Grade 5 Science Instructional Guide Exemplar Lesson

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A sample lesson from the Grade 5 Science Instructional Guide. Embedded professional development, UDL strategies, data management tools, and technology resources are highligthed.

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Grade 5 Science Instructional Guide Exemplar Lesson

  1. 1. July 2008 Force, Motion, and Energy (FME) To scroll through the document, hold down the left click and drag the mouse, or use the scroll bar on the right side. To activate a link, hold ’Ctrl’ and click on the link. A new window will open. OVERVIEW FOR LESSON 1 A Force Is a Push or Pull Students observe objects in motion and complete a KWL based on their prior knowledge of forces and motion. Through guided discussion of teacher demonstrations, students begin to recognize that a force is a push or pull, and that an unbalanced force is necessary for any changes in motion to occur. Enduring Understandings An object’s motion is described using distance, time, direction, and speed. Changes in mass and force affect an object’s motion. Essential Questions How do we describe an object’s change in motion? What causes an object to change its motion? Indicator Guiding Instruction Standards Based Curriculum Development 5.5. A.2 Explain that the changes in the motion of objects are determined by the mass of an object and the amount (size) of the force applied to it. Resources Supporting Instruction Imbedded Professional Development (PD) DE streaming video segment Making Things Move (2:51) Web site http://physics.about.com/od/physics101thebasics/u/basicconcepts.htm provides general content support for teachers. What is motion? Science Closer Look (SCL), pp. 380–381. Students read the same section later. Science Closer Look: English Language Learner Teacher’s Guide (ELG), pp. 118–121 Preparation Make a giant pendulum by hanging a string from the ceiling where all students can observe it. Tie a large paper clip to the end and hang one large washer on the paper clip. Clear a path for the swings. This pendulum will be used throughout the unit. Gather materials to demonstrate the three types of motion. See Notes to Support Teacher Background Content Knowledge (NOTES) at end of lesson. Cue the DE streaming video segment. Prepare Force, Motion, and Energy KWL on chart paper or overhead with the column titles: I Think I Know, I Want to Know, and I Learned. Students will need a journal or section in a notebook to record notes and organize worksheets. Grade 5 ● DRAFT ● ©2008 MCPS Science 11
  2. 2. July 2008 Force, Motion, and Energy (FME) Engage Pull the pendulum back and release it. As students watch it swing, say: ―How do we know something moved or has motion?‖ Do not accept responses at this time but ask them to think about what they know about things that are moving. Stop the pendulum and introduce the KWL. Ask students to brainstorm on their own papers everything they think they know about motion and what they want to learn. Give them a minute or two to brainstorm and then record ideas on the class KWL. Place the KWL in a visible and accessible location. It will be refined over the course of the unit and can be used as a tool to support an activator or summarizer activity for any lesson. Embedded Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Strategies ESOL and Special Education: Science Closer Look: English Language Learner Teacher’s Guide (ELG) includes strategies on page 119 to support the KWL development. It also includes a list of physics terms in English and Spanish on page 120 and other general strategies on page 121 to assist in front–loading of instruction. Emphasize the graphics in the textbook and their connection to the text. When possible, ask students to draw or identify pictures that match scientific terms instead of asking them to write what they mean. For an online audio glossary, students can access: http://www.macmillanmh.com/science/2008/student/na/grade5/glossary/index.html. Explore During the demonstrations of the three types of motion (see NOTES), use the questions below to guide student discussion. Acknowledge all reasonable answers but do not accept: ―I just know‖ or ―I can see it.‖ This can prove to be a frustrating discussion, as students struggle with recognizing that they decide that something is moving by comparing it to something that they assume is not moving, or stationary (at rest). The types of motion are introduced here and explicitly taught in Lesson 3. Do not introduce the terms at this time. Place an object so it is visible to all students and does not move. Technology Support: Ask: ―Is the object moving?‖ ―How do you know?‖ Video of Model Lesson Video of lesson being modeled at training made available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dPsFZBvMvhE Make the object move and ask: ―Is the object moving?‖ ―How do you know?‖ Present other demonstrations based on the three types of motion and continue to challenge students to answer the question: ―How do you know the object is moving?‖ If possible, guide discussion to the concept that one knows something has motion by comparing it to something that is assumed to be stationary (at rest). Tell students that they will revisit this topic in the next lesson. Ask students: ―What causes the motion you are observing?‖ Repeat the earlier demonstrations and ask students to share their ideas. Ask students: ―Can an object be moved or change its motion if nothing touches the object?‖ Due to prior knowledge, students may mention gravity or magnets. If they do not, drop an object, emphasizing to students that it is simply being dropped and not pushed down. Explain In guided discussion, revisit the student responses to the questions above, emphasizing the terms push and pull. For example: ―The ball was pushed off of the desk… Gravity pulled the Grade 5 ● DRAFT ● ©2008 MCPS Science 12
