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Minorities in the united states during world war


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Minorities in the united states during world war

  1. 2. Minorities <ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican-Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese Americans </li></ul>
  2. 3. I. Women <ul><li>Rosie the Riveter (fictional icon during WWII) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked at a defense plant while her boyfriend served in the marines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used by the government to attract women to the workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Represented young, white, middle class woman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patriotic </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. I. Women <ul><li>B. Changes for Working Women </li></ul><ul><li>1. most before WWII that worked were single and young </li></ul><ul><li>2. 82% of the population in 1936 believed married women shouldn’t work if their husband had a job </li></ul><ul><li>3. By 1940, 15% of married women were working </li></ul>
  4. 5. I. Women <ul><li>C. Types of Jobs </li></ul><ul><li>1. Teaching and Nursing were the most common professions for women </li></ul><ul><li>2. Other jobs women had </li></ul><ul><ul><li>industries that produced clothing, textiles, and shoes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher paying machinery, steel, and automobile industries </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. I. Women <ul><li>C. Types of Jobs </li></ul><ul><li>4. When men went off to fight in the war, many of these higher paying jobs opened up to women including working in airplane plants, shipyards as riveters, steelworkers, and welders </li></ul><ul><li>D. Recruiting Women Workers </li></ul><ul><li>1. Office of War Information launched a recruitment campaign </li></ul>
  6. 7. I. Women <ul><li>D. Recruiting Women Workers </li></ul><ul><li>2. Posters and advertisements told women that it was their patriotic duty to work for the country </li></ul><ul><li>3. Number of working women rose from 14.6 million in 1941 to 19.4 million by 1944 </li></ul><ul><li>4. Half of all women workers were over the age of 35 by the end of the war </li></ul>
  7. 8. I. Women <ul><li>E. Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>1. New challenges and the ability to pay off debt </li></ul><ul><li>2. The harder they worked to produce war supplies, the sooner their husbands, brothers, and sons would return home from war </li></ul>
  8. 9. I. Women <ul><li>F. Jobs for African-American Women </li></ul><ul><li>1. Cleaning and childcare the most common forms of work </li></ul><ul><li>2. Dealt with both gender prejudice and racial discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>3. Those working in industrial jobs increased from 6.8% in 1940 to 18% in 1944 </li></ul>
  9. 10. I. Women <ul><li>G. Problems </li></ul><ul><li>1. Many supervisors were uneasy mixing the sexes together </li></ul><ul><li>2. Women were still responsible for their kids at home and daycares were scarce </li></ul><ul><li>3. National War Labor Board in the fall of 1942 said that women should receive equal pay for the same quality and quantity of work as men </li></ul>
  10. 11. I. Women <ul><li>H. Post War </li></ul><ul><li>1. The government now tried to get women to return to their normal lives prior to World War II and men wanted the same upon coming home </li></ul><ul><li>2. Some women accepted this role and others did not like it </li></ul><ul><li>3. The government focused women’s roles on homemaking, cooking, and childcare. </li></ul>
  11. 12. II. African-Americans <ul><li>Discrimination Continues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jim Crow System still in effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrimination in employment, education, and housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1941-20% unemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Couldn’t afford good housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban ghettos, neighborhoods where members of minority groups were concentrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of homes substandard (14% white) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. II. African-Americans <ul><li>B. Military </li></ul><ul><li>1. Troops segregated </li></ul><ul><li>2. Made a mockery of wartime goals to fight overseas against fascism only to come back to the same kind of discrimination and racism </li></ul><ul><li>C. Divided Opinions </li></ul><ul><li>1. 6 out of 10 whites felt African-Americans satisfied with current conditions </li></ul>
  13. 14. II. African-Americans <ul><li>2. FDR not willing to disrupt the war effort to promote social equality </li></ul><ul><li>3. “Double V” Campaign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Victory against Axis Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Victory for equality at home </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote non-violent techniques to end racism </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. III. Mexican-Americans <ul><li>Bracero (“workers”) Program </li></ul><ul><li>1. Shortage of farm labor led U.S. to seek workers from Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>2. Both countries made an agreement that included transportation, food, shelter, and medical care for thousands </li></ul><ul><li>3. More than 200,000 braceros worked on American farms between 1942-1947 </li></ul>
  15. 16. III. Mexican-Americans <ul><li>4. Lived in Spanish-speaking neighborhoods called barrios </li></ul><ul><li>5. Crowded conditions caused discrimination and tension among those communities </li></ul><ul><li>B. Zoot Suit Riots </li></ul><ul><li>1. Long draped jacket and baggy pants with tight cuffs </li></ul><ul><li>2. Slicked-backed haircut </li></ul>
