Physical vs. Chemical Properties

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Physical vs. Chemical Properties

  1. 1. Physical versus Chemical Properties The study of matter
  2. 2. <ul><li>Matter: anything that has mass and takes up space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass – the amount of matter in something </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume – the amount of space something occupies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which of the following is matter? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A car? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A box? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You? </li></ul></ul>Reviewing MATTER
  3. 3. What is a property? <ul><li>Property : a characteristic of a substance that can be observed </li></ul>
  4. 4. Physical Property Physical property: a property that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>luster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>malleability: the ability to be hammered into a thin sheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ductility: the ability to be stretched into a wire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>melting point </li></ul><ul><li>boiling point </li></ul><ul><li>density </li></ul><ul><li>solubility </li></ul><ul><li>specific heat </li></ul>
  5. 5. Special Physical Properties <ul><li>Melting point : the temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid at a given pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>water = 0 o C </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Boiling point : the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas at a given pressure </li></ul><ul><li>water = 100 o C </li></ul>
  6. 6. Chemical Properties <ul><li>Chemical property : a property that can only be observed by changing the identity of the substance </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>flammability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ability to rust </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reactivity with vinegar </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Density <ul><li>Density is the amount of mass per unit of volume. </li></ul><ul><li>Density can be used to identify a substance. </li></ul><ul><li>The density of water is 1.0g/mL </li></ul>
  8. 8. Density Calculations <ul><li>Calculations: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D = m/V = g/mL = g/cm 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ex: A cube has a mass of 2.8 g and occupies a volume of 3.67 ml. Would this object float or sink in water? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass = 2.8 g Volume = 3.67 mL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D = 2.8g/3.67 mL= 0.76 g/mL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This object would float in water because its density is less than water (1.0 g/mL). </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. More Density Calculations <ul><li>Ex: A liquid has a mass of 25.6 g and a volume of 31.6 mL. Use the table below to identify the substance. </li></ul>M=25.6 g V=31.6 mL D = 25.6 g/31.6 mL D= 0.81 g/mL The substance is ethanol.

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