Ch. 12 – Motivation and Emotion
Theories of Motivation
Theories of Motivation•   Instinct Theory•   Drive-Reduction•   Incentive Theory•   Cognitive Theory
Motivation• Internal state that activates behavior and  directs it towards a goal.
1. Instinct Theoryinnate tendencies determine human              behavior
2. Drive Reduction Theory                           Drive – state of                           tension produced by        ...
3. Incentive Theory – organisms are        motivated by incentives• Incentive - External stimulus, reinforcer, or  reward ...
4. Cognitive Theory – How an organisms thinking influences behavior• Extrinsic Motivation – activities that either reduce ...
Ch. 12.2 Biological and Social Motives• Hunger (drive)/Food (need) – example – page 321Lateral Hypothalamus – produces hun...
•   Food         Biological Motives•   Water•   Oxygen•   Sleep•   Avoid pain•   Others?
Social Motives       •   Need to excel       •   Need for social bonds       •   Need for fun       •   Others?
Some studies on motivation…• Eating – Schachter – Overweight people  respond to external cues; normal weight  people respo...
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs                     Self                     Actualization                     Needs          ...
Emotions• Set of complex  reactions to  stimuli involving  subjective  feelings, physiolo  gical arousal, and  observable ...
Expressing Emotions – 3 parts – Physical, Behavioral, Cognitive
Psychological Theories• Arguments for Biologically Based Emotions1. Universal Expressions of Emotions Across Cultures2. Bl...
Cognitive Theories• Reacting to social cues (Schacter/Singer  Experiment…injections of adrenaline)• Opponent processing – ...
Opponent-Process Theory
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Dual credit psychology notes chapter 12 - motivation and emotion - shortened for slideshare

  1. 1. Ch. 12 – Motivation and Emotion
  2. 2. Theories of Motivation
  3. 3. Theories of Motivation• Instinct Theory• Drive-Reduction• Incentive Theory• Cognitive Theory
  4. 4. Motivation• Internal state that activates behavior and directs it towards a goal.
  5. 5. 1. Instinct Theoryinnate tendencies determine human behavior
  6. 6. 2. Drive Reduction Theory Drive – state of tension produced by a need –motivates an organism towards a goal Need – bio. or psycho. requirement of an organism – ex. Oxygen/food/social approvalHomeostasis – tendency of organisms to correctimbalances/deviations from normal state
  7. 7. 3. Incentive Theory – organisms are motivated by incentives• Incentive - External stimulus, reinforcer, or reward that motivates behavior – stresses environmental factors
  8. 8. 4. Cognitive Theory – How an organisms thinking influences behavior• Extrinsic Motivation – activities that either reduce biological needs or obtain incentives/rewards• Intrinsic motivation – activities that are personally rewarding or fulfill beliefs/expectations• “Mentalism” – Mental states are to behavior as cause is to effect.
  9. 9. Ch. 12.2 Biological and Social Motives• Hunger (drive)/Food (need) – example – page 321Lateral Hypothalamus – produces hunger signalsVentromedial Hypothalamus – Signal to stop eating
  10. 10. • Food Biological Motives• Water• Oxygen• Sleep• Avoid pain• Others?
  11. 11. Social Motives • Need to excel • Need for social bonds • Need for fun • Others?
  12. 12. Some studies on motivation…• Eating – Schachter – Overweight people respond to external cues; normal weight people respond to internal cues…• Fear of success – Horner – Write a story “After first term finals, John finds himself…top of his class”  90% of men predicted success for “Anne” when substituted for John, 65% of women predicted failure for Anne.
  13. 13. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self Actualization Needs Psychological Needs Fundamental (Physical) Needs
  14. 14. Emotions• Set of complex reactions to stimuli involving subjective feelings, physiolo gical arousal, and observable behavior
  15. 15. Expressing Emotions – 3 parts – Physical, Behavioral, Cognitive
  16. 16. Psychological Theories• Arguments for Biologically Based Emotions1. Universal Expressions of Emotions Across Cultures2. Blind/deaf children laughing/smiling3. Difficulty hiding true emotions• James-Lange theory – emotions perceptions of internal bodily changes• Canon-Bard Theory – argued (incorrectly) thalamus was center of emotions (limbic system is…amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus)
  17. 17. Cognitive Theories• Reacting to social cues (Schacter/Singer Experiment…injections of adrenaline)• Opponent processing – sympathetic and parasympathetic balance emotions in homeostasis
  18. 18. Opponent-Process Theory

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