SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 37
Download to read offline
Sociology Chapter 2
Chapter 2: Cultural Diversity and
Conformity
Case Study: Body Ritual Among the Nacirema
Section 1: The Meaning of Culture
Section 2: Cultural Variation
Section 3: The American Value System
Lab: Applying What You’ve Learned
Case Study: Body Ritual Among the Nacirema
Ceremonies and rituals are an important part of any culture.
In the 1950s, Horace Miner examined some of the rituals of
the Nacirema culture. His description of the culture included
a portrait of an average Nacirema and his or her daily body
ritual. Although the language Miner used made the culture
seem exotic and strange, the description was a truthful
representation of the Nacirema morning ritual.
Section 1 at a Glance- Just read over
The Meaning of Culture

• Culture is made up of the material and nonmaterial products
of human groups. All cultures share the same components.
• A society is a group of interdependent people who share a
common culture and feeling of unity. Society differs from
culture in that societies are made up of people and cultures
are made up of products.
• All cultures share certain elements:
technology, symbols, language, values, and norms.
How did the car
influence American
culture?
What Is Culture?
Culture consists of all the shared products of human
groups, both physical and abstract. A society consists of
interdependent people who share a culture.
Physical products

Abstract products

• Known as material culture
• Includes
automobiles, books, building, cl
othing, computers, and cooking
utensils

• Known as nonmaterial culture
• Beliefs, family patterns,
ideas, language, political
and economic
systems, rules, skills, and work
practices
The Components of Culture- There are 5 in all
Technology
• Refers to objects and the rules for using them
• Any tool and its usage
• Any rule that makes a use of an object illegal

Symbols
• The basis of human culture
• Any words, gestures, or images
• Different cultures use different symbols
The Components of Culture
Language
• Organization of written or spoken symbols into a standardized system
• Can be used to express any idea

Values
• Values are shared beliefs
• Distinguish between good and bad, right and wrong, desirable and
undesirable
• Group’s values help to determine character and culture
The Components of Culture

Norms
• Shared rules of conduct in specific situations
• Folkways do not carry heavy moral significance
• Mores carry heavy moral significance

• Laws are written and enforced by government
Section 2 at a Glance- Just read
Cultural Variation

• Cultures can be very different from one another in many ways.
There are, however, certain features that all cultures share.
These are known as cultural universals.
• Variations exist between societies, but they also exist within
societies. Subcultures and countercultures are examples of
variations within societies.
• Sociologists must take care to view cultural variations without
bias, allowing each culture to be judged by its own standards
and not those of another culture.
Time for Dinner
How do everyday
activities such as eating
dinner differ from
culture to culture?
What Do We All Have in Common?
• Humans have ability to meet needs in a vast number of ways
• Ability only limited by biological makeup and physical environment
• Ability leads to great diversity in many ways

Cultural Universals
• Cultural universals are features developed by all societies to fulfill basic
needs
• George Murdock compiled list of over 65 cultural universals
• Specific nature of the universals may vary widely between cultures
Find the Main Idea
What are cultural universals?

Answer: features that are common to all cultures
Cultural Variations
Subculture

Counterculture

• Groups that share traits with each
other but not the larger society

• Countercultures adopt values that
are designed to challenge the
values of the larger society

• Examples are groups organized by
age, gender, politics, or geography
• Most do not reject all of the values
of the larger society
• Most subcultures do not threaten
the larger American culture

• Examples are groups such as
cyberpunks, anarchists, the
Mafia, and hippies
Contrast
What is the difference between a subculture and a counterculture?

Answer: Subcultures accept most values of the core
society, but have certain variations, such as
language, not shared by the larger society;
counterculture rejects the values of larger society and
substitutes its own set of values and cultural patterns.
Response to Variation
Ethnocentrism
• A tendency to view one’s own culture and group as superior
• People from all cultures are somewhat ethnocentric at different times
• Can lead to discrimination
• Can cause the home culture to stagnate
• Even professional scholars struggle with ethnocentrism

Cultural Relativism
• Cultural relativism is the idea that a culture should be judged by its own
standards
• Can help explain beliefs or behaviors that seem strange or different
Identify
How might ethnocentrism
cause discrimination?

Answer: People who think their own culture is superior
to another culture may begin to think people of the
other culture are inferior.
Cultural Change
• Cultural diffusion
• Cultural diffusion is the spreading of culture traits from one
society to another
• Today it can happen almost instantly
• Cultural lag
• Cultural lag is the time it takes for nonmaterial culture to “catch
up” to changes in material culture
• Cultural leveling
• Cultural leveling is a process by which cultures become more
and more alike
• Some suggest it is the first step toward a global culture
Summarize
What are the major processes
of cultural change?

