Theories of Motivation• Instinct Theory• Drive-Reduction• Incentive Theory• Cognitive Theory
Motivation• Internal state that activates behavior and directs it towards a goal.
1. Instinct Theoryinnate tendencies determine human behavior
2. Drive Reduction Theory Drive – state of tension produced by a need –motivates an organism towards a goal Need – bio. or psycho. requirement of an organism – ex. Oxygen/food/social approvalHomeostasis – tendency of organisms to correctimbalances/deviations from normal state
3. Incentive Theory – organisms are motivated by incentives• Incentive - External stimulus, reinforcer, or reward that motivates behavior – stresses environmental factors
4. Cognitive Theory – How an organisms thinking influences behavior• Extrinsic Motivation – activities that either reduce biological needs or obtain incentives/rewards• Intrinsic motivation – activities that are personally rewarding or fulfill beliefs/expectations• “Mentalism” – Mental states are to behavior as cause is to effect.
Ch. 12.2 Biological and Social Motives• Hunger (drive)/Food (need) – example – page 321Lateral Hypothalamus – produces hunger signalsVentromedial Hypothalamus – Signal to stop eating
Social Motives • Need to excel • Need for social bonds • Need for fun • Others?
Some studies on motivation…• Eating – Schachter – Overweight people respond to external cues; normal weight people respond to internal cues…• Fear of success – Horner – Write a story “After first term finals, John finds himself…top of his class” 90% of men predicted success for “Anne” when substituted for John, 65% of women predicted failure for Anne.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self Actualization Needs Psychological Needs Fundamental (Physical) Needs
Emotions• Set of complex reactions to stimuli involving subjective feelings, physiolo gical arousal, and observable behavior
Expressing Emotions – 3 parts – Physical, Behavioral, Cognitive
Psychological Theories• Arguments for Biologically Based Emotions1. Universal Expressions of Emotions Across Cultures2. Blind/deaf children laughing/smiling3. Difficulty hiding true emotions• James-Lange theory – emotions perceptions of internal bodily changes• Canon-Bard Theory – argued (incorrectly) thalamus was center of emotions (limbic system is…amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus)
Cognitive Theories• Reacting to social cues (Schacter/Singer Experiment…injections of adrenaline)• Opponent processing – sympathetic and parasympathetic balance emotions in homeostasis