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ENGLAND
The Renaissance
War of the Roses
Rise of the Tudors
Henry VIII and his Heirs
THE RENAISSANCE
1485 - 1660
Crash Course American History #22
RENAISSANCE
 French word meaning: rebirth
 Renewed interest in classical learning – the
writings of ancient Greece and R...
IS IT REALLY A RENAISSANCE?
 Didn’t know that they were living
in the renaissance
 Historical periods are historians’
in...
RELIGION
HUMANISM

 Intellectual movement
 Found no conflicts between the
Church and ancient Roman
moralists
 Sought to...
FAMOUS HUMANIST

Sir Thomas More
 Most famous work

Utopia
 Was knighted
 Became a chief minister
and advisor to King
H...
THE REFORMATION
 A need to reform the corruption in
the church
 Reformers rejected the authority of the
pope and the Ita...
WARS OF THE ROSES
1455-1485
House of Lancaster
vs.
House of York
Wars of the Roses

 30 years of non stop fighting
 Shortly after peace with France, two
families began war over English
...
(Yorkist Line)

HH Wars of the Roses

(Lancastrian Line)
END OF THE
WARS
 Battle of Bosworth (1485)
 Henry Tudor (Lancastrian)
defeats Richard III killed
 Crowned Henry VII
 M...
RESULTS OF THE WAR OF THE ROSES:
 Broke feudal power of the nobles
 End of the Middle Ages
 Power shift: Many nobles sl...
THE TUDORS
1485 - 1603
HENRY VII
THE FIRST TUDOR KING
HENRY VII
 Anyone who opposed him
at Bosworth was executed
 BUT…was considered a
good king
 Sought prosperity for
Engla...
ARTHUR
 Henry VII’s eldest son
 Political marriage to Catherine of
Aragon at age 15
 She was Intelligent, well educated...
WHAT TO DO WITH CATHERINE?

Henry VII needs
Catherine’s fortune to
protect against the French
HENRY VII’S SOLUTION
 His other son will marry
Catherine
 Marriage takes 7 years to
negotiate
 Pope displeased

 Henry...
HENRY VIII
 Humanist
 Catholic, but saw
need for reform
 Sympathetic to
Protestants
He didn’t begin as an
evil tyrant
TROUBLE IN PARADISE
 Catherine fails to
produce a male heir
 Six failed pregnancies
 They do have a child: a
girl.
I GOT 99 PROBLEMS
Henry wants to
divorce Catherine
and marry his
mistress (one of his
many) Anne Boleyn
The Roman Cathol...
THE HOMEWRECKER
 Anne Boleyn
 Minor nobility
 Family desperate to
raise status
 Sister had already
been Henry’s
mistre...
ADVICE
 Henry’s longtime
advisors and friends
said – “Accept God’s
will.”
 Cardinal Wolsey –
Catholic Church
 Thomas Mo...
MORE ADVICE
 Thomas Cranmer
 Turn Protestant, divorce
Catherine.
 Outlaw Catholics,
confiscate wealth that
the churches...
HENRY VIII AND THE NEW
CHURCH
1534 Act of Supremacy =
“only supreme head of the
Church of England” is the
king.
Sold confi...
DESTROYING ENEMIES
Desperation drove him to
these decisions, but he was
conflicted about them and so
became paranoid.
 Be...
WHAT ABOUT CATHERINE?
 “Divorced”, house
arrest
 Daughter Mary
declared illegitimate
for refusing to become
Protestant
...
WHAT ABOUT ANNE?
 Does not produce a
male heir, either.
Miscarries 2 sons
 Daughter (Elizabeth)
 Fiery nature wore thin...
#3 JANE SEYMOUR
 The obedient one
 Married within a
week of Anne’s
death
 Protestant

 October 1537 -- a son.
 She di...
PRINCE EDWARD
 Sickly
 Henry worried he
was being punished
for his actions
 Attempts
relationship with
Mary and Elizabe...
#4 ANNE OF CLEVES
 Cranmer helps find
her
 Protestant German
Princess from a
family known for
producing a lot of
childre...
#4 ANNE OF CLEVES
Married January 9, 1540
Divorced July 9, 1540
Stayed “friend” of King Henry
Outlived Henry
HENRY’S DILEMMA
 Considered returning to
Catholicism
 Edward – still sickly
 Mary – now was favored
(she’s Catholic)
 ...
WIFE #5: KATHERINE HOWARD





29 years younger
Barely educated
Catholic
Cousin to Anne
Boleyn
WIFE #5: KATHERINE HOWARD
Married 1540
Accused of adultery
Beheaded 1542
She was only 19
WIFE #6: CATHERINE PARR
 Outlived Henry
 Henry favoring
Catholics
 Alarmed many Protestants