  3. 3. July 2008 Force, Motion, and Energy (FME) ball down the inclined plane toward the center of Earth….A magnet pushed another magnet away…The wind’s air molecules pushed the paper.‖ Based on prior knowledge, students may mention static electricity’s ability to push or pull another charged or uncharged object. PD Well-Designed Investigations: Explain to students the difference between an inference and an observation. For example, an observation is “the ball fell to the ground when I let it go.” However, an inference is “gravity pulled the ball to the ground.” Emphasize that an observation is typically something a student can point to, and that there is little room for argument. An inference explains what they observed. It is often difficult for students to state simple observations that only describe what is observed without introducing terms that explain what is observed. Ask students: ―What terms did you hear me emphasize?‖ Focus students on the need for a push or pull to cause changes in motion. UDL Technology Show the DE streaming video segment Making Things Move (2:51) and ask students to identify the force that changes an object’s motion: starts it, stops it, slows it down, speeds it up, or changes its direction. After the video, ask students: ―What is needed for something to start moving?‖ Emphasize that a push or pull, also known as a force, is required, but that a change in motion does not require one object to touch another. UDL Evaluate (Formative Assessment) Formative On an exit card or in the journal, ask students to complete the following: assessments 1. What is necessary in order for an object to change its motion? prepare for summative A force, or a push or pull, must be applied to an object to cause change to its motion. Forces can make objects move without one object touching another (gravity, magnetism, static assessment electricity). Click: Results 2. Draw a labeled diagram or describe an example to explain your answer. Walk around the room to assess understanding and to identify any misconceptions. Reteach as necessary and add to the KWL as appropriate. If time permits, share aloud. Extend Ask students: ―If a force is needed to start something moving, what do you think is needed to stop something that is moving? What would make sense?‖ Guide students to the concept that any change in motion requires an unbalanced force. UDL Enrich/Accelerate/Reteach Ask students to research Newton’s life based on the leveled reader Sir Isaac Newton, pages 2– 9 and present what they learn, comparing/contrasting students’ lives today to Newton’s. Students could build a waterwheel, pinwheel, or other device to demonstrate different forces causing motion. Additional online resources that reinforce textbook content are available at: http://www.macmillanmh.com/science/2008/student/na/grade5/g5_ch11.html. Technology Technology resources embedded in other lessons and units include: Scenarios: http://phet.colorado.edu/simulations/sims.php?sim=Circuit_Construction_Kit_DC_Only Videos: http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/scienceopticsu/powersof10/ Activities: http://www.kidsastronomy.com/astroskymap/constellations.htm Grade 5 ● DRAFT ● ©2008 MCPS Science 13
  4. 4. July 2008 Force, Motion, and Energy (FME) PD NOTES TO SUPPORT TEACHER BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE Biology Connection There are no muscles exerting a push force in the human body. All muscles can only pull. Therefore, all motion is due to a pull. When walking, the calf muscle pulls the back of the foot causing it to push against the floor. That causes forward motion. When bending an arm, the bicep muscle pulls the forearm. When the heart contracts, or pulls together, it pumps blood. Chemistry Connection Wind involves air molecules (oxygen, nitrogen, etc.), which are pieces of matter with mass, pushing another object like a sail, leaves, etc. Force A push or pull. However, any change in motion, including stopping, starting, changing speed, or changing direction requires an unbalanced force, meaning the force(s) in one direction are greater than the force(s) in another. When an object is subject to balanced forces, it can be stationary (at rest) or it can be in motion. The velocity of an object in motion, but subject to balanced forces, remains the same. It continues in the exact same direction at the exact same speed. Gravity The force that all objects exert on each other because of their mass. It is typically referred to as the force that pulls objects toward the center of Earth at a constant acceleration of 9.8 m/s2. Due to the pull of gravity, the speed of falling objects increases but the speed of objects pushed upwards decreases. An index at the end of the Motion guide references all Notes by A change in position in a certain amount of time. instructional unit and topic. Newton’s First Law of Motion (The Law of Inertia) Every object remains in a state of rest, or a state of motion at a constant velocity (i.e., in a straight line at a constant speed), unless compelled to change that state by an unbalanced force. Basically, whatever an object is doing, it will keep on doing in the exact same way until some force makes it change. Constant velocity is difficult for students to comprehend due to their limited understanding of friction as a force. Inertia is not a force. It is the tendency of an object to resist change. The greater the mass, the greater the inertia and the more force required to change its state of motion. Three Types of Motion 1. Uniform—equal distances traveled in equal times; any motion in a straight line at a constant speed (escalator, conveyor belt, vehicle on the highway on cruise control, walking at a constant pace) 2. Variable—different distances traveled in equal times; any motion with a changing speed (ball rolling down a inclined plane, vehicle increasing and/or decreasing speed, walking faster/slower/faster, one arc swing of a pendulum, or skydiver/parachute) 3. Periodic—any motion that repeats itself in a regular cycle (a bouncing ball, a swinging pendulum, the second hand on the classroom clock, or a vibrating spring, guitar string, or rubber band) Grade 5 ● DRAFT ● ©2008 MCPS Science 14
  5. 5. Name: ________________________ Investigation: Mass and Force Testable Question: How does mass affect a force? Hypothesis: If the mass increases, then the force causing motion will _____________________. Directions 1. Set up investigation as shown in diagram. 2. Start Line This investigation is typical of the types of learning experiences students have during the unit, allowing students to engage in tactile events that require an application of what they have learned. The earlier investigations have more guidance. This investigation occurs as one of the last in the unit. Technology Additional support, including spreadsheets that will graph the data for this investigation and others, is available in the Elementary > Grade 5 > Science Curriculum Archive. Observations Quantitative Observations Data Table Number of Washers Trial 1 Distance Trial 2 Cart Travels Trial 3 (cm) Mean Qualitative Observations Grade 5 ● DRAFT ● ©2008 MCPS Science 62
  6. 6. Graph ______________________________________________________ Mean Distance Cart Travels (cm) Number of Washers Conclusion Was your hypothesis supported by the data? Using quantitative data from the investigation, describe how the mass of an object affects its force. In your response, be sure to correctly use the terms force, mass, and distance. Include the appropriate number data. Grade 5 ● DRAFT ● ©2008 MCPS Science 63

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