Chiaroscuro• An Italian term that means "light- dark.”• In art it is characterized by strong contrasts between light and dark.• It is also a technical term used by artists and art historians for using contrasts of light to achieve a sense of volume in representing three-dimensional objects.• Artists who are famed for the use of chiaroscuro include Leonardo da Vinci and Caravaggio. Mona Lisa (1503-1519) Leonardo da Vinci
The Value ScaleA simple drawing tool that helps you see and draw values by comparison.It ranges from white to black, with the center value being called “middle gray.” High Key = White to Middle Gray Low Key = Black to Middle Gray middle gray
How to Use a Value ScaleWhen you are drawing, hold the value scale next to the object, squint youreyes, and, see what part of the gray scale matches. Then check the valueagainst the drawing
Seated River God, Nymph with an Oar, and Putto - Giambattista Tiepolo In a high-key artwork, the majority of values are in theHigh Key lighter to middle gray. Dark accents are used to lead the eye around the important areas of the painting.
Saint Peter in Prison (1631) Rembrandt In a low-key artwork, the majority of values are darkerLow Key then middle gray. Light values are saved as accents to highlight the important elements in the painting.
Contrast• When creating contrast with light, you pair light and dark values. • Contrast creates interest in a piece and often draws the eye to certain areas.• High Contrast: Artwork that uses very little middle values, and primarily values from opposite ends of the value scale.• Low Contrast: Artwork that primarily uses a wide range of values. Eden Concert (1866-1867) Georges Seurat
Christ in the Garden (1603) CaravaggioTenebrism Using high-contrast for a dramatic effect.
Using Value to Represent a 3-D Object• There are NO OUTLINES in a value drawing. Use a difference in value to create edges.• Using an eraser is useful to add light areas to a drawing.• Keep your pencil sharp.• Before you draw, identify the direction of the light source, which will allow you to correctly place highlights and shadows.• Squint your eyes to help simplify the shapes and values you see.
The Cast Shadow - This is the darkest dark. It is the shadow that is cast byan object on a surface that it is laying on. The cast shadow is the darkestwhere the object and surface touch, and will get lighter as it gets farther awayfrom the object.
Shadow Edge - This value is on the opposite side of the light source.It isnot the edge of the object.
Mid-Tone - This is what the actual color of the object is, without any effectsfrom light or shadow.
Reﬂected Light - This is the light that is seen around an object, usuallybetween the cast shadow and the shadow edge. Its the light that is bouncingoff of the surfaces around the object. This value is never bright white.
Full Light - This is where the light source hits the object at full strength. It isusually shown by the white of the paper. All the areas of gray around the fulllight should be blended so that there is a smooth, gradual transition betweenthem.