Opposition to Early U.S. Government By: Sarah, Robbie, and Dom
Day 2, Group B• Although the power of the national government increased during the early republic, this development often faced serious opposition. Compare the motives and effectiveness of those opposed to the growing power of the national government in TWO of the following: – Whiskey Rebellion, 1794 – Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, 1798-99 – Hartford Convention, 1814-15 – Nullification Crisis, 1832-33
Thesis• While the U.S. was young and growing, several outbursts challenged the national government’s power and ability. In the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794, the excise tax placed on whiskey was protested by a group of Pennsylvanians, and in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison expressed their ideas of a weaker national government, however neither of these were effective enough to stop the national government from gaining power and strength.
Whiskey RebellionSouthwestern Pennsylvanians were upset withthe excise tax placed on whiskey and began toprotest itPresident Washington sent militias of severalstates to crush the rebelliono Displayed government’s power – “crushed a gnat with a sledgehammer”Whiskey Rebellion was fairly small, however thegovernment showed its power and thereforedemanded respect from the entire nation
Whiskey Rebellion• These Pennsylvanians challenged the views and laws of the government at a time when the gov’t was growing but still very young• Protested similarly to how the colonists had reacted to the Stamp Act, pre-Revolution – Tarred and feathered tax collectors• Gov’t’s excessive force established their strength and power
Virginia and Kentucky ResolutionsJames Madison (Virginia), Thomas Jefferson(Kentucky) o Feared prosecution for sedition, and demise of the Jeffersonian Party as a result Extreme states’ rights views were expressed;argued that the national government was thecreation of the thirteen states as a whole –“compact theory” o Pleaded for nullification of the Alien and Sedition Acts
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions• Jefferson’s and Madison’s goals were to support states’ rights and remind the nation that the national government is a product of the unified states.• These were effective with respect to this side of the argument’s views, as their ideas were carried on by the Nullification Crisis of the 1830s.
Hartford Convention• Federalists unhappy during the War of 1812• Threatened secession of New England from the U.S. during the war• Hartford Convention – delegates from 5 NE states (MA, CT, RI, NH, VT) secretly met for 3 weeks to discuss the possibility of secession
Hartford Convention• Sought financial assistance from the government for lost trade• Wanted a 2/3 vote from Congress to determine whether an embargo would go into effect or not• Overall – ineffective and not taken seriously by the rest of the nation• Preceded the demise of the Federalist Party
Nullification Crisis• Southern leaders feared growth of federal power and feared the continuation of high tariff prices because it would dramatically hurt the southern economy.• The Tariff of 1832 failed to moderate protective barriers created in earlier legislation, which greatly angered the south.
Nullification Crisis• Led by John C. Calhoun and Robert Hayne, the South threatened secession from the Union• Southerners wanted more economic equality and felt that the current regulations placed by the government and the Tariff of 1832 (Tariff of Abominations) were unfair• The Nullification Crisis resulted in the Compromise of 1833 which neither side truly won nor lost.