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Orwell 06


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Animal Farm chapters 9-10
First Debate

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Orwell 06

  1. 1. “A party of order or stability, and aparty of progress or reform, are bothnecessary elements of a healthy stateof political life.” John Stuart Mill, On Liberty
  2. 2. •Explain the retirement/pension •Would the turning of the farm into asystem---in theory and in practice. Republic make things change? Why/why not?•Why didn’t the dogs and pigstake reduced rations in the •How was the history of thewinter? Battlefield of the Cowshed revised again?•Why say “readjustment?” Find a2010 parallel. •Find a modern parallel (this may be challenging—try to compare old and•What did Napoleon do as his new history books.)contribution to the increase of thefarm? •Why only school for young pigs?•What did the smell of cooking •What happened to Boxer?barley mean? Why was itsignificant to the animals? •How did the pigs profit by it?
  3. 3. •How did things change at thefarm over the years? •Explain the new Commandment.•How did things for the animals •What did Mr. Pilkington learnchange? from his tour of Animal Farm?•How did things for the pigs •What was the significance ofchange? burying Old Major’s skull and•Find a modern parallel. removing the hoof and horn from the flag?•A pig walking on its hind legs?Why? And why would that be •What was significant aboutshocking? changing the name of the farm?•What happened to the Seven •What did the animal noticeCommandments? about the pigs at the very end?
  4. 4. …one of the things Im sure well be First of all, I dont have a $5 trillion taxdiscussing tonight is, how do we deal cut. I dont have a tax cut of a scalewith our tax code? And how do we that youre talking about. My view ismake sure that we thatare reducing spending in a responsible we ought to provide tax relief to peopleway, but also, how do we have enough in the middle class. But Im not going torevenue to make those investments? reduce the share of taxes paid byGovernor Romneys central economic high-income people. High-incomeplan calls for a $5 trillion tax people are doing just fine in thiscut -- on top of the extension of the economy. Theyll do fine whetherBush tax cuts -- thats another trillion youre president or I am.dollars -- and $2 trillion in additional The people who are having the hardmilitary spending that the military time right now are middle- incomehasnt asked for. Thats $8 trillion. How Americans. Under the presidentswe pay for that, reduce the deficit, and policies, middle-income Americansmake the investments that we need to have been buried. Theyre just beingmake, without dumping those costs crushed. Middle- income Americansonto middle-class Americans, I think is have seen their income come down byone of the central questions of this $4,300. This is a -- this is a tax in and ofcampaign. itself. Ill call it the economy tax. Its been crushing.
  5. 5. Energy is critical, and the president pointed out correctly that production of oil and gas in the U.S. is up. But not due toOn energy, Governor Romney and I, his policies. In spite of his policies.we both agree that weve got to Mr. President, all of the increase inboost American energy production, natural gas and oil has happened onand oil private land, not on government land. Onand natural gas production are government land, your administration hashigher than theyve been in years. cut the number of permits and licenses inBut I also believe that weve got to half. If Im president, Ill double them, andlook at the also get the -- the oil from offshore andenergy sources of the future, like Alaska. And Ill bring that pipeline in fromwind and solar and biofuels, and Canada.make those investments. And, by the way, I like coal. Im going to make sure we can continue to burn clean coal. People in the coal industry feel like its getting crushed by your policies. I want to get America and North America energy independent so we can create those jobs.
  6. 6. First, weve got to improve our education First, education. I agree: Education issystem and weve made enormous key, particularly the future of our economy.progress drawing on ideas both from But our training programs right now, weve gotDemocrats and Republicans that are 47 of them, housed in the federalalready starting to show gains in some of government, reporting to eight differentthe toughest to deal with schools. Weve agencies. Overhead is overwhelming. Wevegot a program called Race to the Top that got to get those dollars back to the states and go to the workers so they can create their ownhas prompted reforms in 46 states around pathways to get in the training they need forthe country, raising standards, improving jobs that will really help we train teachers. Well, the primary responsibility for educationSo now I want to hire another 100,000 is -- is, of course, at the state and local math and science teachers, and But the federal government also can play acreate 2 million more slots in our very important role. …So all federalcommunity colleges so that people can funds, instead of going to the -- to the state orget trained for the jobs that are out there to the school district, Id have go, if youright now. And I want to make will, follow the child and let the parent andsure that we keep tuition low for our the child decide where to send their -- their --young people. their student.
