Describe the role of Islamic leaders in the spread of Islam after Muhammad’s death Who were the leaders who spread Islam after Muhammad’s death? What role did they play in expanding the Muslim empire and spreading Islam?
VOCABULARY PEOPLE Caliph Abu Bakr Rightly Guided Caliph Umar Uthman Ali Umayyads
Until his death Muhammad spread Islam throughout the Arabian Peninsula. While doing so he created a political empire. He united Bedouin tribes and brought order, justice, and hope of heaven to the people of Arabia Muslim lands conquered by Muhammad By 632
Muhammad died in 632 CE of a fever The Muslim community was left without a leader
Muhammad had not named a successor or told his followers how to choose a leader As a result panic spread across the empire Some clans abandoned Islam Some refused to pay taxes Some individuals declared themselves prophets
The next four caliphs, Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali, all had known Muhammad and supported his mission to spread Islam As they ruled they held Muhammad’s example and Islam to guide their decisions They became known as the “rightly-guided” caliphs “rightly-guided and their rule as a caliphate
Abu Bakr –The first elected leader of the Muslim communityMuhammad’s closest companion andAdvisorBecame the first ‘Caliph” or successor. andRuled until 634 C.E. when he diedUmar –Second “Rightly Guided Caliph” ruled until 644Uthman - Ruled until 656Close companion to Muhammad. He was withMuhammad when he conquered Mecca –His election was very tense – Should the leader beUthman or Ali?Ali- Ruled until 661Muhammad’s Son-in-Law – First male convert toIslam
Each of the “rightly guided caliphs” played a role in quadrupling the size of theMuslim Empire in the 29 years after Muhammad’s Death. Uthman and Ali completed the conquest of the Persian empire Umar expanded the empire into Egypt, Syria, and parts of the Persian Empire All four expanded into the Arabian Peninsula
In the end the empire included all ofSouth West Asia and part of North Africa
Muslims were energized by their faith and were willing to fight to spread Islam Great soldiers Byzantine and Persian empires were weakened by years of fighting Muslim conquerors let the Christians and Jews keep their faith
Over time many of the cultures brought into the Muslim empire converted to Islam because of Islam’s message of equality and hope of salvation and the tax break they would receive by becoming Muslims.
Take the quiz on Edmodo to see if you understood main ideas! Describe the role of Islamic leaders in the spread of Islam after Muhammad’s death Who were the leaders who spread Islam after Muhammad’s death? What role did they play in expanding the Muslim empire and spreading Islam?
The Sunni/ Shi’ite split began as a result of deciding who was the rightful leader of the Muslim people. In 656, there was opposition to Ali, cousin and son in law of Muhammad, taking power over the Muslim community. Those who opposed Ali supported Muhammad’s cousin Muawiya, Uthman’s cousin
After Uthman’s death a civil war broke out between different groups of Islam. One small group of Muslims believed that the caliph should be chosen by the Muslim Community The opposing side believed that the caliph should be chosen by hereditary Ali was appointed as the next caliph, but not accepted by all Muslims
After Ali’s murder the Umayyad’s took power over the Muslim empire and set up a hereditary dynasty. The leader would be chosen by birth right. The Umayyad’s moved the capital from Medina to Damascus The Umayyad caliphs abandoned the simple life of the previous prophets and adopted a more lavish lifestyle Because they wanted peace most Muslims accepted the Umayyad rule The Sunnis believed in electing the Caliphs
Ali’s supporters said that Muhammad’s family should succeed him and that he had trained Ali as his successor They didn’t accept that Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman had been real caliphs They thought that the Muawiya and his followers were more interested in power than Islam Ali’s supporters were called the Shi’a Ali (part of Ali) or Shi’ites for short They believed that the caliphs should always be a relative of the prophet
The Shi’ites never regained control of Islam There were many more Sunni Today about 10% of Muslims are Shi’ites They are a powerful minority. They have power in Iran, Pakistan, and Iraq They believe that one day the final successor to Ali called Mahdi, will come to set up the perfect Muslim state