their attention towards the acting activity.
Principles of simulationg) After the simulation session, teacher ought to ask pupils to air their opinion regarding the ways of solving the problem during the act.h) A consensus opinion should reach among the pupils through discussion at the end of the learning period.
TEAM TEACHING• It was introduced in USA in 1956.• It is organized and implemented by a group of teachers who are specialists in various teaching subjects.
Three main stages of teaching and learning activitiesI. Teaching a large group of students comprise from 2 to 8 classes with a total of about 80 to 320 students.II. Teaching and learning activities conducted in a few smaller groups.III. Learning activities conducted individually.
Conditions of implementing Team Teachinga) Physical facilitiesb) Teaching timetable – to be effective, it should be flexible.c) Teachers’ cooperation and staff supportd) Division of time for teaching-learning - large class teaching activity : 40% - small group activity : 20% - individual learning activity : 40%
Procedures of implementing Team Teaching• Planning• Implementation• Evaluation
PLANNING TEAM TEACHING• Selection of teachers and non teaching staffs for the team. It is usually headed by senior teachers.• All members of the team will meet to decide on relevant matters.• In general, senior teachers will be allotted the duty to teach pupils in a large class, ordinary teachers will teach in small classes , supervise learning activities and mark students work and tests.
IMPLEMENTATION• Teaching activity in a big class is the duty of senior teachers.• Learning contents presented to large classes include introduction of the syllabus, learning topics, learning materials and assignments for group activities , course work and individual learning.• Physical facilities must be prepared earlier to ensure smooth and effective session.
IMPLEMENTATION• Discussions in small groups are usually supervised and guided by ordinary teachers. A small group normally consists of 5 to 6 pupils.• The main aim of small group activities is to train students the skills of thinking, investigating, analyzing and synthesizing.• After the discussion, representatives from each group will present their findings.
EVALUATION• All members in the team teaching are responsible to carry out their evaluation activities.• Three important components: i. Evaluation of pupils’ course work, skills and behavior ii. Evaluation of the achievement of teaching- learning objective iii. Evaluation of the overall program of Team Teaching especially its planning and all other teaching learning aspects