Answer: cultural diffusion and cultural leveling
Cultural Diversity and Sociology
The Adaptive American Culture
The long history of immigration to the United States has resulted in an
American culture that embraces values, behaviors, and material culture from
other cultures around the world.
• Latino influence is especially strong
as Hispanics are the largest
minority group

• South Asians are becoming a larger
and larger portion of U.S.
population

• Influences food, clothes, and cars
available

• Pakistani and Indian food has
quickly become more popular

• Latino holidays are celebrated

• Bollywood movies are popular

• Spanish-language advertisements
are common
Thinking Critically
• How have immigrant groups influenced American culture?
• What are some examples of how food, business practices, and
advertising have changed because of immigration?
Section 3 at a Glance- Just Read
The American Value System

• Over the years, sociologists have identified what they believe
are the core values of American society.
• Among these values are work, individualism, morality and
humanitarianism, personal achievement, and others.

• American values have not stayed the same over time, however.
New values, such as respect for the environment, regularly
develop and become part of American culture.
The American Value System
Main Idea
Even though American society is quite diverse, there are certain core values
that the vast majority of Americans share.
How important is work
in the American value
system?
Other Core Values
• Nationalism
• Patriotism
• Science and rationality
• Racial and group superiority
• Education

• Religion
• Romantic love
Our Changing Values
While the United States has a set of core values, new
values or changed values are sometimes noted.
New Values

Self-fulfillment and Narcissism

•
•
•
•
•
•

• Some scholars see selffulfillment as a healthy new
value, while others view its
extreme, narcissism, as
detrimental to society as a
whole.

Leisure
Physical fitness
Youthfulness
Self-fulfillment
Environmentalism
Progress
Reading Check
Analyze
In what ways have
American values changed?

Answer: There has been an increased emphasis on
values such as leisure, physical fitness, and youthfulness
that can be termed self-fulfillment, as well as an
increased interest in protecting the environment.
Lab: Applying What You’ve Learned
Analyzing Material Culture
How can material culture be used to tell about cultural
values and differences?
1. Introduction

2. Selecting Your Items

• In this lab, you will compare
your values with others in the
American Teen subculture.
• Bring two items that reveal your
values.
• Compare your items with those
of classmates.

• Choose one item you value
highly and one that you place
little value on.
• Decide what value, if any, you
place on the item.
Lab (cont.)

3. Analyzing Your
Selection

4. Presenting and Judging
the Items

• Write an analysis of your
chosen items.

• The class will decide for each
item whether the item has value
or not.

• Describe the process you used
to choose your items.

• Each student will then explain
what his or her items were, and
why he or she placed such a
value on the items.
Lab (cont.)

5. Discussion
• Hold a group discussion about the differences in valuation that you
discovered.
• How would these valuations change over time or place?

More Related Content

What's hot

Social and cultural change in society
Social and cultural change in societySocial and cultural change in society
Social and cultural change in societyBurhan Bukhari
 
Stratification: Chapter7
Stratification: Chapter7 Stratification: Chapter7
Stratification: Chapter7 Ray Brannon
 
Sociology meaning and perspectives
Sociology meaning and perspectivesSociology meaning and perspectives
Sociology meaning and perspectivesDwyn Neth
 
Week 3: Society
Week 3: Society Week 3: Society
Week 3: Society kilgore1
 
Family and industrialization
Family and industrializationFamily and industrialization
Family and industrializationCherelle Belairy
 
Sociology: Introduction, perspectives, scope, fields and significance
Sociology: Introduction, perspectives, scope, fields and significanceSociology: Introduction, perspectives, scope, fields and significance
Sociology: Introduction, perspectives, scope, fields and significanceMuhammad Fahad Malik Awan
 
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION
SOCIAL STRATIFICATIONSOCIAL STRATIFICATION
SOCIAL STRATIFICATIONMiss Ivy
 
Chapter 6 deviance and social control ppt
Chapter 6 deviance and social control pptChapter 6 deviance and social control ppt
Chapter 6 deviance and social control pptNuux Kadiye
 
ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL LIFE: SOCIAL INEQUALITY
ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL LIFE: SOCIAL INEQUALITYELEMENTS OF SOCIAL LIFE: SOCIAL INEQUALITY
ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL LIFE: SOCIAL INEQUALITYDanielle Soulliere
 
Economic institution
Economic institutionEconomic institution
Economic institutionworkanneship
 
Theories of religion
Theories of religionTheories of religion
Theories of religionMomna Rani
 
Introduction to FUNCTIONALISM
Introduction to FUNCTIONALISMIntroduction to FUNCTIONALISM
Introduction to FUNCTIONALISMmfi2302
 
