LESSON ONE: ROME’S BEGINNINGSI. Legenda. Roman legend claimed that brothers, Romulus andRemus founded Rome after they were raised by ashe-wolf.
II. LANDFORMS AND BODIES OF WATER INROMEa. Mountainous (likeGreece)b. Longest coastlines i. became a centerof trade because of itsmany harbors and portswith access to theMediterranean Sea.c. Surrounded byMediterranean Sea,Tyrrhenian Sea, andAdriatic Sea
III. CONNECTIONa. Rome was considered a bridge between WesternEurope, North Africa, and Western Asia.
IV. TRADINGa. Tiber River was important because foreign ships could bring goods up the river to Rome. i. Rome became very rich.b. Because of trade,Romans studied new ideasabout growing crops andthey learned about othercultures through stories andlegends.
V. ETRUSCANSa. Etruscans took over Romeabout 600 B.C.b. Romans learned how tobuild aqueducts. i. aqueducts- structures that carry flowing water to supply water to cities.c. The Romans also learnedhow to make better weaponsand ships.d. The Romans resentedEtruscan rule. i. Junius Brutus forced the Etruscans out of Rome and became the new leader.
THE ROMAN AQUEDUCT—BUILT IN THE2ND CENTURY A.D.
LESSON 2-THE ROMAN REPUBLICI. Nationalism a. Romans were proud of their soldiers and loyal to their homeland. Told many war hero stories to raise pride and nationalism- a strong devotion to one’s country.II. Two Groups of Citizens a. patricians – rich and powerful b. plebeians – all other people, 90% of the people. patricians plebeians soldier and slave farmer/craftsmen
III. REPUBLIC a. Citizens have the right to vote, or choose their leaders b. Elected officials represented the people in the Senate (governing body) c. At first the Senate made up of patricians. d. Each year two patricians were elected as consuls (officials for the government and army)
IV. CITIZENSHIPa. Slaves and most foreigners were NOT citizens.b. Women WERE citizens with limited power. i. Women could not vote or Patricians hold public office but they had more freedom than Greek women. ii. Women could own property, testify in court and play major roles in government.
V. TRIBUNESa. men who were appointed to protect the rights of the plebeiansb. set up to protect plebeians from the harsh treatment from patriciansc. Over time plebeians gained in wealth and power, but the patricians always had more power.
VI. CARTHAGE a. City-state located in North Africa. b. Had a large and powerful navy and one of the strongest armies.
VII. ROME AND CARTHAGE a. Rome and Carthage fought three times in the battlescalled the Punic Wars. i. Wars lasted a total of 120 years and the Romans won all three wars.b. 1st War of the Punic Wars- fought over land off thecoast of Italy
c. 2nd War of the Punic Wars- MOST FAMOUS OF THE THREE i. Hannibal (Carthaginian general) took his army across the Alps on elephants and surprised the Romans. ii. The Romans learned of the attack by Hannibal. iii. The Romans were saved when Scipio(Roman General) attacked Carthage and Hannibal had to rush back home to Carthage to help. iv. Carthage was defeated.
d. 3rd War of the Punic Wars- Romans captured and destroyedCarthage i. surviving Carthaginians were sold into slavery and Rome controlled the entire Western Mediterranean region.
VIII. CONQUERED PLACESa.Romans tried to keep people happy and patriotic (loyal to Rome). i. They granted Roman citizenship to people they conquered ii. allowed others to keep local self- government and their leaders remained in power
IX. EFFECTS OF WAR ON ROMEa. Money came to Rome but only the patricians were wealthier. i. Plebeians lost jobs to wartime slaves ii. farmland and homes were destroyed because of fighting iii. This angered the plebians
X. JULIUS CAESAR ”a. Won battle between two other Roman generals and was made a ruler for life.b. The patricians feared that Caesar would take total power, so he was stabbed on the floor of the Senate. i. This lead to a civil war (which is when peoplefrom the same country fight one another) as leaders foughtfor power.c. The Roman Republic came to an end.On March 15, Julius Caesar was stabbed on the Senate floor.
