Do Now: Take a piece of paper from the counter Complete the following: Describe the role of Muslim leaders in the expansion of the Muslim empire after Muhammad’s death (Think: Rightly Guided Caliphs and Umayyads)
Objectives Describe the role of Muslim leaders in the expansion of the Muslim empire after Muhammad’s death What were the Islamic influences and achievements developed during Muslim Empire’s “Golden Age”?
What happened after the Ambush? Abbasid CaliphateAfter the collapseof Umayyadcontrol, the MuslimEmpire was splitinto eastern andwestern territories ain) im Sp us (Musl al- Andal
Who were the Abbasids? The Abbasids were Arabs who descended from Muhammad’s family Settled in an area that was once part of the Persian Empire. As a result they adopted Persian customs and hired Persian officials to run the government They lived lives of luxury- in the example of old Persian kings Valued learning and educational pursuits Began after the overthrow of the Umayyad caliphs in 750 CE
Capital moved to Baghdad, which became an important cultural center ofAbbasid Power the Muslim Empire Due to poor leadership the Abbasid Empire fell in the early 800’s The Abbasids held onto power in two ways: By Using a Policy of Inclusion All Muslims whether Arab or non- Arab were equal By Using Force: The Abbasids used a standing army stationed at points throughout the empire during times of peace and war
A New Capital: Baghdad The Abbasids moved the capital of the Muslim Empire from Damascus to Baghdad in 762 C.E. The reason: to be closer to the people who supported the Abbasids and gave them power
A New Capital In 762, the Abbasid caliphs declared Baghdad as the new capital of the Muslim empire Baghdad became the center of trade, culture, and education in the Muslim world Located on the banks of the Tigris River and connected to the Euphrates River by a canal 1.5 million people lived there, measured 5 miles across, had hundreds of mosques, and over 65,000 public bath houses Complex irrigation systems to support farming throughout the city Gardens, racetracks, and pavilions Baghdad became the center of world trade The Islamic world became a mixture of cultures: Arab, Persian, and various others from around the world
Abbasid Advances The Abbasid empire was responsible for advances in: Medicine Mathematics Literature and poetry Art Publishing
House of Wisdom IN the 830’s the Abbasids opened “House of Wisdom” in Baghdad to meet the demand for knowledge Housed books on subjects from all over the world Translated works from the Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle Served as a center for
LiteratureLiterature byMuslim writersalso began tobecome moreand morepopular.Books such as“The ArabianNights ” werewritten during thisperiod.
Mathematics and Science Muslim Scholars built upon the ideas of ancient Greeks, Egyptians, and Indians(from India) Al-Khwarizmi (born780) borrowed the numerical system from Indian Scholars= Arabic numbering system which we still use today He also published a set of calculations which resulted in Addition
Mathematics and Science al-Razi wrote about diseases such as small pox and measles. He also published a series of medical encyclopedias, which included drawings of human anatomy
Hospitals Hospitals were set up throughout the empire Treated poor people who couldn’t pay The Hospital in Baghdad was a teaching hospital By 931 Doctors had to pass examinations in order to practice
Essential QuestionWhat challenges led to the decline of the Abbasid rule?
Poor Leadership The decline of the Abbasid empire was the result of economic, social, and political problems of their own making As early as the 800’s the Abbasid rule was challenged by factions Some Abbasid caliphs were found of living a life of luxury and neglecting their responsibilities (sounds familiar) They did little to protect merchants from attacks, which hurt trade (a major source of income for the caliphs), so they raised taxes to make up for the loss of income
Fatimid Revolt A group which claimed to be related to Muhammad’s daughter Fatima Challenged the Abbasid rule because they disliked the extravagant lifestyle of the Abbasid caliphs They drove the Abbasids out of the land which is Egypt and Tunisia today Set up their own caliphate in Northern Africa By the 960’s they ruled most of Northern Africa
The Seljuk Turks 1055 the Seljuk Turks from Central Asia captured Baghdad The Seljuk leader became ruler of the empire and allowed the Abbasid caliph to remain a religious leader Over time the Seljuks converted to Islam, expanded the size of their empire, and by 1071 captured Jerusalem By the late 1090’s threatened the Byzantine capital Constantinople, which resulted in a military response by the Christians (Crusades)
Mongols Capture Baghdad In 1258 the Mongols, lead by Ghangis Khan, overran Baghdad destroying the city The Mongols murdered over 200,000 people The claimed that they would end corruption in the city They allowed the remaining population of the empire to keep their religion and eventually the Mongols converted to Islam The Abbasid caliph was murdered and with his death came the end of the Abbasid Empire
Review Question Why did the Abbasid rule come to an end?