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Systems On Earth


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Systems On Earth

  1. 1. Systems on Earth<br />System: <br />A group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent elements forming a complex whole.<br />Synergy:<br />The interaction of two or more agents or forces so that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects.<br />System &gt; Sum of its Parts<br />
  2. 2. Cells<br />Tissues<br />Organs<br />Organ Systems<br />Individuals<br />Populations<br />Communities<br />Ecosystems<br />Systems on Earth<br />
  3. 3. The Gaia Hypothesis<br />James Lovelock<br />Independent scientist<br />Earth made of different functioning units that interact with each other<br />Changed focus of environmental movement<br />
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  5. 5. Systems<br />All systems have<br />Inputs<br />Outputs<br />Processes<br />
  6. 6. Scale of Systems<br />
  7. 7. Types of Systems<br />Open<br />Closed<br />Isolated<br />
  8. 8. Open System<br />Exchange of matter and energy<br />
  9. 9. Closed System<br />Exchange of energy only.<br />
  10. 10. Isolated System<br />No exchange of energy or matter<br />Do not exist naturally<br />Possibly the universe?<br />
  11. 11. Energy<br />Energy in all types of systems follows the laws of thermodynamics.<br />Energy is released in the form of light and heat.<br />Energy can be “stored” in the bonds or organic molecules.<br />
  12. 12. 1st Law of Thermodynamics<br />Law of Conservation of Energy<br />Energy can neither be created nor destroyed.<br />Energy can only change forms.<br />Cells cannot produce energy – they burn sugars to produce<br /> ATP (respiration).<br />Plant cells convert<br /> the sun’s energy to<br /> sugar, which they<br /> burn for energy.<br />
  13. 13. 2nd Law of Thermodynamics<br />Energy flows from high quality to low quality.<br />Energy is lost during every conversion between forms<br />Energy = Work + Heat<br />As systems lose energy they become more disorganized – more entropy<br />The sun supplies constant, <br /> high quality energy<br />
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  15. 15. Life and the 2nd Law<br />Life is a struggle against entropy.<br />Organization takes energy!<br />
  16. 16. ENERGY<br />is the foundation<br />of all ecosystems<br />
  17. 17. Equilibrium<br />Ecosystems are open systems<br />Open systems tend to exist in a state of balance, or equilibrium<br />Static equilibrium<br />Components of the system stay unchanged<br />Ex: makeup of Earth’s crust<br />Dynamic equilibrium<br />The system is unstable on the short term<br />Stays unchanged over the long term<br />
  18. 18. Regulation of Systems<br />Systems are managed by feedback loops<br />Positive feedback system<br />Cause change in the same direction as the system<br />
  19. 19. Regulation of Systems<br />Negative feedback systems<br />Cause change in the opposite direction from the original system<br />Like a furnace/<br /> thermostat in <br /> your house<br />
  20. 20. Processes Within Ecosystems<br />Both materials and energy move through ecosystems<br />Materials can be recycled<br />Energy cannot<br />
  21. 21. Two Types of Processes<br />Transfers<br />Require little energy<br />Change in location of material or energy<br />Examples<br />Movement of materials when one organism eats another<br />Movement of water through runoff<br />Heat energy moving in ocean currents, air masses<br />
  22. 22. Two Types of Processes<br />Transformations<br />Change in form of the energy or materials<br />Requires more energy<br />Examples:<br />Conversion of energy from glucose to ATP during respiration<br />Conversion of sun’s energy from light to organic molecules during photosynthesis<br />Evaporation or condensation of water<br />Burning of fossil fuels<br />
  23. 23. Diagramming Systems<br />Storage<br />Parts of a system where energy or materials accumulate<br />Drawn as a box (think engine in a box)<br />Flows<br />Inputs – movement into the storage<br />Outputs – movement out of the storage<br />Can be transfers or transformations<br />
  24. 24. Diagramming Systems<br />Storage<br />INPUT<br />OUTPUT<br />
  25. 25. Systems Diagram: Energy in an Ecosystem<br />