Dual credit psychology notes chapter 11 - thinking and language - shortened for slide share
Ch. 11 – Thinking and Language
History of Studying Thinking• Tied to philosophy in the past• Rene Descartes – 1st truth “I think, therefore I am”• No way to really measure or assess thinking at all in the past, now MRI, CT Scans, etc…• Thinking – Sometimes called “Cognition” in the research
Thinking – Units of ThoughtImage – visual mental representationSymbol – abstract unit of thoughtConcept – label for a class of related objects/eventsPrototype – representative exampleRule – statement of relation between objects
Symbols – abstract unit of thoughtthat represents an object or quality
Prototype – a representative example of a concept – differs from person to person Ex – Someone in “good shape”; fun games, cute girl, car, athlete, etc…
Kinds of Thinking• Directed (Convergent) – systematic/logical thinking to reach a specific goal or answer• Nondirected (Divergent) – free flow of thoughts with no particular plan; depends more on images• Metacognition – thinking about thinking, your awareness of your own cognitive processes
Problem Solving Strategies – specific methods for approaching problems to deal with them• Subgoals, working forward/backward• Algorithms – step by step procedure for solving a problem• Heuristics (3) – rule of thumb strategy (299)1. Availability – prominent/easily recalled info is the answer-ex – lottery, overestimate2. Representativeness – use probability andassociations to make guess3. Anchoring – ideas or standards used to answer
9 dots puzzle – connect all, 4 lines, can’t pick up your pencil
Obstacles to Problem Solving• Mental Set – habitual pattern of problem solving• Rigidity – when a mental set gets in the way of solving a problem – newspaper ex…• Functional Fixedness – unable to imagine new uses for some object
Creativity – ability to generate novel and valuable ideas. • Flexibility- ability to overcome rigidity • Recombination – new approaches/combina tion of old approaches in a new way • Insight-”light bulb” suddenly realize the answer.
Language – a system of symbols and rules used for meaningful communication.
Structure of Language• Phonemes – smallest parts (sounds)• Morphemes – smallest units of meaning• Syntax – rules of arrangement in a language
Language Development• Behavioralists (B.F. Skinner) Operant Conditioning• Social Learning theorists modeling• Biological theorists (Chomsky) other factors play a role, but children inherit capacity/pre- programming for language… “LAD” – Language Acquisition Device
How Language Develops• “Cooing” – 2 months• Babbling – 4 months• Single worlds – 12 months• 2 years – two words to express meaning• 2-3 telegraphic speech• 5 language development complete, continue to acquire vocabulary throughout life
Gender and Cultural Factors• Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis – language and thought are connected, language in fact shapes thinking• Semantic Slanting – making statements so they evoke a specific emotional response.e.g. – “Pro Choice – “Abortion”• Name calling – labeling people in order to influence their thinkinge.g. “Only an idiot would not go to college”