Sociology and social policy
Sociology and social policySociology and social policy
Sociology and social policysmccormac7
 

What's hot (20)

Religion (Sociology)
Religion (Sociology)Religion (Sociology)
Religion (Sociology)
 
Social and cultural change in society
Social and cultural change in societySocial and cultural change in society
Social and cultural change in society
 
Whatissociology
WhatissociologyWhatissociology
Whatissociology
 
Stratification: Chapter7
Stratification: Chapter7 Stratification: Chapter7
Stratification: Chapter7
 
Impact of Industry on family
Impact of Industry on familyImpact of Industry on family
Impact of Industry on family
 
Sociology meaning and perspectives
Sociology meaning and perspectivesSociology meaning and perspectives
Sociology meaning and perspectives
 
Week 3: Society
Week 3: Society Week 3: Society
Week 3: Society
 
Family and industrialization
Family and industrializationFamily and industrialization
Family and industrialization
 
Sociology: Introduction, perspectives, scope, fields and significance
Sociology: Introduction, perspectives, scope, fields and significanceSociology: Introduction, perspectives, scope, fields and significance
Sociology: Introduction, perspectives, scope, fields and significance
 
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION
SOCIAL STRATIFICATIONSOCIAL STRATIFICATION
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION
 
Chapter 6 deviance and social control ppt
Chapter 6 deviance and social control pptChapter 6 deviance and social control ppt
Chapter 6 deviance and social control ppt
 
ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL LIFE: SOCIAL INEQUALITY
ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL LIFE: SOCIAL INEQUALITYELEMENTS OF SOCIAL LIFE: SOCIAL INEQUALITY
ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL LIFE: SOCIAL INEQUALITY
 
Sociology 101 Chapter 1
Sociology 101   Chapter 1Sociology 101   Chapter 1
Sociology 101 Chapter 1
 
Economic institution
Economic institutionEconomic institution
Economic institution
 
Theories of religion
Theories of religionTheories of religion
Theories of religion
 
Durkheim
DurkheimDurkheim
Durkheim
 
Durkheim and
Durkheim andDurkheim and
Durkheim and
 
Introduction to FUNCTIONALISM
Introduction to FUNCTIONALISMIntroduction to FUNCTIONALISM
Introduction to FUNCTIONALISM
 
George simmel
George simmelGeorge simmel
George simmel
 
Sociology and social policy
Sociology and social policySociology and social policy
Sociology and social policy
 

Viewers also liked

FE401: Chapter IV - Socialization
FE401: Chapter IV - SocializationFE401: Chapter IV - Socialization
FE401: Chapter IV - SocializationPiseth Chea
 
Chapter 2
Chapter 2Chapter 2
Chapter 2MEEvans
 
Sociology chapter 1
Sociology chapter 1Sociology chapter 1
Sociology chapter 1Ray Brannon
 
2015, CHAPTER 4 SOCIOLOGY : EDUCATION AND SOCIALIZATION
2015, CHAPTER 4 SOCIOLOGY : EDUCATION AND SOCIALIZATION 2015, CHAPTER 4 SOCIOLOGY : EDUCATION AND SOCIALIZATION
2015, CHAPTER 4 SOCIOLOGY : EDUCATION AND SOCIALIZATION NURUL AQILAH MUSARI
 
Family and marriage...their types.
Family and marriage...their types.Family and marriage...their types.
Family and marriage...their types.Zahra Naz
 
Adler clark 4e ppt 07
Adler clark 4e ppt 07Adler clark 4e ppt 07
Adler clark 4e ppt 07arpsychology
 
Advertising and society (selling ideas with a heart)
Advertising and society (selling ideas with a heart)Advertising and society (selling ideas with a heart)
Advertising and society (selling ideas with a heart)Nagarjun Kandukuru
 
Characteristics of culture
Characteristics of cultureCharacteristics of culture
Characteristics of cultureJevelyn Mataas
 
Prof.dr. halit hami öz sociology-chapter 5-socialization
Prof.dr. halit hami öz sociology-chapter 5-socializationProf.dr. halit hami öz sociology-chapter 5-socialization
Prof.dr. halit hami öz sociology-chapter 5-socializationProf. Dr. Halit Hami Öz
 
Types of advertisement
Types of advertisementTypes of advertisement
Types of advertisementNijaz N
 
Family & Marriage
Family & MarriageFamily & Marriage
Family & MarriageJ_Wheat
 
Chapter 1 The Sociological Perspective
Chapter 1  The  Sociological  PerspectiveChapter 1  The  Sociological  Perspective
Chapter 1 The Sociological Perspectiveplisasm
 