  7. 7. The first role of the federal government is to keep the American people safe. Thats its mostbasic function. And as commander-in-chief, that is something that Ive worked on andthought about every single day that Ive been in the Oval Office. But I also believe thatgovernment has the capacity, the federal government has the capacity to help open upopportunity and create ladders of opportunity and to create frameworks where theAmerican people can succeed. Look, the genius of America is the free enterprise system andfreedom and the fact that people can go out there and start a business, work on anidea, make their own decisions. But as Abraham Lincoln understood, there are also somethings we do better together. So, in the middle of the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln said, letshelp to finance the Transcontinental Railroad, lets start the National Academy ofSciences, lets start land grant colleges, because we want to give these gateways ofopportunity for all Americans, because if all Americans are getting opportunity, were allgoing to be better off. That doesnt restrict peoples freedom. That enhances it. And so whatIve tried to do as president is to apply those same principles. And when it comes toeducation what Ive said is weve got to reform schools that are not working. We usesomething called Race to the Top. Wasnt a top-down approach, Governor. What weve saidis to states, well give more money if you initiate reforms. And as a consequence, you had 46states around the country who have made a real difference. But what Ive also said is letshire another 100,000 math and science teachers to make sure we maintain our technologicallead and our people are skilled and able to succeed. And hard-pressed states right now cantall do that. In fact weve seen layoffs of hundreds of thousands of teachers over the lastseveral years, and Governor Romney doesnt think we need more teachers. I do, because Ithink that that is the kind of investment where the federal government can help. It cant do itall, but it can make a difference. And as a consequence well have a better trained workforceand that will create jobs because companies want to locate in places where weve got askilled workforce.
  8. 8. Well, first, I love great schools. Massachusetts, our schools are ranked number one of all 50states. And the key to great schools, great teachers. So I reject the idea that I dont believe ingreat teachers or more teachers. Every school district, every state should make that decision ontheir own. The role of government: Look behind us. The Constitution and the Declaration ofIndependence. The role of government is to promote and protect the principles of thosedocuments. First, life and liberty. We have a responsibility to protect the lives and liberties ofour people, and thatmeans a military second to none. I do not believe in cutting our military. I believe in maintainingthe strength of Americas military. Second, in that line that says we are endowed by our creatorwith our rights, I believe we must maintain ourcommitment to religious tolerance and freedom in this country. That statement also says thatwe are endowed by our Creator with the right to pursue happiness as we choose. I interpretthat as, one, making sure that those people who are less fortunate and cant care forthemselves are cared by -- by one another. Were a nation that believes that were all childrenof the same god and we care for those that have difficulties, those that are elderly and haveproblems and challenges, those that are disabled. We care for them. And we – we look fordiscovery and innovation, all these things desired out of the American heart to provide thepursuit of happiness for our citizens. But we also believe in maintaining for individuals the rightto pursue their dreams and not to have the government substitute itself for the rights of freeindividuals. And what were seeing right now is, in my view, a -- a trickle-downgovernment approach, which has government thinking it can do a better job than free peoplepursuing their dreams. And its not working. And the proof of that is 23 million people out ofwork. The proof of that is 1 out of 6 people in poverty. The proof of that is weve gone from 32million on food stamps to 47 million on food stamps. The proof of that is that 50 percent ofcollege graduates this year cant find work. We know that the path were taking is not working.Its time for a new path.
  9. 9. LEHRER: But what would you do as president?ROMNEY: We -- as president, I will sit on day one -- actually, the day after I getelected -- Ill sit down with leaders-- the Democratic leaders, as well as Republican leaders, and continue -- as we did inmy state -- we met everyMonday for a couple hours, talked about the issues and the challenges in the -- inthe -- in our state in that case.We have to work on a collaborative basis, not because were going to compromiseour principle, but becausetheres common ground.And the challenges America faces right now -- look, the reason Im in this race isthere are people that are reallyhurting today in this country. And we face -- this deficit could crush the futuregenerations. Whats happening in theMiddle East, there are developments around the world that are of real concern. AndRepublicans and Democrats both love America. But we need to have leadership --leadership in Washington that will actually bring people together and get the jobdone and could not care less if -- if its aRepublican or a Democrat. Ive done it before. Ill do it again.