 Married to
Protestant wi...
Catherine of Aragon
m. 1509-1533
DIVORCED

Anne Boleyn
m. 1533-1536
EXECUTED

Jane Seymour
m. 1536-1537
DIED

Anne of Clev...
HENRY ON HIS DEATHBED
HENRY’S MESS
Country tired of
religious see-sawing
Next king: Edward
Protestant

Next in Line: Mary
Catholic

After her: E...
KING EDWARD VII
 Never a strong king
 Ascended to the
throne at age 10
 Was controlled by
advisors until he came
of age...
(“BLOODY”) MARY I (R. 1553-1558)
 Bitter
 Goal: return England
to Catholicism
 Outlawed Protestants
and burned people a...
MARY I
 Revenge on
Thomas Cranmer
 Blamed him for
Henry leaving
Catholicism and
divorcing her
mother
 Tortured, burned ...
THE FEELINGS OF THE PEOPLE
Conflicted
Catholics = Pope has supremacy
Protestants = believe in King over Pope
Act of Suprem...
MARY’S PROBLEM
Mary was childless
Only heir was Elizabeth
Bitter personal feelings

Mary and Elizabeth prior to
Mary’s dea...
ELIZABETH I
(CORONATION, AGE 20)

“I know I have
the body of a
weak and feeble
woman, but I
have the heart
and stomach of ...
ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Developed a compromise
to please the Roman
Catholic and the
Protestant churches;
probably saved England
fr...
AFTER DEFEAT OF THE SPANISH ARMADA
(AGE 55)

Speech to the
troops at Tilbury
(pg 366)
ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Developed a compromise
to please the Roman
Catholic and the
Protestant churches;
probably saved England
fr...
ACCOMPLISHMENTS
She funded voyages of
discovery to the Americas;
expeditions prepared
England for an age of
colonization a...
ELIZABETH I
The Virgin Queen
 “I am married to England”

The Cult of Love
 Poems and literature about
her or dedicated t...
TWO MINUTE TUDOR REVIEW
ELIZABETHAN BEAUTY
THE IDEAL WOMAN
 Pale skin created by the use of ceruse
(a mixture of white lead and vinegar),
some wo...
ELIZABETHAN BEAUTY
THE IDEAL WOMAN
 Juxtaposition of Elizabeth and
the Virgin Mary – nobility and
Christian imagery
The c...
SONNET
P E T R A RC H A N

 Francesco Petrarca, Italian
 Two parts (14 lines total):
Octave: eight lines
Sestet: six lin...
MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS

Chief Rival of Elizabeth
Catholic heroine
Exiled from Scotland, “guest” of
Elizabeth for 18 years
Di...
MARY AND HER SON, JAMES
Tudorsand waroftheroses
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Tudorsand waroftheroses