A2 media revision
A2 media revisionA2 media revision
A2 media revisionMsJMcLeod
 
Questionnaires (AS Sociology Research Methods)
Questionnaires (AS Sociology Research Methods)Questionnaires (AS Sociology Research Methods)
Questionnaires (AS Sociology Research Methods)Mehek Iqbal
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Soc Ch 1 notes
Soc Ch 1 notesSoc Ch 1 notes
Soc Ch 1 notes
 
FE401: Chapter IV - Socialization
FE401: Chapter IV - SocializationFE401: Chapter IV - Socialization
FE401: Chapter IV - Socialization
 
Chapter 2 sociological research
Chapter 2 sociological researchChapter 2 sociological research
Chapter 2 sociological research
 
Chapter 2
Chapter 2Chapter 2
Chapter 2
 
Sociology chapter 1
Sociology chapter 1Sociology chapter 1
Sociology chapter 1
 
Ethical issues of IS
Ethical issues of ISEthical issues of IS
Ethical issues of IS
 
Marriage & family
Marriage & familyMarriage & family
Marriage & family
 
2015, CHAPTER 4 SOCIOLOGY : EDUCATION AND SOCIALIZATION
2015, CHAPTER 4 SOCIOLOGY : EDUCATION AND SOCIALIZATION 2015, CHAPTER 4 SOCIOLOGY : EDUCATION AND SOCIALIZATION
2015, CHAPTER 4 SOCIOLOGY : EDUCATION AND SOCIALIZATION
 
Chapter 2
Chapter 2Chapter 2
Chapter 2
 
Family and marriage...their types.
Family and marriage...their types.Family and marriage...their types.
Family and marriage...their types.
 
Adler clark 4e ppt 07
Adler clark 4e ppt 07Adler clark 4e ppt 07
Adler clark 4e ppt 07
 
Advertising and society (selling ideas with a heart)
Advertising and society (selling ideas with a heart)Advertising and society (selling ideas with a heart)
Advertising and society (selling ideas with a heart)
 
Characteristics of culture
Characteristics of cultureCharacteristics of culture
Characteristics of culture
 
Prof.dr. halit hami öz sociology-chapter 5-socialization
Prof.dr. halit hami öz sociology-chapter 5-socializationProf.dr. halit hami öz sociology-chapter 5-socialization
Prof.dr. halit hami öz sociology-chapter 5-socialization
 
Types of advertisement
Types of advertisementTypes of advertisement
Types of advertisement
 
Chapter 1
Chapter 1Chapter 1
Chapter 1
 
Family & Marriage
Family & MarriageFamily & Marriage
Family & Marriage
 
Chapter 1 The Sociological Perspective
Chapter 1  The  Sociological  PerspectiveChapter 1  The  Sociological  Perspective
Chapter 1 The Sociological Perspective
 
A2 media revision
A2 media revisionA2 media revision
A2 media revision
 
Questionnaires (AS Sociology Research Methods)
Questionnaires (AS Sociology Research Methods)Questionnaires (AS Sociology Research Methods)
Questionnaires (AS Sociology Research Methods)
 

Similar to Sociology Chapter 2

Similar to Sociology Chapter 2 (20)

Ch2
Ch2Ch2
Ch2
 
Lec 6 & 7.pptx
Lec 6 & 7.pptxLec 6 & 7.pptx
Lec 6 & 7.pptx
 
Organization of Culture PS&C - Week four
Organization of Culture PS&C - Week fourOrganization of Culture PS&C - Week four
Organization of Culture PS&C - Week four
 
Culture part 2 ss
Culture part 2 ssCulture part 2 ss
Culture part 2 ss
 
Study unit 3 culture
Study unit 3 cultureStudy unit 3 culture
Study unit 3 culture
 
chapter three.pptx
chapter three.pptxchapter three.pptx
chapter three.pptx
 
Culture
CultureCulture
Culture
 
Culture
CultureCulture
Culture
 
Culture
Culture Culture
Culture
 
Culture
CultureCulture
Culture
 
Organization of culture
Organization of cultureOrganization of culture
Organization of culture
 
Chapter 3 4th ed
Chapter 3 4th edChapter 3 4th ed
Chapter 3 4th ed
 
Chapter3 4thed 150204090422-conversion-gate01
Chapter3 4thed 150204090422-conversion-gate01Chapter3 4thed 150204090422-conversion-gate01
Chapter3 4thed 150204090422-conversion-gate01
 
Culture_3.pptx
Culture_3.pptxCulture_3.pptx
Culture_3.pptx
 
Culture.pptx
Culture.pptxCulture.pptx
Culture.pptx
 
culture.pptx
culture.pptxculture.pptx
culture.pptx
 
Socio101 report pres
Socio101 report presSocio101 report pres
Socio101 report pres
 