  10. 10. OBAMA: Well, first of all, I think Governor Romneys going to have a busy first day,because hes also going to repeal Obamacare, which will not be very popular amongDemocrats as youre sitting down with them. But, look, my philosophy has been, Iwill take ideas from anybody, Democrat or Republican, as long as theyreadvancing the cause of making middle-class families stronger and giving ladders ofopportunity to the middle class. Thats how we cut taxes for middle- class familiesand small businesses. Thats how we cut a trillion dollars of spending that wasntadvancing that cause. Thats how we signed three trade deals into law that arehelping us to double our exports and sell more American products around the world.Thats how we repealed "dont ask/dont tell." Thats how we ended the war in Iraq,as I promised, and thats how were going to wind down the war in Afghanistan.Thats how we went after Al Qaida and bin Laden. So weve -- weve seen progresseven under Republican control of the House of Representatives. But, ultimately,part of being principled, part of being a leader is, A, being able to describe exactlywhat it is that you intend to do, not just saying, "Ill sit down," but you have to have aplan.
  11. 11. Closing Statements 3 October 2012
  12. 12. President ObamaYou know, four years ago, we were going through a major crisis. And yet my faithand confidence in the American future is undiminished. And the reason isbecause of its people, because of the woman I met in North Carolina whodecided at 55 to go back to school because she wanted to inspire her daughterand now has a job from that new training that shes gotten; because a companyin Minnesota who was willing to give up salaries and perks for their executives tomake sure that they didnt lay off workers during a recession.The auto workers that you meet in Toledo or Detroit take such pride in buildingthe best cars in the world, not just because of a paycheck, but because it givesthem that sense of pride, that theyre helping to build America. And so thequestion now is how do we build on those strengths. And everything that Ivetried to do, and everything that Im now proposing for the next four years interms of improving our education system or developing American energy ormaking sure that were closing loopholes for companies that are shipping jobsoverseas and focusing on small businesses and companies that are creating jobshere in the United States, or closing our deficit in a responsible, balanced waythat allows us to invest in our future.
  13. 13. All those things are designed to make sure that the American people, theirgenius, their grit, their determination, is -- is channeled and -- and they have anopportunity to succeed. And everybodys getting a fair shot. And everybodysgetting a fair share -- everybodys doing a fair share, and everybodys playing bythe same rules.You know, four years ago, I said that Im not a perfect man and I wouldnt be aperfect president. And thats probably a promise that Governor Romney thinksIve kept. But I also promised that Id fight every single day on behalf of theAmerican people, the middle class, and all those who were striving to get intothe middle class. Ivekept that promise and if youll vote for me, then I promise Ill fight just as hardin a second term.
  14. 14. Governor RomneyThis is a -- this is an important election and Im concerned about America. Imconcerned about the direction America has been taking over the last four years.I -- I know this is bigger than an election about the two of us as individuals. Itsbigger than our respective parties. Its an election about the course of America.What kind of America do you want to have for yourself and for your children.And there really are two very different paths that we began speaking about thisevening, and over the course of this month were going to have two morepresidential debates and a vice presidential debate. We‘ll talk about those twopaths. But they lead in very different directions. And its not just looking to ourwords that you have to take in evidence of where they go. You can look at therecord.Theres no question in my mind that if the president were to be reelected youllcontinue to see a middle-class squeeze with incomes going down and pricesgoing up.Ill get incomes up again.
  15. 15. Youll see chronic unemployment. Weve had 43 straight months with unemploymentabove 8 percent.If Im president I will create -- help create 12 million new jobs in this country with risingincomes.If the presidents reelected, Obamacare will be fully installed. In my view thats goingto mean a whole different way of life for people who counted on the insurance planthey had in the past. Many will lose it. Youre going to see health premiums go up bysome $2,500 per family.If Im elected we wont have Obamacare. Well put in place the kind of principles that Iput in place in my own state and allow each state to craft their own programs to getpeople insured and well focus on getting the cost of health care down.If the president were to be reelected youre going to see a $716 billion cut toMedicare. Youll have 4 million people who will lose Medicare Advantage. Youll havehospital and providers thatll no longer accept Medicare patients.Ill restore that $716 billion to Medicare.And finally, military. The presidents reelected youll see dramatic cuts to our military.The secretary of defense has said these would be even devastating.I will not cut our commitment to our military. I will keep America strong and getAmericas middle class working again.
  16. 16. Deadlines for theEditorial:5 October: Topic/Issueselected9 October:Researchcompleted andbrought to class.12 October: Outline due16 October: Rough Draftdue—TWO copies to classfor peer editing19 October: FinalEditorial due.