Ch. 10 – Memory and Thought             Memory – capacity              for storing and                 retrieving         ...
Process of Memory• Encoding – processing information into memory• Storage – storing or maintaining a memory• Retrieval – p...
Encoding• Encoding – processing information into memoryTypes1. Structural encoding – what a word looks like2. Phonemic enc...
The Process of Memory
Storage• Memory stored in a three-stage model…1. Sensory Memory – what you are processing    now – very detailed but only ...
Three Stages of Memory
Sensory Memory
Short-Term Memory
Long-term Memory
Specific Types of Memory• Declarative – recall of factual information –  dates, words, faces, events, etc…  2types1. Epis...
Memory and the BrainPage 280 – Figure 10.6
Parts of the Brain Involved In Memory• Hippocampus – transferring episodic and  semantic memories to Long Term Memory• Cer...
Memory and Hippocampi – 6min30sec
Retrieval – getting information out of      memory so you can use it…• Retrieval cues – stimuli that help get  information...
Retrieving Information
Recognition – identifying somethingthat you have learned from options
Recall –remembering without any  external    cutes
State Dependent Learning             Learning that is             only effectively             done if you are in         ...
Relearning   Learning something again you   have already learned before   -Takes less time the second   time, third time, ...
Decay – Memory fades overForgetting   time             Interference – you forget             because new information      ...
Improving MemoryExercise – Neurotransmitter and hormone release;improved blood flow
Improving Memory/Retrieval• Chunking – Combining  information together to  remember it…191419841999201119451967
Rehearsal – Practicing material to help             remember it• Maintenance Rehearsal – repeating things  over and over t...
Overlearning  • Continuing to practice    material over and over    even after it is learned to    increase retention  • E...
Differentiation• Learning material in a variety of ways to improve  memory• Songs, rhymes, quizzes, note cards, pictures w...
Distributed Practice (Zeigarnick Effect)• Learning a little bit over time is better than  cramming• Example – Alex studies...
Mnemonic Devices• “Every Good Boy Does  Fine”• ROY G BIV• I before e except after c…• My Big Green Elephant  Has Neon Colo...
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 10 - memory(shortened for slide share)
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Dual credit psychology notes chapter 10 - memory(shortened for slide share)

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Dual credit psychology notes chapter 10 - memory(shortened for slide share)

  1. 1. Ch. 10 – Memory and Thought Memory – capacity for storing and retrieving information
  2. 2. Process of Memory• Encoding – processing information into memory• Storage – storing or maintaining a memory• Retrieval – process of getting information out of memory, often for a specific task
  3. 3. Encoding• Encoding – processing information into memoryTypes1. Structural encoding – what a word looks like2. Phonemic encoding – focuses on how a word sounds3. Semantic encoding – focuses on meaning – usually results in deeper memory because it requires a deeper level of processing than the first two types of encoding*Assumes memory, thought and language are allconnected – since they all use symbols – Sapir WhorfHypothesis
  4. 4. The Process of Memory
  5. 5. Storage• Memory stored in a three-stage model…1. Sensory Memory – what you are processing now – very detailed but only for an instant-Iconic – visual; Echoic - Auditory2. Short-term memory – “Working memory”what you can remember for a short time –phone numbers, - lasts about 20 seconds3. Long-term memory – what you know/havelearned experienced – can’t always retrieve
  6. 6. Three Stages of Memory
  7. 7. Sensory Memory
  8. 8. Short-Term Memory
  9. 9. Long-term Memory
  10. 10. Specific Types of Memory• Declarative – recall of factual information – dates, words, faces, events, etc…  2types1. Episodic – Recall of personal facts (what movie you were watching on your first date)2. Semantic – Specific facts – 1st president of the USA; capital of South Dakota, 2nd Amendment, birthday, etc…• Procedural – how to do stuff (drive a car, shuffle cards, swim, ride a bike)
  11. 11. Memory and the BrainPage 280 – Figure 10.6
  12. 12. Parts of the Brain Involved In Memory• Hippocampus – transferring episodic and semantic memories to Long Term Memory• Cerebellum – nondeclarative memories (procedural memories, conditioned memories)• Cerebral Cortex – Short Term Memories, final storage for visual, auditory, verbal memories• Amygdala – involved in processing of emotional memories, hormones enhanced emotional memories
  13. 13. Memory and Hippocampi – 6min30sec
  14. 14. Retrieval – getting information out of memory so you can use it…• Retrieval cues – stimuli that help get information out of memory1. Associations – relating items to known information by priming “giving hints”2. Context – remember easier if placed in the same event3. Mood – Similar mood = ease in remembering
  15. 15. Retrieving Information
  16. 16. Recognition – identifying somethingthat you have learned from options
  17. 17. Recall –remembering without any external cutes
  18. 18. State Dependent Learning Learning that is only effectively done if you are in a similar state
  19. 19. Relearning Learning something again you have already learned before -Takes less time the second time, third time, etc…
  20. 20. Decay – Memory fades overForgetting time Interference – you forget because new information gets in the way Proactive – old information gets in the way of new Retroactive – new information gets in the way of old Repression – forgetting information you don’t want to remember – sometimes done subconsciously
  21. 21. Improving MemoryExercise – Neurotransmitter and hormone release;improved blood flow
  22. 22. Improving Memory/Retrieval• Chunking – Combining information together to remember it…191419841999201119451967
  23. 23. Rehearsal – Practicing material to help remember it• Maintenance Rehearsal – repeating things over and over to help remember, store in long term memory• Elaborative Rehearsal – Organizing, thinking about, relating to prior learning or existing memories – making examples, creating scenarios, etc…• Elaborative is much better because more cues are built
  24. 24. Overlearning • Continuing to practice material over and over even after it is learned to increase retention • Examples – Practicing scales in music, drilling in wrestling, batting practice, online map review games, etc…
  25. 25. Differentiation• Learning material in a variety of ways to improve memory• Songs, rhymes, quizzes, note cards, pictures with terms, etc…
  26. 26. Distributed Practice (Zeigarnick Effect)• Learning a little bit over time is better than cramming• Example – Alex studies 5 hours the day before a test, Sarah studies 1 hour each day for 5 days, Sarah will do better on the test assuming they are of equal intelligence, ability, etc…
  27. 27. Mnemonic Devices• “Every Good Boy Does Fine”• ROY G BIV• I before e except after c…• My Big Green Elephant Has Neon Colored Pants

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