Chapter 2.pptx
Chapter 2.pptxChapter 2.pptx
Chapter 2.pptx
 
UNDERSTANDIND CULTURE, SOCIETY AND POLITICS w3 m3.pptx
UNDERSTANDIND CULTURE, SOCIETY AND POLITICS w3 m3.pptxUNDERSTANDIND CULTURE, SOCIETY AND POLITICS w3 m3.pptx
UNDERSTANDIND CULTURE, SOCIETY AND POLITICS w3 m3.pptx
 
introduction to culture and society
introduction to culture and societyintroduction to culture and society
introduction to culture and society
 

More from mrsbreedsclass

Kennedy and lewis primary document activity
Kennedy and lewis primary document activityKennedy and lewis primary document activity
Kennedy and lewis primary document activitymrsbreedsclass
 
Chapter 20 section 3 ppt
Chapter 20 section 3 pptChapter 20 section 3 ppt
Chapter 20 section 3 pptmrsbreedsclass
 
Post war Confidence and Anxiety Ch 19
Post war Confidence and Anxiety Ch 19Post war Confidence and Anxiety Ch 19
Post war Confidence and Anxiety Ch 19mrsbreedsclass
 
Chapter 19 section 2 Post-war America
Chapter 19 section 2 Post-war AmericaChapter 19 section 2 Post-war America
Chapter 19 section 2 Post-war Americamrsbreedsclass
 
Chapter 19 section Post War America
Chapter 19 section Post War AmericaChapter 19 section Post War America
Chapter 19 section Post War Americamrsbreedsclass
 
Chapter 19 section 1- underlined areas on Chapter 19 Test
Chapter 19 section 1- underlined areas on Chapter 19 TestChapter 19 section 1- underlined areas on Chapter 19 Test
Chapter 19 section 1- underlined areas on Chapter 19 Testmrsbreedsclass
 
Start of the Cold War or Origins of the Cold War
Start of the Cold War or Origins of the Cold WarStart of the Cold War or Origins of the Cold War
Start of the Cold War or Origins of the Cold Warmrsbreedsclass
 
The Origins of the Cold War Stanford lesson 11.1 powerpoint
The Origins of the Cold War Stanford lesson 11.1 powerpointThe Origins of the Cold War Stanford lesson 11.1 powerpoint
The Origins of the Cold War Stanford lesson 11.1 powerpointmrsbreedsclass
 
Chap 18 sect 2 The Korean War
Chap 18 sect 2 The Korean WarChap 18 sect 2 The Korean War
Chap 18 sect 2 The Korean Warmrsbreedsclass
 

More from mrsbreedsclass (18)

Kennedy and lewis primary document activity
Kennedy and lewis primary document activityKennedy and lewis primary document activity
Kennedy and lewis primary document activity
 
Chapter 20 section 3 ppt
Chapter 20 section 3 pptChapter 20 section 3 ppt
Chapter 20 section 3 ppt
 
Chapter 20 section 2
Chapter 20 section 2Chapter 20 section 2
Chapter 20 section 2
 
Chapter 20 sect 1
Chapter 20 sect 1Chapter 20 sect 1
Chapter 20 sect 1
 
Post war Confidence and Anxiety Ch 19
Post war Confidence and Anxiety Ch 19Post war Confidence and Anxiety Ch 19
Post war Confidence and Anxiety Ch 19
 
Chapter 19 Section 3
Chapter 19 Section 3Chapter 19 Section 3
Chapter 19 Section 3
 
Chapter 19 section 4
Chapter 19 section 4Chapter 19 section 4
Chapter 19 section 4
 
Chapter 19 Section 3
Chapter 19 Section 3Chapter 19 Section 3
Chapter 19 Section 3
 
Chapter 19 section 2 Post-war America
Chapter 19 section 2 Post-war AmericaChapter 19 section 2 Post-war America
Chapter 19 section 2 Post-war America
 
Chapter 19 section Post War America
Chapter 19 section Post War AmericaChapter 19 section Post War America
Chapter 19 section Post War America
 
Chapter 19 section 1- underlined areas on Chapter 19 Test
Chapter 19 section 1- underlined areas on Chapter 19 TestChapter 19 section 1- underlined areas on Chapter 19 Test
Chapter 19 section 1- underlined areas on Chapter 19 Test
 
Chapter 19 section 1
Chapter 19 section 1Chapter 19 section 1
Chapter 19 section 1
 
The 1950s Economy
The 1950s EconomyThe 1950s Economy
The 1950s Economy
 
The Cold War at Home
The Cold War at HomeThe Cold War at Home
The Cold War at Home
 
The Cold War Expands
The Cold War ExpandsThe Cold War Expands
The Cold War Expands
 
