Chapter 2 Lesson 1 Outline I. Civilizations a. Groups of people who have a complex and organized society within a culture. b. Each civilization has its own customs, food supply, social divisions, government, religion and technology. c. They first developed in southwestern Asia in a crescent-shaped area.II. Fertile Crescent a. Fertile-rich soil. b. Today, the land of the Fertile Crescent is part of the countries Iraq, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Israel . c. Northern area was a plateau and the land was not fertile. d. Southern area was a plain area and was located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.III. Mesopotamia- “The land between two rivers” a. Was one of the first civilizations b. Located between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
IV. Tigris and Euphrates River a. There were fresh water, fish, and very rich soil surrounding the rivers. b. Irrigation Systems were canals and ditches that brought water from rivers to their fields. This allowed farmers to bring water to their crops when there was little rainfall. i. Mesopotamian farmers could control the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers by using these irrigation systems.V. City-States a. City-states were individual units with it’s own government and traditions. b. People in city-states worked in different jobs, such as religious leaders, soldiers, traders or artisans (craftspeople, potters and weavers). i. This is called social divisions Chapter Two Lesson 2 and 4 OutlineI. Mesopotamia
a. Had many city states b. Akkad was in the north. c. Sumer was in the south.II. Sumer a. Had fertile land b. Had mud-brick known as adobe that they used to make homes and ziggurats. 1. Ziggurats are rectangular stacked temples used for their gods. 2. Sumerians believed the ziggurats linked heaven and the Earth. 3. The bigger the ziggurat the important the god. c. City-states had mud-brick walls that surrounded the city in order to protect it from nomads and enemies. d. Sumerians had many advancements, such as cuneiform, ziggurats, the wheel, and farming methods.
1. Farmers traded their surplus food with others to get goods that they needed. e. Sumerians used writing, religion, and technology daily to advance their civilizations. f. Sumer had a class society- an organized society that puts some people in a higher position then others. (1.) king (2.) priests and gov’t officials (3.) artisans, merchants, scribes, farmers (4) slaves were at the bottom.III. Akkad a. Akkad did not have a lot of fertile land. b. Akkadians were attackers because they were looking for better farm land. c. They conquered (took over) many city-states in Mesopotamia to create the first empire- a large territory with many different places under the control of a single ruler.
d. Constant revolts from the conquered city-states caused the empire to fall.IV. Cuneiform a. Cuneiform was the first system of writing that was invented by the Sumerians. b. It is a wedge shaped writing in which each picture stood for a word, action, or sound. c. Cuneiform was used to keep government records, such as crop production, taxes, or population.V. Polytheism a. Polytheism is the worship of many gods. b. Sumerians and Akkadians placed a lot of emphasis on religion. c. They believed that if their life was good then the gods were happy. d. They often made human sacrifices and offerings to the gods to keep them happy. e. Religion and government were linked.
f. Sumerians believed in divine kingship-the belief that the gods chose a person to rule the city-state and this power could be passed down from a father to a son.VI. Monotheism a. Monotheism is the practice of worshiping only one god. b. Abraham was the first man to make a covenant (promise) with God to worship only one god. 1. He was the first Jewish man. c. The Torah is the first five books of the Jewish bible. 1. The Torah has the 10 Commandments which provide people rules on how to worship God. d. King David united all the Jewish people throughout Egypt and Mesopotamia and founded Israel. e. Solomon, King David’s son, built Solomon’s Temple to house the Torah.
VII. Phoenicians and Lydians a. Phoenicians developed the first alphabet. b. Phoenicians were adventurous traders in Mesopotamia. 1. Through trading they spread ideas and goods throughout the Mediterranean Sea. c. Trading linked the ancient world together and led to cultural diffusion. 1. cultural diffusion- the blending of different cultures and ideas. d. When trading people usually bartered for goods. 1. Bartering is the exchange of goods and services for other goods and services. e. Lydians-invented the first coins to make trading easier. Chapter Two Lesson Three outlineI. Hammurabi a. King of Babylon. b. Hammurabi was a mean ruler who wanted a lot of power.
c. Created the Code of Hammurabi. i. These were rules for behavior. ii. Laws were created to protect the weak from the strong and to keep the empire running effectively. iii. Some laws were very harsh. iv. The laws had different punishments for different crimes. v. Believed in an “Eye for an Eye” and Tooth for a Tooth”II. Babylon a. Babylon was located in southern Mesopotamia and had fertile soil. b. Babylonians relied on irrigation for farming and trade. c. Babylon was the center for culture and learning.III. Nebuchadnezzar II a. Nebuchadnezzar II was the Babylonian king years after Hammurabi. b. Nebuchadnezzar II wanted to make Babylon “Great and Glorious” so he ordered many building projects and created the Hanging Gardens.
c. Nebuchadnezzar II took over some of the Assyrian land when the empire fell because of revolts. d. Babylon became the center for trading and learning under Nebuchadnezzar II’s rule. i. Babylonians made advancements in math, science, and astronomy. e. The Persians invaded Babylon after Nebuchadnezzar’s death and took over Babylon.IV. Assyrians a. The Assyrians developed at the same time as the Babylonians, except they were in the north. b. The Assyrians culture was influenced by the Babylonian culture, except the Assyrians placed a lot of emphasis on war and conquest. c. The Assyrian created a large empire that eventually fell because of the constant revolts.