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  1. 1. Fossils <ul><li>Preserved remains of living things </li></ul><ul><li>Provide scientists (paleontologists) with evidence of how life on Earth has changed over time </li></ul>
  2. 2. Fossil Formation
  3. 3. Fossil Formation <ul><li>Organism dies and is quickly buried by sediment (this protects the organism) </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals replace all or part of organisms original structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More delicate parts often decay before this can happen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sediment hardens and turns into rock </li></ul>
  4. 4. Mold and Cast Fossils <ul><li>Most common </li></ul><ul><li>Mold </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hollow area in shape of organism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>copy of the organism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mold & Cast are opposites </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mold and Cast Fossils <ul><li>Provides evidence of: </li></ul><ul><li>Organism’s physical characteristics (size, shape, etc) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited to the structures that are able to be preserved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May also provide clues to environment in which organism lived </li></ul>
  6. 6. Petrified Fossils <ul><li>Minerals replace all or part of an organism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs when water rich in minerals is absorbed into organisms cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petrified means turned into stone </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Petrified Fossils <ul><li>Provides evidence of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of organism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age of organism (esp. if a tree) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past environments </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Carbon Film <ul><li>Extremely thin layer of carbon on a rock in the shape of the organism </li></ul><ul><li>Preserves delicate parts of plant leaves and insects </li></ul>
  9. 9. Preserved Remains <ul><li>Organisms preserved with little or no change to original structure </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when organism is trapped in a substance that assists in the preservation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tar, amber, ice </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Preserved Remains <ul><li>Provides evidence of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical structures that are often lost through other fossilization processes </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Trace Fossils <ul><li>Provides evidence of the activities of ancient organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Examples include footprints, burrows and trails </li></ul>
  12. 12. Reflection Page 40 <ul><li>Identify which of the 6 fossils types is the most important for scientists as they unravel the history of the earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Justify your answer!! </li></ul></ul>