Start of the Cold War or Origins of the Cold War
Start of the Cold War or Origins of the Cold WarStart of the Cold War or Origins of the Cold War
Start of the Cold War or Origins of the Cold War
 
The Origins of the Cold War Stanford lesson 11.1 powerpoint
The Origins of the Cold War Stanford lesson 11.1 powerpointThe Origins of the Cold War Stanford lesson 11.1 powerpoint
The Origins of the Cold War Stanford lesson 11.1 powerpoint
 
Chap 18 sect 2 The Korean War
Chap 18 sect 2 The Korean WarChap 18 sect 2 The Korean War
Chap 18 sect 2 The Korean War
 

Recently uploaded

All These Sophisticated Attacks, Can We Really Detect Them - PDF
All These Sophisticated Attacks, Can We Really Detect Them - PDFAll These Sophisticated Attacks, Can We Really Detect Them - PDF
All These Sophisticated Attacks, Can We Really Detect Them - PDFMichael Gough
 
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examplesTesting tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examplesKari Kakkonen
 
Microservices, Docker deploy and Microservices source code in C#
Microservices, Docker deploy and Microservices source code in C#Microservices, Docker deploy and Microservices source code in C#
Microservices, Docker deploy and Microservices source code in C#Karmanjay Verma
 
JET Technology Labs White Paper for Virtualized Security and Encryption Techn...
JET Technology Labs White Paper for Virtualized Security and Encryption Techn...JET Technology Labs White Paper for Virtualized Security and Encryption Techn...
JET Technology Labs White Paper for Virtualized Security and Encryption Techn...amber724300
 
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdfGenerative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdfIngrid Airi González
 
Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...
Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...
Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...Jeffrey Haguewood
 
WomenInAutomation2024: AI and Automation for eveyone
WomenInAutomation2024: AI and Automation for eveyoneWomenInAutomation2024: AI and Automation for eveyone
WomenInAutomation2024: AI and Automation for eveyoneUiPathCommunity
 
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)Kaya Weers
 
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...Nikki Chapple
 
Français Patch Tuesday - Avril
Français Patch Tuesday - AvrilFrançais Patch Tuesday - Avril
Français Patch Tuesday - AvrilIvanti
 
A Glance At The Java Performance Toolbox
A Glance At The Java Performance ToolboxA Glance At The Java Performance Toolbox
A Glance At The Java Performance ToolboxAna-Maria Mihalceanu
 
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdfConnecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdfNeo4j
 
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyesHow to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyesThousandEyes
 
Arizona Broadband Policy Past, Present, and Future Presentation 3/25/24
Arizona Broadband Policy Past, Present, and Future Presentation 3/25/24Arizona Broadband Policy Past, Present, and Future Presentation 3/25/24
Arizona Broadband Policy Past, Present, and Future Presentation 3/25/24Mark Goldstein
 
2024 April Patch Tuesday
2024 April Patch Tuesday2024 April Patch Tuesday
2024 April Patch TuesdayIvanti
 
Infrared simulation and processing on Nvidia platforms
Infrared simulation and processing on Nvidia platformsInfrared simulation and processing on Nvidia platforms
Infrared simulation and processing on Nvidia platformsYoss Cohen
 
Varsha Sewlal- Cyber Attacks on Critical Critical Infrastructure
Varsha Sewlal- Cyber Attacks on Critical Critical InfrastructureVarsha Sewlal- Cyber Attacks on Critical Critical Infrastructure
Varsha Sewlal- Cyber Attacks on Critical Critical Infrastructureitnewsafrica
 
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)Mark Simos
 
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC SalesData and LibraryData -...
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC SalesData and LibraryData -...Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC SalesData and LibraryData -...
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC SalesData and LibraryData -...BookNet Canada
 
Digital Tools & AI in Career Development
Digital Tools & AI in Career DevelopmentDigital Tools & AI in Career Development
Digital Tools & AI in Career DevelopmentMahmoud Rabie
 

Recently uploaded (20)

All These Sophisticated Attacks, Can We Really Detect Them - PDF
All These Sophisticated Attacks, Can We Really Detect Them - PDFAll These Sophisticated Attacks, Can We Really Detect Them - PDF
All These Sophisticated Attacks, Can We Really Detect Them - PDF
 
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examplesTesting tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
 
Microservices, Docker deploy and Microservices source code in C#
Microservices, Docker deploy and Microservices source code in C#Microservices, Docker deploy and Microservices source code in C#
Microservices, Docker deploy and Microservices source code in C#
 
JET Technology Labs White Paper for Virtualized Security and Encryption Techn...
JET Technology Labs White Paper for Virtualized Security and Encryption Techn...JET Technology Labs White Paper for Virtualized Security and Encryption Techn...
JET Technology Labs White Paper for Virtualized Security and Encryption Techn...
 