XI. ADVANCEMENTS OF THIS TIMEa. Romans built aqueducts,roads and buildings inconquered land.(Roads were made ofconcrete—not dirt) i. Most famous of the roads was the Appian Way, which stretched 350 miles east and south of Rome)
I. AUGUSTUSa. Emperor of Rome who stabilized Rome after Julius Caesar’s death and the civil warb. Centralized the government and improved the economyc. Began a long period of peace called Pax Romana (Roman Peace). i. 200 YEARS OF PEACEd. Made people conquered by Rome loyal to Rome i. this united the Roman Empire i. ii. Roman Empire spread eastward and westward ii. on three continents.
II. GOOD AND BAD EMPERORSa. Although there were many good emperors,there were also bad emperors. i. Period of bad emperors lasted for thirty years until Marcus Aurelius.b. ―Five Good Emperors‖ i. more stable leadership led to 84 years of peace and prosperity ii. Marcus Aurelius was the last and greatest emperor of this time.
IV. CONQUERED PEOPLE (THE PEOPLE THEROMANS TOOK OVER)a. All spoke their own language and Latinb. The conquered people also had citizenshipc. Local leaders were allowed to remain in power i. This led to the empire being united!
V. ROMAN LAW (SIMILAR TO U.S. LAW) THAT ALL PEOPLE COULD FOLLOW:a. All free people have equal rights.b. A person is innocent until he or she is proven guilty.c. Accused people should be allowed to face their accusers and defend themselves.d. Judges must interpret the law and make decisions fairly.e. People have rights that no government can take away. The Twelve Tables were laws engraved on tablets and put on display in the Forum in Rome for everyone to see, so they could be understood by all of the citizens of Rome.
VI. ROMAN CULTUREa. The Colosseum is the most famous Roman arena.It held the following events: i. gladiator fights (most important), plays and religious ceremoniesb. Built aqueducts that brought fresh water.c. Roman rule led to the growth of many cities in theEmpire.
I. CHRISTIANITY a. A religion based on the teaching of Jesus (who was a Jewish man).II. Jesus’ beliefs (monotheistic) a. believed that God loved everyone b. wanted people to be kind to one another c. he preached about forgiveness and mercy
III. JESUS IS CRUCIFIED a. Jesus was crucified because local leaders thought his message would upset Roman rulers. b. After his death disciples spread Jesus’ teachings and Christianity continued to spread. c. Peter and Paul were the most famous disciples.
IV. PERSECUTION OF CHRISTIANSa. At first Christians were persecuted (being punished for religious beliefs) because they refused to worship the emperor as a god.b. Emperor Constantine made Christianity equal to all other religions and outlawed the persecutions.
EMPERORS FOR SALEI. Emperors a. Most Emperors after Marcus Aurelius cared about increasing their wealth and power not the welfare of the Roman Empire.II. Choosing a New Ruler a. Roman Army began to fight each other to get their favorite person as an Emperor. b. The Roman Army spent so much time fighting withinRome (Romans fighting Romans) that they had to pay mercenariesto fight foreign battles. i. Mercenaries (hired soldiers) were not loyal to the Roman Empire. ii. Mercenaries allowed their own tribes to attack Rome, especially German tribes. c. Roads were unsafe and trade decreased.
THE EMPIRE DIVIDEDIII. Restoring Order a. To restore order and bring money to the empire, Emperor Diocletian divided the empire.
b. Diocletian and a co-emperor ruled the eastern portion, whiletwo co-emperors ruled the western portion.
THE CITY OF CONSTANTINE/ CHRISTIANITYDIVIDESIV. Emperor Constantine a. Constantine united the empire again b. He made a new capital city in the eastern part of the Empire, Byzantium (later known as Constantinople).
CONSTANTINOPLE c. Constantinople became the center of the Byzantine Empire. d. After Constantine’s death the empire was split again.
V. DIFFERENCES AMONG THE EMPIRES a. Eastern part of the empire was strong and rich; capital city was Constantinople. i. Emperor was the head of the church-Byzantine Orthodox Church. b. Western part of the empire was weak and poor; capital city was Rome. i. Pope was the head of the church-the Roman Catholic Church.
THE FINAL DAYS OF ROME/ THE FALLVI. Visigoths (German Tribe) a. Attacked the eastern Empire b. Alaric, leader, reached the gates of Rome. c. He surrounded the city, cutting off its food supply. i. He pillaged (robbed) the homes of the wealthy in Rome and burned what he could not take.
VII. ROME FALLSa. As Rome declined, the Byzantine Empire becameeven more prosperous.b. When Rome fell, the Byzantine Empire became thecenter of Roman Power.