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Tudorsand waroftheroses

  1. 1. ENGLAND The Renaissance War of the Roses Rise of the Tudors Henry VIII and his Heirs
  2. 2. THE RENAISSANCE 1485 - 1660 Crash Course American History #22
  3. 3. RENAISSANCE  French word meaning: rebirth  Renewed interest in classical learning – the writings of ancient Greece and Rome  Renewal of the human spirit – a renewal of curiosity and creativity  Began in Italy  Optimistic view of humanity
  4. 4. IS IT REALLY A RENAISSANCE?  Didn’t know that they were living in the renaissance  Historical periods are historians’ inventions, useful labels for complex phenomena  Occurred gradually  Was an intellectual movement, therefore did not affect most on their day to day
  5. 5. RELIGION HUMANISM  Intellectual movement  Found no conflicts between the Church and ancient Roman moralists  Sought to harmonize the bible and the classics  Use the classics to strengthen Christianity The Roman Catholic Church  Predominant religion  Very rich and powerful, even in politics  Popes were patrons of artists, architects, and scholars Pope Julius II comissioned Michelangelo for the Sistine Chapel  Very corrupt: - simony – buying and selling of clerical offices
  6. 6. FAMOUS HUMANIST Sir Thomas More  Most famous work Utopia  Was knighted  Became a chief minister and advisor to King Henry VIII (not his smartest life choice)
  7. 7. THE REFORMATION  A need to reform the corruption in the church  Reformers rejected the authority of the pope and the Italian churchmen  Strong patriotism and national identity made the English people resent the financial burdens imposed by the Vatican and the foreign power of the pope.  Martin Luther founded a Christianity based on a personal understanding of the bible - published The Ninety-Five Theses on the church door in 1517
  8. 8. WARS OF THE ROSES 1455-1485 House of Lancaster vs. House of York
  9. 9. Wars of the Roses  30 years of non stop fighting  Shortly after peace with France, two families began war over English throne  Lancasters (red rose) vs. Yorks (white rose) HH Wars of the Roses
  10. 10. (Yorkist Line) HH Wars of the Roses (Lancastrian Line)
  11. 11. END OF THE WARS  Battle of Bosworth (1485)  Henry Tudor (Lancastrian) defeats Richard III killed  Crowned Henry VII  Marries the Elizabeth of York unite the two houses and to legitimize his claim as king Richard III Henry Tudor New symbol – double rose Elizabeth of York
  12. 12. RESULTS OF THE WAR OF THE ROSES:  Broke feudal power of the nobles  End of the Middle Ages  Power shift: Many nobles slain during the wars; their estates confiscated by the Crown  Lawlessness  Desire for strong gov. brings peace and prosperity  Reestablished royal power  Created the beginning of modern England  Beginning of the Tudor dynasty
  13. 13. THE TUDORS 1485 - 1603
  14. 14. HENRY VII THE FIRST TUDOR KING
  15. 15. HENRY VII  Anyone who opposed him at Bosworth was executed  BUT…was considered a good king  Sought prosperity for England.  In love with his wife and had 5 children
  16. 16. ARTHUR  Henry VII’s eldest son  Political marriage to Catherine of Aragon at age 15  She was Intelligent, well educated, good parents, extremely wealthy, and very well connected  Arthur dies in 1502 Died in 1502
  17. 17. WHAT TO DO WITH CATHERINE? Henry VII needs Catherine’s fortune to protect against the French
  18. 18. HENRY VII’S SOLUTION  His other son will marry Catherine  Marriage takes 7 years to negotiate  Pope displeased  Henry VII wants a better alliance for his son  When young Henry becomes king, marries Catherine
  19. 19. HENRY VIII  Humanist  Catholic, but saw need for reform  Sympathetic to Protestants He didn’t begin as an evil tyrant
  20. 20. TROUBLE IN PARADISE  Catherine fails to produce a male heir  Six failed pregnancies  They do have a child: a girl.
  21. 21. I GOT 99 PROBLEMS Henry wants to divorce Catherine and marry his mistress (one of his many) Anne Boleyn The Roman Catholic Church and the pope will not grant him a divorce
  22. 22. THE HOMEWRECKER  Anne Boleyn  Minor nobility  Family desperate to raise status  Sister had already been Henry’s mistress
  23. 23. ADVICE  Henry’s longtime advisors and friends said – “Accept God’s will.”  Cardinal Wolsey – Catholic Church  Thomas More -Humanist
  24. 24. MORE ADVICE  Thomas Cranmer  Turn Protestant, divorce Catherine.  Outlaw Catholics, confiscate wealth that the churches, monasteries, and convents have in England  Reward: Henry makes him an archbishop in new church
  25. 25. HENRY VIII AND THE NEW CHURCH 1534 Act of Supremacy = “only supreme head of the Church of England” is the king. Sold confiscated church land to the nobles in exchange for their loyalty. 1534 Act of Succession = Legitimizes children of Henry and Anne.
  26. 26. DESTROYING ENEMIES Desperation drove him to these decisions, but he was conflicted about them and so became paranoid.  Beheaded, imprisoned, an d intimidated those who opposed him  Sir Thomas More: Beheaded  Archbishop Wolsey: gave his home, wealth to Henry, still arrested, died before execution
  27. 27. WHAT ABOUT CATHERINE?  “Divorced”, house arrest  Daughter Mary declared illegitimate for refusing to become Protestant  She couldn’t be a princess which means she can’t ever be queen