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdfGenerative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
 
Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...
Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...
Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...
 
WomenInAutomation2024: AI and Automation for eveyone
WomenInAutomation2024: AI and Automation for eveyoneWomenInAutomation2024: AI and Automation for eveyone
WomenInAutomation2024: AI and Automation for eveyone
 
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
 
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
 
Français Patch Tuesday - Avril
Français Patch Tuesday - AvrilFrançais Patch Tuesday - Avril
Français Patch Tuesday - Avril
 
A Glance At The Java Performance Toolbox
A Glance At The Java Performance ToolboxA Glance At The Java Performance Toolbox
A Glance At The Java Performance Toolbox
 
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdfConnecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
 
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyesHow to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
How to Effectively Monitor SD-WAN and SASE Environments with ThousandEyes
 
Arizona Broadband Policy Past, Present, and Future Presentation 3/25/24
Arizona Broadband Policy Past, Present, and Future Presentation 3/25/24Arizona Broadband Policy Past, Present, and Future Presentation 3/25/24
Arizona Broadband Policy Past, Present, and Future Presentation 3/25/24
 
2024 April Patch Tuesday
2024 April Patch Tuesday2024 April Patch Tuesday
2024 April Patch Tuesday
 
Infrared simulation and processing on Nvidia platforms
Infrared simulation and processing on Nvidia platformsInfrared simulation and processing on Nvidia platforms
Infrared simulation and processing on Nvidia platforms
 
Varsha Sewlal- Cyber Attacks on Critical Critical Infrastructure
Varsha Sewlal- Cyber Attacks on Critical Critical InfrastructureVarsha Sewlal- Cyber Attacks on Critical Critical Infrastructure
Varsha Sewlal- Cyber Attacks on Critical Critical Infrastructure
 
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
 
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC SalesData and LibraryData -...
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC SalesData and LibraryData -...Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC SalesData and LibraryData -...
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC SalesData and LibraryData -...
 
Digital Tools & AI in Career Development
Digital Tools & AI in Career DevelopmentDigital Tools & AI in Career Development
Digital Tools & AI in Career Development
 