  16. 17. III. Mexican-Americans <ul><li>3. Sailors roamed the streets looking for these “un-Americans” and humiliated and beat them up </li></ul><ul><li>4. Many responded with riots and violence </li></ul><ul><li>5. The army and navy stepped in and restricted soldiers off-duty access of LA </li></ul>
  17. 18. IV. Native Americans <ul><li>About 25,000 Native-Americans joined the armed forces </li></ul><ul><li>Many migrated to urban areas to work in defense plants </li></ul><ul><li>23,000 worked in war industries </li></ul><ul><li>New life adapting to the white culture </li></ul><ul><li>Some never returned to their Native American roots after the war </li></ul>
  18. 19. V. Japanese Americans <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffered worst discrimination especially after Pearl Harbor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2/3 were Nisei (parents emigrated from Japan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority of the Japanese population was centered on the West Coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Americans believed there were Japanese spies everywhere </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. V. Japanese Americans <ul><li>B. Japanese Relocation </li></ul><ul><li>1. Resulted from fears and prejudices </li></ul><ul><li>2. FDR signed Executive Order 9066 establishing military zones and removing any or all persons from that zone </li></ul><ul><li>3. Japanese people were relocated to internment camps (remote areas inland) </li></ul>
  20. 21. V. Japanese Americans <ul><li>C. Four cases were brought before the Supreme Court with all of them ruling that relocation was constitutional during wartime </li></ul><ul><li>D. Nisei Soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>1. 20,000 served in the military </li></ul><ul><li>2. 442 nd Regimental Combat Team, which was made up of entirely Japanese Americans, won more medals for bravery than any unit in U.S. history </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>DROP THE BOMB! </li></ul>
  22. 23. The Atomic Bomb <ul><li>I. Iwo Jima and Okinawa </li></ul><ul><li>II. The Manhattan Project </li></ul><ul><li>III. The Decision to Drop the Bomb </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Japan Surrenders </li></ul><ul><li>V. Alternate Options </li></ul>
  23. 24. I. Iwo Jima and Okinawa <ul><li>Two Islands in the Pacific where two very bloody battles were fought </li></ul><ul><li>These two islands were the last ones separating Japan from a mainland attack </li></ul><ul><li>The United States suffered 25,000 causalities during the Battle of Iwo Jima and 50,000 casualties during the Battle of Okinawa </li></ul><ul><li>Many Kamikaze attacks </li></ul>
  24. 25. II. Manhattan Project <ul><li>In 1939, Albert Einstein (German refugee) sent President Roosevelt a letter about a new bomb that could be built. </li></ul><ul><li>1. He hinted in his letter that Germany had the capability to make this bomb </li></ul><ul><li>2. Roosevelt in response to this letter organized a top secret project called the Manhattan Project </li></ul>
  25. 26. II. Manhattan Project <ul><li>B. Atomic Bomb </li></ul><ul><li>1. Split the nucleus of the Uranium atom </li></ul><ul><li>2. Create a controlled chain reaction </li></ul><ul><li>3. Particles releasing from the splitting of one atom would cause another atom to break. Etc.. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The belief was that the energy released when so many atoms were split would cause a massive explosion </li></ul>
  26. 27. II. Manhattan Project <ul><li>C. The atomic bomb was field tested on July 16, 1945 in the New Mexico desert </li></ul><ul><li>1. The explosion shattered windows that were 125 miles away and left a huge crater in the earth. </li></ul><ul><li>2. J. Robert Oppenheimer (who led the building of the bomb) quoted from the Hindu holy book, “Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds.” </li></ul>
  27. 28. III. The Decision <ul><li>There were many mixed opinions from military leaders, scientists, and government officials on whether or not the U.S. should drop the bomb on Japan </li></ul><ul><li>President Harry Truman decided to drop the bomb on August 6 th 1945 on the city of Hiroshima and three days later on the city of Nagasaki </li></ul>
  28. 29. IV. Japan Surrenders <ul><li>Hiroshima </li></ul><ul><li>1. southern Japan </li></ul><ul><li>2. Estimated 140,000 people died in the explosion or soon after from burns or radiation </li></ul><ul><li>3. Survivors suffered horrible burns </li></ul><ul><li>4. 90% of the city was destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>5. After this the Japanese refused to surrender </li></ul>
  29. 30. IV. Japanese Surrenders <ul><li>B. Nagasaki </li></ul><ul><li>1. Even farther south than Hiroshima </li></ul><ul><li>2. More than 150,000 people died </li></ul><ul><li>3. Japan were stunned by these new developments and surrendered on August 14 th </li></ul><ul><li>C. The death toll from these two cities was almost 300,000. </li></ul>
  30. 31. V. Alternate Options <ul><li>Full Invasion of the Japanese island after the battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many felt that this would cost numerous American soldiers’ lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It would not be an easy victory because it was believed that a majority of the Japanese would fight to the death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Soviet Union declared war on Japan after the dropping of the first bomb. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Conclusion <ul><li>C. Soviet Union issue </li></ul><ul><li>1. Many people believed that the Soviet Union was going to be a huge threat to democracy following World War II </li></ul><ul><li>2. Truman might have dropped the bombs to prove to the Soviet Union that the United States was still the superpower of the world </li></ul>