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Ch 2 Sec 2 - Uniting For Independence


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Ch 2 Sec 2 - Uniting For Independence

  1. 1. Magna Carta - Great Charter -Signed in 1215 -By King John of England -Establishes the “rule of law” The Magna Carta helped to limit the power of the monarch. It gave nobles protections such as: -No taxation without representation -Trial by Jury
  2. 2. The Petition of Right - 1628 1. Monarch needs consent from Parliament to collect taxes 2. Need just cause to imprison people 3. No Quarter (cannot house troops in private homes)
  3. 3. The English Bill of Rights 1. Monarchs do not have divine right 2. Monarch cannot interfere w/ Parliament elections 3. Petition the gov’t 4. No cruel or unusual punishment
  4. 4. Jamestown 1st successful British colony in America- 1607
  5. 5. Content Vocabulary • Limited Government- the power of the monarch or government is limited by the people. • Representative Government- a gov’t in which the people elect delegates to make laws and policies. • Separation of Powers- the power to make, execute, and interpret laws is divided b/w the legislature, king, and courts.
  6. 6. • Approximately 150 years of self rule!
  7. 7. The Original 13 Colonies The 13 colonies borrowed ideas of limited and representative gov’t from Britain to help govern their colonies
  8. 8. The French and Indian War • 1754-1763 • French and Indians vs. British and the colonists for control of the Ohio Valley and parts of Canada.
  9. 9. King George III 1760
  10. 10. Stamp Act 1765 • Stamp Act laced a tax on legal documents • Angered the Colonists • Stamp Act Congress formed – meeting of the colonist to discuss retaliation
  11. 11. The Boston MassacreThe Boston Massacre ((March 5,1770March 5,1770 ))
  12. 12. CommitteesCommittees of Correspondenceof Correspondence PurposePurpose  warn neighboring colonieswarn neighboring colonies about incidents with Br.about incidents with Br.  broaden the resistancebroaden the resistance movement.movement.
  13. 13. Tea ActTea Act (1773)(1773) 8 British East India Co.:British East India Co.:  Monopoly on Br. teaMonopoly on Br. tea imports.imports.  Many members ofMany members of Parl. held shares.Parl. held shares.  Permitted the Co. toPermitted the Co. to sell tea directly tosell tea directly to cols. without col.cols. without col. middlemenmiddlemen (cheaper tea!)(cheaper tea!) 8 North expected theNorth expected the cols. to eagerly choosecols. to eagerly choose the cheaper tea.the cheaper tea.
  14. 14. Boston Tea PartyBoston Tea Party (1773)(1773)
  15. 15. The Coercive orThe Coercive or IntolerableIntolerable ActsActs (1774)(1774) Lord NorthLord North 1.1. Port BillPort Bill 2.2. Government ActGovernment Act 4.4. Administration ofAdministration of Justice ActJustice Act 3.3. New QuarteringNew Quartering ActAct
  16. 16. First ContinentalFirst Continental CongressCongress (1774)(1774)55 delegates from 12 colonies55 delegates from 12 colonies AgendaAgenda  How toHow to respond to therespond to the Coercive Acts &Coercive Acts & the Quebec Act?the Quebec Act? 1 vote per colony1 vote per colony represented.represented.
  17. 17. The British AreThe British Are ComingComing . . .. . . Paul ReverePaul Revere && William DawesWilliam Dawes make theirmake their midnight ride to warn themidnight ride to warn the MinutemenMinutemen ofof approaching British soldiers.approaching British soldiers.
  18. 18. The Shot HeardThe Shot Heard ’’Round the WorldRound the World!! LexingtonLexington && ConcordConcord – April 18,1775– April 18,1775
  19. 19. The SecondThe Second Continental CongressContinental Congress (1775)(1775) Olive Branch PetitionOlive Branch Petition
  20. 20. Thomas PaineThomas Paine:: Common SenseCommon Sense
  21. 21. Declaration ofDeclaration of IndependenceIndependence (1776)(1776)
  22. 22. Declaration ofDeclaration of IndependenceIndependence
  23. 23. Independence HallIndependence Hall
  24. 24. NewNew NationalNational SymbolsSymbols
  25. 25. Articles of Confederation • 1781 – 1789 – First national government of the US. • Weak Central government with many weaknesses
  26. 26. Articles vs. Constitution Articles of Confederation Constitution Levying taxes Congress could request states to pay taxes Congress has right to levy taxes on individuals Federal courts No system of federal courts Court system created to deal with issues between citizens, states Regulation of trade No provision to regulate interstate trade Congress has right to regulate trade between states Executive No executive with power. President of U.S. merely presided over Congress Executive branch headed by President who chooses Cabinet and has checks on power of judiciary and legislature Amending document 13/13 needed to amend Articles 2/3 of both houses of Congress plus 3/4 of state legislatures or national convention Representation of states Each state received 1 vote regardless of size Upper house (Senate) with 2 votes; lower house (House of Representatives) based on population Raising an army Congress could not draft troops, dependent on states to contribute forces Congress can raise an army to deal with military situations Interstate commerce No control of trade between states Interstate commerce controlled by Congress Disputes between states Complicated system of arbitration Federal court system to handle disputes Sovereignty Sovereignty resides in states Constitution the supreme law of the land Passing laws 9/13 needed to approve legislation 50%+1 of both houses plus signature of President
  27. 27. Articles of the Confederation • Critical Period in American history – Laws were not enforced – No President – Many disputes between states – No Supreme Court – Congress did not have enough $ for government – Difficult to get laws passed – Foreign countries had little respect for US – Almost impossible to make changes to government
  28. 28. Critical Period • Rebellion – Shay’s Rebellion -Daniel Shays organized farmers throughout New England to protest The rebellion came to a head on January 25, 1787. – This rebellion demonstrated the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, and convinced many states of the need for a stronger central government.