Sociology - The New Right

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Sociology - The New Right

  1. 1. New Right Theory
  2. 2. 1990s and the New Right <ul><li>The New Right perspective developed in response to changes in the world that started in the 1960s and 1970s but continued into the 1980s and 1990s. These changes included: </li></ul><ul><li>The decline in usefulness of the concept of First, Second and Third world due to the increased diversity between countries in developing world </li></ul><ul><li>The decline of Marxism in sociology </li></ul><ul><li>The collapse of Soviet Union </li></ul>
  3. 3. Key Names and arguments in the New Right <ul><li>Milton Friedman and Peter Bauer influenced economic policy of Thatcherism </li></ul><ul><li>This emphasised laissez-faire (leave economic forces to do what they will or the economy will be damaged) </li></ul>and Reaganism
  4. 4. <ul><li>Government interference in the market place will distort the balance of supply and demand. (E.g. the regular giving of aid upsets the price of goods and supply of labour) </li></ul>The New Right say that:
  5. 5. Friedman argues that: <ul><li>Governments should not be involved in the </li></ul><ul><li>economy except four main functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Defence </li></ul><ul><li>Law and Order </li></ul><ul><li>The provision of the necessary public works that private enterprise does not find profitable to provide </li></ul><ul><li>Protection from members of the community who ‘cannot be regarded as ‘responsible individuals’ </li></ul>
  6. 6. Peter Bauer (British development economist) <ul><li>Bauer advocates a wider range of functions </li></ul><ul><li>for governments: </li></ul><ul><li>The basic provision for health and education </li></ul><ul><li>The management of the monetary and fiscal (taxation/spending) system </li></ul>
  7. 7. Friedman and Bauer argue that: <ul><li>The production, distribution and trade of goods and services are best left to private (profit making) rather than public (government owned and regulated) organisations </li></ul><ul><li>The free market will regulate itself and lead to increased economic growth e.g. as in Hong Kong. </li></ul><ul><li>Government central planning fails to raise living standards </li></ul><ul><li>But critics say this is not the case with Sweden and </li></ul><ul><li>former Soviet Union which have been successful </li></ul>
  8. 8. New Right say that regular aid does not assist development as it distorts the free market process because: <ul><li>if a development project is economically viable then private enterprise would be willing to invest in it on a commercial basis. If not then the project should not be undertaken. </li></ul><ul><li>regular aid often end up up in the wrong hands and benefits the wealthy rather than the country’s needy </li></ul>
  9. 9. Impact of Friedman and Bauer <ul><li>Their approach has had little support even by </li></ul><ul><li>conservatives, as regular aid is still given </li></ul><ul><li>However : </li></ul><ul><li>It is increasingly linked to the acceptance of democratic and free market reforms. EG. Multi-lateral and lateral aid providers link aid in return for certain economic conditions such as ‘structural adjustments’ </li></ul><ul><li>Aid in return for certain conditions is known as </li></ul><ul><li>conditionality </li></ul>
  10. 10. Chomsky (1999) argues that - <ul><li>“The neo liberal (New Right) global order is concerned with minimising the role of the state” by doing this: </li></ul><ul><li>Power is transferred from democratically elected representatives towards financial and business elites </li></ul><ul><li>The conditionality of aid could be seen as morally unacceptable as well as counterproductive </li></ul>

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