  28. 28. WHAT ABOUT ANNE?  Does not produce a male heir, either. Miscarries 2 sons  Daughter (Elizabeth)  Fiery nature wore thin  Convicted of treason, beheaded
  29. 29. #3 JANE SEYMOUR  The obedient one  Married within a week of Anne’s death  Protestant  October 1537 -- a son.  She died in childbirth
  30. 30. PRINCE EDWARD  Sickly  Henry worried he was being punished for his actions  Attempts relationship with Mary and Elizabeth  Mary must renounce her mother and her church
  31. 31. #4 ANNE OF CLEVES  Cranmer helps find her  Protestant German Princess from a family known for producing a lot of children.  False advertising – she doesn’t look anything like her portrait
  32. 32. #4 ANNE OF CLEVES Married January 9, 1540 Divorced July 9, 1540 Stayed “friend” of King Henry Outlived Henry
  33. 33. HENRY’S DILEMMA  Considered returning to Catholicism  Edward – still sickly  Mary – now was favored (she’s Catholic)  Elizabeth (Protestant)out of favor
  34. 34. WIFE #5: KATHERINE HOWARD     29 years younger Barely educated Catholic Cousin to Anne Boleyn
  35. 35. WIFE #5: KATHERINE HOWARD Married 1540 Accused of adultery Beheaded 1542 She was only 19
  36. 36. WIFE #6: CATHERINE PARR  Outlived Henry  Henry favoring Catholics  Alarmed many Protestants  Married to Protestant widow in 1543 until his death in 1548.  Helped improve relationship to Elizabeth
  37. 37. Catherine of Aragon m. 1509-1533 DIVORCED Anne Boleyn m. 1533-1536 EXECUTED Jane Seymour m. 1536-1537 DIED Anne of Cleves m. 1540 Jan - July DIVORCED Kathryn Howard m. 1540 -1542 EXECUTED Katherine Parr m. 1543 -1547 SURVIVED HH Henry’s Six Wives
  38. 38. HENRY ON HIS DEATHBED
  39. 39. HENRY’S MESS Country tired of religious see-sawing Next king: Edward Protestant Next in Line: Mary Catholic After her: Elizabeth Protestant
  40. 40. KING EDWARD VII  Never a strong king  Ascended to the throne at age 10  Was controlled by advisors until he came of age; but died first  Strongly Protestant  Penalties for being Catholic  Died childless in 1553
  41. 41. (“BLOODY”) MARY I (R. 1553-1558)  Bitter  Goal: return England to Catholicism  Outlawed Protestants and burned people at the stake for being “heretics”  300 executions  Married cousin  Involved England in Spanish causes  No children
  42. 42. MARY I  Revenge on Thomas Cranmer  Blamed him for Henry leaving Catholicism and divorcing her mother  Tortured, burned as heretic
  43. 43. THE FEELINGS OF THE PEOPLE Conflicted Catholics = Pope has supremacy Protestants = believe in King over Pope Act of Supremacy says king is the true head of the Church, but Mary is Catholic Married to Spanish King Protestantism is official religion, but many privately practicing Catholicism Fighting the Catholics draining the people and treasury
  44. 44. MARY’S PROBLEM Mary was childless Only heir was Elizabeth Bitter personal feelings Mary and Elizabeth prior to Mary’s death Elizabeth becomes queen (1558-1603)
  45. 45. ELIZABETH I (CORONATION, AGE 20) “I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a king of England.”
  46. 46. ACCOMPLISHMENTS Developed a compromise to please the Roman Catholic and the Protestant churches; probably saved England from religious wars
  47. 47. AFTER DEFEAT OF THE SPANISH ARMADA (AGE 55) Speech to the troops at Tilbury (pg 366)
  48. 48. ACCOMPLISHMENTS Developed a compromise to please the Roman Catholic and the Protestant churches; probably saved England from religious wars
  49. 49. ACCOMPLISHMENTS She funded voyages of discovery to the Americas; expeditions prepared England for an age of colonization and expansion Under her reign, the arts flourished; miniature painting was at a high point and the theater thrived
  50. 50. ELIZABETH I The Virgin Queen  “I am married to England” The Cult of Love  Poems and literature about her or dedicated to her The Golden Age  The time of her rule was economically prosperous and domestically peaceful
  51. 51. TWO MINUTE TUDOR REVIEW
  52. 52. ELIZABETHAN BEAUTY THE IDEAL WOMAN  Pale skin created by the use of ceruse (a mixture of white lead and vinegar), some women willing to be bled to achieve perfect paleness  Hair/Wigs: fair hair (blond or red), some used urine for blond, henna for red, or eschewed dying all together for wigs  Eyes/lips/cheeks: kohl used to darken eyelashes (kind of like mascara). Blush (rouge) was a must; achieved by using mercuric sulfide (also used on the lips)
  53. 53. ELIZABETHAN BEAUTY THE IDEAL WOMAN  Juxtaposition of Elizabeth and the Virgin Mary – nobility and Christian imagery The colors are symbolic  Red: Christ’s blood  White: Christ’s flesh, purity  Gold: God’s glory, The Golden Age
  54. 54. SONNET P E T R A RC H A N  Francesco Petrarca, Italian  Two parts (14 lines total): Octave: eight lines Sestet: six lines  Volta: the transition between the two parts SHAKESPEREAN  Four parts (14 lines total): four quatrains: four lines one couplet: two lines  The Turn: a shift in focus or thought (usually around line 9)
  55. 55. MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS Chief Rival of Elizabeth Catholic heroine Exiled from Scotland, “guest” of Elizabeth for 18 years Died a martyr
  56. 56. MARY AND HER SON, JAMES

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