Bi 11 - Fungi Notes


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Bi 11 - Fungi Notes

  1. 1. Kingdom Fungi
  2. 2. Mycology <ul><li>Myco = fungus </li></ul><ul><li>logy = study of </li></ul>
  3. 4. General Characteristics <ul><li>Eukaryotic </li></ul><ul><li>No chlorophyll – non photosynthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Most multicellular – some unicellular (yeast) </li></ul><ul><li>Non motile </li></ul><ul><li>Cell walls of chitin </li></ul><ul><li>Lack true roots, leaves and stems </li></ul><ul><li>Absorptive heterotrophs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digest food externally & then absorb it </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Recent molecular evidence suggests that Fungi are probably more closely related to ANIMALS than either plants or protists! </li></ul>
  5. 6. Lack of Chlorophyll profoundly affects the lifestyle of fungi <ul><li>Not dependent on light </li></ul><ul><li>Can occupy dark habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Can grow in any direction </li></ul><ul><li>Can invade the interior of a substrate with absorptive filaments </li></ul>
  6. 7. Hyphae
  7. 8. Hyphae <ul><li>Body of fungus made of tiny filaments or tubes called hyphae </li></ul><ul><li>Contain cytoplasm and nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Each hyphae is one continuous cell </li></ul><ul><li>Some contain cross walls with pores that allow movement of cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Cell wall of chitin </li></ul><ul><li>A tangled mass of hyphae = mycelium </li></ul><ul><li>Rhizoids are rootlike parts of fungi that anchor them to the substrate </li></ul>
  8. 9. Nutrition in Fungi <ul><li>Saprophytes </li></ul><ul><li>Parasites </li></ul><ul><li>Mutualists (symbionts) </li></ul>
  9. 10. Saprophytes <ul><li>Use non-living organic material </li></ul><ul><li>Important scavengers in ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Important in recycling carbon, nitrogen and essential mineral nutrients </li></ul>
  10. 11. Parasites <ul><li>Use organic material from living organisms, harming them in some way </li></ul><ul><li>Range of hosts from single celled diatoms to fungi, to plants to animals to humans </li></ul>
  11. 12. Mutualists (symbionts) <ul><li>Fungi that have a mutually benefical relationship with other living organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Mycorrhizae – associations of fungi with plant roots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 90% of plants in nature have a mycorrhizal symbiont </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lichens – associations of fungi with algae or cyanobacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food source for animals, breaks down rocks into soil </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Many fungi are harmful to humans <ul><li>can cause humans disease – allergies, athletes foot, ringworm, yeast infections </li></ul><ul><li>Can kill plants and animals that humans use, farm </li></ul><ul><li>Cause rot and contamination of foods </li></ul><ul><li>Can destroy almost any kind of manufactured good – exception of plastics and some pesticides </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>What is Ringworm? </li></ul><ul><li>Ringworm is a contagious fungus infection that can affect the scalp, the body (particularly the groin), the feet, and the nails. Despite its name, it has nothing to do with worms. The name comes from the characteristic red ring that can appear on an infected person's skin. Ringworm is also called Tinea. </li></ul>
  14. 19. <ul><li>How do people get Ringworm? </li></ul><ul><li>Ringworm is spread by either direct or indirect contact. People can get Ringworm by direct skin-to-skin contact with an infected person or pet. People can also get Ringworm indirectly by contact with objects or surfaces that an infected person or pet has touched, such as hats, combs, brushes, bed linens, stuffed animals, telephones, gym mats, and shower stalls. In rare cases Ringworm can be spread by contact with soil. </li></ul>
  15. 20. Many Fungi are useful to humans <ul><li>Yeasts – baking and brewing </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotics – penicillin & cephalosporin </li></ul><ul><li>Many organic acids are produced with the help of fungi ex. citric acid in Coke is made with a fungus </li></ul><ul><li>Steroids and medicines ex. The Pill </li></ul><ul><li>Stinky cheeses – blue cheese and camembert </li></ul>