11th
-13th
Centuries
Enduring Understanding: Warfare can spread new ideas
that have a lasting impact on the way people liv...
 11-15th
Centuries - Monarchies and The Roman
Catholic Church increasing in power
 Politically –
 Ties to nobility
 Su...
 Caused by the power of the Church
 11th
Century – King Henry IV questioned the
authority of Pope Gregory VII
 Henry ap...
 The Crusades were a series of military
expeditions between Europe and Palestine in
the 11th
– 13th
Centuries
 Jerusalem was and still is sacred to the
Jews, Christians, and the Muslims
 In 1071, the Seljuk Turks captured
Jerusale...
 1096 the Pope responded and the 1st
Crusade
began
 Several European armies started out for the
Byzantine capital of Con...
 Christian forces captured the cities of Nicaea
and Antioch and by 1099 they captured
Jerusalem
 The Christians divided ...
 Cause: Began after Muslim Turks recaptured
the Crusader state of Edessa in 1144
 Effect: French and German forces trave...
 In the late 1100’s the
disagreements came to an end
with the rise of Salah-al-din
 As a child Saladin (as the
Europeans...
 After the fall of
Jerusalem some of
Europe’s most powerful
leaders went on a third
Crusade- including
Richard the Lion-
...
 1192 Richard and Saladin reached a truce:
 Jerusalem would remain under Muslim control.
However, in return, Saladin agr...
 The truce did not last and the 4th
Crusade was launched in 1202
 To pay Italian traders for transporting troops, the Cr...
 Europe began more Crusades, but by 1270, the
Muslims had driven the Crusaders out of
Palestine, and the wars ended
 The...
 European contact with other cultures grew and
Crusaders brought back Asian goods resulting
in increased trade
 Increase...
 Hostility towards Jews increased –
 On their way to the battles Crusaders attacked and
massacred European Jews and cont...
 In Spain, Christian armies drove out Muslim rulers
 In the early 700’s Muslims conquered the Iberian
Peninsula
 By the...
 King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella unified Spain through
military and religious authority
 Their armies captured cities ...
The crusades
The crusades
The crusades
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The crusades

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The crusades

  1. 1. 11th -13th Centuries Enduring Understanding: Warfare can spread new ideas that have a lasting impact on the way people live.
  2. 2.  11-15th Centuries - Monarchies and The Roman Catholic Church increasing in power  Politically –  Ties to nobility  Supported one another  Helped run kingdoms  Very wealthy – earned income from property  The pope was more wealthy than monarchs  Authority often greater than monarchs
  3. 3.  Caused by the power of the Church  11th Century – King Henry IV questioned the authority of Pope Gregory VII  Henry appointed church officials – wanted control over church officials  Pope Gregory – “only the Pope can appoint officials”  Henry tried to gain support and reduce the power of Pope – Henry didn’t have much support  Henry had to beg forgiveness from the Pope  Example of how powerful the church was
  4. 4.  The Crusades were a series of military expeditions between Europe and Palestine in the 11th – 13th Centuries
  5. 5.  Jerusalem was and still is sacred to the Jews, Christians, and the Muslims  In 1071, the Seljuk Turks captured Jerusalem and made Christian pilgrimages nearly impossible  European princes used success in warfare as one way to gain power and merchants were willing to finance their crusades for profit  Finally, the Turks advanced onto the Byzantine capital of Constantinople and the emperor asked the Pope for help
  6. 6.  1096 the Pope responded and the 1st Crusade began  Several European armies started out for the Byzantine capital of Constantinople with the plan of attacking Palestine  Many Crusaders will ill equipped and died along the way, or captured and enslaved  However, the Crusader force was stills Strong enough to attack Palestine
  7. 7.  Christian forces captured the cities of Nicaea and Antioch and by 1099 they captured Jerusalem  The Christians divided the conquered land into 4 Crusader states: Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli, and Jerusalem
  8. 8.  Cause: Began after Muslim Turks recaptured the Crusader state of Edessa in 1144  Effect: French and German forces traveled to Palestine, but were weakened along the way. Muslim forces defeated the European armies in Damascus  Christians kept control over the other Crusader kingdoms because Muslim leadership in the region was conflicted
  9. 9.  In the late 1100’s the disagreements came to an end with the rise of Salah-al-din  As a child Saladin (as the Europeans called him) was more interested in studying Islam than learning about war  He eventually joined his uncle in Egypt where he defended the area against the Crusaders  After the battle he became the leader of Egyptian government  Saladin unified Muslims in the region and then he turned his attention towards the Crusaders posted in Jerusalem  In 1187, Saladin gathered an army and recaptured Jerusalem
  10. 10.  After the fall of Jerusalem some of Europe’s most powerful leaders went on a third Crusade- including Richard the Lion- Hearted of England  The Crusaders were successful at first, but they did not achieve their goal of recapturing Jerusalem
  11. 11.  1192 Richard and Saladin reached a truce:  Jerusalem would remain under Muslim control. However, in return, Saladin agreed to allow Christians pilgrims to visit the Holy City
  12. 12.  The truce did not last and the 4th Crusade was launched in 1202  To pay Italian traders for transporting troops, the Crusaders agreed to attack the Byzantine city of Zora  The Crusaders sacked (destroyed) Constantinople to put a political ally back in charge of the Byzantine Empire  THE POPE WAS FURIOUS  The Crusaders did not continue their crusade and the Byzantine empire was weakened
  13. 13.  Europe began more Crusades, but by 1270, the Muslims had driven the Crusaders out of Palestine, and the wars ended  The Crusades did not have a permanent effect on the Muslims in Palestine  Christian traders remained in Palestine and European pilgrims continued to visit their religions Holy Land
  14. 14.  European contact with other cultures grew and Crusaders brought back Asian goods resulting in increased trade  Increased trade resulted in increased wealth and the growth of cities – Urban merchants became increasingly important in Europe
  15. 15.  Hostility towards Jews increased –  On their way to the battles Crusaders attacked and massacred European Jews and continued to kill Jews once they reached Palestine  1290 – Jews were expelled from England  1306- Jews were expelled from France and again in 1394  Muslims allowed Jews and Christians to live in peace in most cases
  16. 16.  In Spain, Christian armies drove out Muslim rulers  In the early 700’s Muslims conquered the Iberian Peninsula  By the 1000’s, however, Muslim unity on the Peninsula broke down and Spanish and Portuguese kingdoms rose to defeat the Muslim forces
  17. 17.  King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella unified Spain through military and religious authority  Their armies captured cities and their church officials used a court to punish the people opposed to Church teachings – the court was called the Inquisition  Many Jews and Christians were tortured and executed by the Inquisition. They forced out the last Muslim and Jewish leaders in 1492.

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