Parenthetical Citations
in disgustingly
gross detail.
Huh?
We use parenthetical citations to give
credit to the people’s thoughts we
use.
We give credit for:
direct quotes
paraphrasing
summarizing
The general, garden variety
citation:
We see Scout admit that she lies to
her father when she says, “I said
I could like i...
Two things to note:
We see Scout admit that she lies to her father when she
says, “I said I could like it very much, which...
“Certain circumstances:”
When the quotation has pertinent
punctuation in it that changes the
meaning if omitted
The older ...
Speaking of Hemingway…
You might have noticed that the citation
didn’t have an author in it!
The older waiter in Hemingway...
Trickery:
Citing the author this way (in
the sentence itself)
accomplishes two things:
1. it cites the author (duh)
2. it ...
What about those pesky internet
sources?
Cite the
author,
forget the
page number
(no pages in
cyberspace)
What about those pesky internet
sources?
No author? Should you
really use the site?
if no one takes credit
for it, is it a...
If you
must, cite
the
website
What about those pesky internet
sources?
If you MUST use one without
an author, use the article
title:
Internet Example (Preferable)
There is no truth to the rumor
that al-Qaeda has poisoned the
Coca-Cola supply in our country
(“Coca-Cola No Al Queda”).
I...
Internet example (no title?):
There is no truth to the rumor that al-Qaeda
has poisoned the Coca-Cola supply in our
countr...
But again,
Try to use as few
unaccredited web
pages as humanly
possible
Source validity is a huge
concern when the source
...
Side note:
NEVER let a quote stand
alone! It must have an
entrance OR an exit
NEVER
Multiple authors:
If more than one
author wrote your
article, they need
to be cited.
This applies to: less than
three auth...
Multiple authors example:
There has been a drastic increase in
frivolous lawsuits in the United States in
the last ten ye...
More than three authors?
Bust out the Latin stick!
“et al” is your pal!
“et al” literally translates to
“and others”
Cite ...
Finally, the interview sources:
Cite the last
name of the
interviewee
Then that it was
an interview
Interview example:
As junior students, we were told that this
paper is “dummy proof and it’s impossible
to do wrong if you...
SO THERE YOU GO:
IN TEXT (Parenthetical) CITATIONS
Parenthetical citations in
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Parenthetical citations in

  1. 1. Parenthetical Citations in disgustingly gross detail.
  2. 2. Huh? We use parenthetical citations to give credit to the people’s thoughts we use.
  3. 3. We give credit for:
  4. 4. direct quotes
  5. 5. paraphrasing
  6. 6. summarizing
  7. 7. The general, garden variety citation: We see Scout admit that she lies to her father when she says, “I said I could like it very much, which was a lie, but one must lie under certain circumstances” (Lee 128).
  8. 8. Two things to note: We see Scout admit that she lies to her father when she says, “I said I could like it very much, which was a lie, but one must lie under certain circumstances” (Lee 128).
  9. 9. “Certain circumstances:” When the quotation has pertinent punctuation in it that changes the meaning if omitted The older waiter in Hemingway's "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place" asks himself, "What did he fear?" (79). But notice, there is still a closing punctuation mark after the citation
  10. 10. Speaking of Hemingway… You might have noticed that the citation didn’t have an author in it! The older waiter in Hemingway's "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place" asks himself, "What did he fear?" (79). That’s because I already gave the author credit!
  11. 11. Trickery: Citing the author this way (in the sentence itself) accomplishes two things: 1. it cites the author (duh) 2. it varies your sentence structure automatically for you!
  12. 12. What about those pesky internet sources? Cite the author, forget the page number (no pages in cyberspace)
  13. 13. What about those pesky internet sources? No author? Should you really use the site? if no one takes credit for it, is it a credible site?
  14. 14. If you must, cite the website What about those pesky internet sources?
  15. 15. If you MUST use one without an author, use the article title: Internet Example (Preferable)
  16. 16. There is no truth to the rumor that al-Qaeda has poisoned the Coca-Cola supply in our country (“Coca-Cola No Al Queda”). Internet Example (Preferable)
  17. 17. Internet example (no title?): There is no truth to the rumor that al-Qaeda has poisoned the Coca-Cola supply in our country (snopes.com). Note: • I did not give the complete URL, only a snippet • the complete URL goes in your reference page •Also note that the good folks at “snopes.com” DO take credit for their work •Their names are Barbara and David Mickelson and they do a nice job fact-checking…
  18. 18. But again, Try to use as few unaccredited web pages as humanly possible Source validity is a huge concern when the source takes no credit for their work
  19. 19. Side note: NEVER let a quote stand alone! It must have an entrance OR an exit NEVER
  20. 20. Multiple authors: If more than one author wrote your article, they need to be cited. This applies to: less than three authors If less than or including three, cite them all!
  21. 21. Multiple authors example: There has been a drastic increase in frivolous lawsuits in the United States in the last ten years (Dewey, Cheatum and Howe 45). Note all authors credited with last name only.
  22. 22. More than three authors? Bust out the Latin stick! “et al” is your pal! “et al” literally translates to “and others” Cite the first author, then slap an “et al” after it! only applies to references with more than three authors!
  23. 23. Finally, the interview sources: Cite the last name of the interviewee Then that it was an interview
  24. 24. Interview example: As junior students, we were told that this paper is “dummy proof and it’s impossible to do wrong if you try” (Lesh interview). Note the same rules apply: 1. no comma 2. punctuation outside of the parentheses
  25. 25. SO THERE YOU GO: IN TEXT (Parenthetical) CITATIONS

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