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  1. 1. + Propaganda
  2. 2. + What is Propaganda?  The manipulation of public opinion.  An attempt to change opinions by persuasively presenting new ones.  Can range from Public Service Announcements to Political Campaign Ads.
  3. 3. + Common Propaganda Techniques  Word games  Name-calling  Glittering generalities  Euphemisms  False connections  Transfer  Testimonial  Special Appeals  Plain Folks  Bandwagon  Fear  Logical Fallacies  Bad Logic  Unwarranted extrapolation
  4. 4. + Word Games: Name Calling  Words that link a person, or idea, to a negative symbol.  Examples include:  Commie  Fascist  Pig  Yuppie  Bum  Queer  Terrorist  Traitor
  5. 5. + Word Games: Glittering Generalities  Words used to make us approve and accept without examining the evidence.  Examples include:  Civilization  Christianity  Proper  Democracy  Patriotism  Motherhood  Fatherhood
  6. 6. + Word Games: Euphemisms  Words used to pacify the audience in order to make an unpleasant reality more palatable.  Examples include:  Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder  Collateral Damage  Certified Pre-Owned
  7. 7. + False Connections: Transfer  Use the respect we hold for one authority to sell an idea or cause.  This type of propaganda often uses symbols.  For example:  Nazi propaganda used science and religion to justify anti-Semitism.
  8. 8. + False Connections: Testimonial  Using the words of a celebrity of political figure to sell an idea or product.  This technique can be used to create a well-balanced argument if the source is qualified to make judgments about a particular topic.  If the source IS NOT qualified to offer an opinion, the testimonial becomes propaganda.
  9. 9. + Special Appeals: Plain Folks  Used to convince the general audience the speaker is “one of them.”  Examples include:  Bill Clinton ate at McDonalds and confessed a fondness for trashy spy novels.  George Bush Sr. hated broccoli, and loved to fish.  Ronald Reagan was often photographed chopping wood.  Jimmy Carter presented himself as a humble peanut farmer from Georgia.
  10. 10. + Special Appeals: Bandwagon  “Everyone else is doing it, and so should you.”  Appeals to people as a group, for example:  Catholics  Jews  Housewives  Farmers
  11. 11. + Special Appeals: Fear  A technique used to convince the audience something bad will happen if they do not follow a particular course of action.  Four elements of a fear appeal:  a threat  a specific recommendation about how the audience should behave  audience perception that the recommendation will be effective in addressing the threat  audience perception that they are capable of performing the recommended behavior
  12. 12. + Logical Fallacies: Bad Logic  Using an argument that makes huge predictions about the future on the basis of a few small facts.  Examples include:  If the United States approves NAFTA, the giant sucking sound that we hear will be the sound of thousands of jobs and factories disappearing to Mexico.  The introduction of communication tools such as the Internet will lead to a radical decentralization of government, greater political participation, and a rebirth of community.
  13. 13. + Logical Fallacies: Unwarranted Extrapolation  Logic is the process of drawing a conclusion from one or more premises.  Propagandists deliberately manipulate logic in order to promote their cause.  Example:  Premise 1: Hillary Clinton supports gun-control legislation.  Premise 2: All fascist regimes of the twentieth century have passed gun-control legislation.  Conclusion: Hillary Clinton is a fascist.
  14. 14. + 10 Commandments of Propaganda (1937 - Institute for Propaganda Analysis)  Divide and conquer  Use "expert" testimonial.  Tell the people what they want.  Always refer to the "authority" of your sources.  The bigger the lie, the more people will believe it.  Stack the cards with "information."  Always appeal to the lowest common denominator.  A confused people are easily led.  Generalize as much as possible.  Get the "plain folks" onto the "bandwagon."