Chapter 9 How Did Singapore Achieve Independence


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Chapter 9 How Did Singapore Achieve Independence

  1. 1. Chapter 9 How did Singapore achieve Independence?
  2. 2. Terms to Remember <ul><li>Merger – the joining of two countries as one. </li></ul><ul><li>Federation - a group of states united with one central government but each state has own states govt to deal with local matters. </li></ul><ul><li>Pro-Communists – people who support the the Communists and their ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Referendum – a direct vote carried out by the people of the country to decide something on which there is a disagreement. </li></ul><ul><li>Confrontation – Indonesia’s opposition to the formation of Malaysia. </li></ul><ul><li>Radicals – party members who supported the communists. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Problems in 1950s / 1960s <ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most pressing of the problems faced by the government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ports near Singapore were developing and Singapore faced stiff competition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many students educated in Chinese schools but there were not enough jobs for them when they left school. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Poor Housing <ul><li>Many were staying in the city. </li></ul><ul><li>Overcrowding, unhygienic squatters. </li></ul><ul><li>Health was compromised as many squeezed into small living areas. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Lack of Schools <ul><li>Many children did not attend schools as fees in private schools were not affordable. </li></ul><ul><li>There were insufficient government schools to take in all children of school-going age. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Reasons for Merger <ul><li>Solve problem of Unemployment. Jobs and raw materials in Malaya were much needed by Singaporeans. Singapore’s market was too small for our goods. Malaya was the big market we were looking for. </li></ul><ul><li>Common market so goods could be bought and sold without being taxed. Industries in Spore would grow and more jobs could be created for our people. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete break from British rule. Merger would resolve the Communist problem and Spore would gain independence. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Why did Malaya wanted a merger? <ul><li>Communists were too strong in Singapore for their comfort. If Singapore fall to the communists, it would be a big threat to the security of Malaya which is so close to Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>With a merger, Tunku Abdul Rahman hoped to contain and fight against the communists in Singapore. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Proposal for Merger <ul><li>May 1961 Tunku Abdul Rahman first proposed the idea of merger with Singapore when he visited. </li></ul><ul><li>British supported the idea. They wanted to grant independence to Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak but felt they could not survive on their own. </li></ul><ul><li>A merger with Malaya would help these countries fight against Communism. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Singapore’s response <ul><li>Lee Kuan Yew and some PAP leaders supported the idea. </li></ul><ul><li>The pro-Communists within PAP led by Lim Chin Siong were against the idea. </li></ul><ul><li>They knew that if Singapore became part of Malaya, the governement in Kuala Lumpur would clamp down on Communist activities and arrest and imprison the pro-Communists. </li></ul><ul><li>There was a power struggle within PAP. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Split in PAP and Referendum <ul><li>August 1961 Pro-Communists left PAP and formed Barisan Sosialis (Socialist Front) </li></ul><ul><li>Nov 1961 LKY (Lee Kuan Yew) and TAR (Tunku Abdul Rahman) held talks to discuss terms of merger. </li></ul><ul><li>1 Sept 1962 A referendum was held to let Singaporeans decide if they wanted merger. </li></ul><ul><li>71% of Singaporeans voted in favour of merger with Malaya. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Responses of other countries <ul><li>Sabah and Sarawak voted to join Malaysia. </li></ul><ul><li>Brunei was excluded as both Brunei and Malaya could not agree on the terms of merger. </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesian government was influenced by Communist Party of Indonesia (KPI). </li></ul><ul><li>Jan 1963 The Confrontation by Indonesia was launched against Malaysia. </li></ul><ul><li>Philippines wanted to keep Sabah as part of Philippines but had no proper evidence. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Formation of Malaysia <ul><li>31 Aug 1963 Scheduled for formation of Malaysia but Philippines and Indonesia strongly opposed so a UN mission was sent to Sabah and Sarawak to check if people there wanted merger. </li></ul><ul><li>14 th Sept 1963 UN mission found out merger was favourable for people there. </li></ul><ul><li>16 th Sept 1963 Singapore, Sabah & Sarawak joined Malaya to form Federation of Malaysia. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Federation of Malaysia <ul><li>The 14 states were </li></ul><ul><li>Johor </li></ul><ul><li>Negri Sembilan </li></ul><ul><li>Perlis </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>Kedah </li></ul><ul><li>Pahang </li></ul><ul><li>Sabah </li></ul><ul><li>Trengganu </li></ul><ul><li>Kelantan </li></ul><ul><li>Penang </li></ul><ul><li>Sarawak </li></ul><ul><li>Melaka </li></ul><ul><li>Perak </li></ul><ul><li>Selangor </li></ul>
  14. 14. Central Government <ul><li>Central government was in Kuala Lumpur and was controlled by the Alliance Party. </li></ul><ul><li>Tunku Abdul Rahman was the Prime Minister of Malaysia. </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore had own government and could continue with elections to elect own state government. </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore gained independence from Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>Central government controlled armed forces, police & international relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore would control own education, labour and finance. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Terms of Merger <ul><li>Common Market would be set up in stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore to provide $150 million loan for development of Sabah and Sarawak. </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore would collect own revenue and contribute a certain sum of money from its taxes. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Aftermath of Merger <ul><li>Philippines broke off ties with Malaysia. </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesia broke off ties with Malaysia, raided Sabah and Sarawak and got agents to set off bombs in public places in Singapore to disrupt life of people. </li></ul>