Sociology Chapter 2

  • 2. Chapter 2: Cultural Diversity and Conformity Case Study: Body Ritual Among the Nacirema Section 1: The Meaning of Culture Section 2: Cultural Variation Section 3: The American Value System Lab: Applying What You’ve Learned
  • 3. Case Study: Body Ritual Among the Nacirema Ceremonies and rituals are an important part of any culture. In the 1950s, Horace Miner examined some of the rituals of the Nacirema culture. His description of the culture included a portrait of an average Nacirema and his or her daily body ritual. Although the language Miner used made the culture seem exotic and strange, the description was a truthful representation of the Nacirema morning ritual.
  • 4. Section 1 at a Glance- Just read over The Meaning of Culture • Culture is made up of the material and nonmaterial products of human groups. All cultures share the same components. • A society is a group of interdependent people who share a common culture and feeling of unity. Society differs from culture in that societies are made up of people and cultures are made up of products. • All cultures share certain elements: technology, symbols, language, values, and norms.
  • 5. How did the car influence American culture?
  • 6. What Is Culture? Culture consists of all the shared products of human groups, both physical and abstract. A society consists of interdependent people who share a culture. Physical products Abstract products • Known as material culture • Includes automobiles, books, building, cl othing, computers, and cooking utensils • Known as nonmaterial culture • Beliefs, family patterns, ideas, language, political and economic systems, rules, skills, and work practices
  • 7. The Components of Culture- There are 5 in all Technology • Refers to objects and the rules for using them • Any tool and its usage • Any rule that makes a use of an object illegal Symbols • The basis of human culture • Any words, gestures, or images • Different cultures use different symbols
  • 8. The Components of Culture Language • Organization of written or spoken symbols into a standardized system • Can be used to express any idea Values • Values are shared beliefs • Distinguish between good and bad, right and wrong, desirable and undesirable • Group’s values help to determine character and culture
  • 9. The Components of Culture Norms • Shared rules of conduct in specific situations • Folkways do not carry heavy moral significance • Mores carry heavy moral significance • Laws are written and enforced by government
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12. Section 2 at a Glance- Just read Cultural Variation • Cultures can be very different from one another in many ways. There are, however, certain features that all cultures share. These are known as cultural universals. • Variations exist between societies, but they also exist within societies. Subcultures and countercultures are examples of variations within societies. • Sociologists must take care to view cultural variations without bias, allowing each culture to be judged by its own standards and not those of another culture.
  • 13. Time for Dinner How do everyday activities such as eating dinner differ from culture to culture?
  • 14. What Do We All Have in Common? • Humans have ability to meet needs in a vast number of ways • Ability only limited by biological makeup and physical environment • Ability leads to great diversity in many ways Cultural Universals • Cultural universals are features developed by all societies to fulfill basic needs • George Murdock compiled list of over 65 cultural universals • Specific nature of the universals may vary widely between cultures
  • 15.
  • 16. Find the Main Idea What are cultural universals? Answer: features that are common to all cultures
  • 17. Cultural Variations Subculture Counterculture • Groups that share traits with each other but not the larger society • Countercultures adopt values that are designed to challenge the values of the larger society • Examples are groups organized by age, gender, politics, or geography • Most do not reject all of the values of the larger society • Most subcultures do not threaten the larger American culture • Examples are groups such as cyberpunks, anarchists, the Mafia, and hippies
  • 18. Contrast What is the difference between a subculture and a counterculture? Answer: Subcultures accept most values of the core society, but have certain variations, such as language, not shared by the larger society; counterculture rejects the values of larger society and substitutes its own set of values and cultural patterns.
  • 19. Response to Variation Ethnocentrism • A tendency to view one’s own culture and group as superior • People from all cultures are somewhat ethnocentric at different times • Can lead to discrimination • Can cause the home culture to stagnate • Even professional scholars struggle with ethnocentrism Cultural Relativism • Cultural relativism is the idea that a culture should be judged by its own standards • Can help explain beliefs or behaviors that seem strange or different
  • 20.
  • 21. Identify How might ethnocentrism cause discrimination? Answer: People who think their own culture is superior to another culture may begin to think people of the other culture are inferior.
  • 22. Cultural Change • Cultural diffusion • Cultural diffusion is the spreading of culture traits from one society to another • Today it can happen almost instantly • Cultural lag • Cultural lag is the time it takes for nonmaterial culture to “catch up” to changes in material culture • Cultural leveling • Cultural leveling is a process by which cultures become more and more alike • Some suggest it is the first step toward a global culture
  • 23. Summarize What are the major processes of cultural change? Answer: cultural diffusion and cultural leveling
  • 24. Cultural Diversity and Sociology The Adaptive American Culture The long history of immigration to the United States has resulted in an American culture that embraces values, behaviors, and material culture from other cultures around the world. • Latino influence is especially strong as Hispanics are the largest minority group • South Asians are becoming a larger and larger portion of U.S. population • Influences food, clothes, and cars available • Pakistani and Indian food has quickly become more popular • Latino holidays are celebrated • Bollywood movies are popular • Spanish-language advertisements are common
  • 25.
  • 26. Thinking Critically • How have immigrant groups influenced American culture? • What are some examples of how food, business practices, and advertising have changed because of immigration?
  • 27. Section 3 at a Glance- Just Read The American Value System • Over the years, sociologists have identified what they believe are the core values of American society. • Among these values are work, individualism, morality and humanitarianism, personal achievement, and others. • American values have not stayed the same over time, however. New values, such as respect for the environment, regularly develop and become part of American culture.
  • 28. The American Value System Main Idea Even though American society is quite diverse, there are certain core values that the vast majority of Americans share.
  • 29. How important is work in the American value system?
  • 30.
  • 31. Other Core Values • Nationalism • Patriotism • Science and rationality • Racial and group superiority • Education • Religion • Romantic love
  • 32.
  • 33. Our Changing Values While the United States has a set of core values, new values or changed values are sometimes noted. New Values Self-fulfillment and Narcissism • • • • • • • Some scholars see selffulfillment as a healthy new value, while others view its extreme, narcissism, as detrimental to society as a whole. Leisure Physical fitness Youthfulness Self-fulfillment Environmentalism Progress
  • 34. Reading Check Analyze In what ways have American values changed? Answer: There has been an increased emphasis on values such as leisure, physical fitness, and youthfulness that can be termed self-fulfillment, as well as an increased interest in protecting the environment.
  • 35. Lab: Applying What You’ve Learned Analyzing Material Culture How can material culture be used to tell about cultural values and differences? 1. Introduction 2. Selecting Your Items • In this lab, you will compare your values with others in the American Teen subculture. • Bring two items that reveal your values. • Compare your items with those of classmates. • Choose one item you value highly and one that you place little value on. • Decide what value, if any, you place on the item.
  • 36. Lab (cont.) 3. Analyzing Your Selection 4. Presenting and Judging the Items • Write an analysis of your chosen items. • The class will decide for each item whether the item has value or not. • Describe the process you used to choose your items. • Each student will then explain what his or her items were, and why he or she placed such a value on the items.
  • 37. Lab (cont.) 5. Discussion • Hold a group discussion about the differences in valuation that you discovered. • How would these valuations change over time or place?