SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 31
Download to read offline
The Arthurian
Legend
The Man, the Myth, the Archetype
Legend
• a traditional historical tale or collection of related
tales popularly regarded as true, but usually contain
a mixture of fact and fiction
• not to be confused with a myth (A traditional,
typically ancient story dealing with supernatural
beings, ancestors, or heroes that serves as a
fundamental type in the worldview of a people, as
by explaining aspects of the natural world or
delineating the psychology, customs, or ideals of
society)
Literary Focus: Archetypes
• An archetype is a
pattern that appears in
literature across
cultures and is
repeated through the
ages.
• An archetype can be a
character, a plot, an
image, or a setting.
– Ex. The Quest Circle of Character Archetypes
Why is Arthur Important?
1. Provided a hero to a
conquered people.
Think of all the invasions we’ve
discussed
2. Tales form a common bond
between Anglo-Saxon and
Anglo-Norman.
Warrior King Arthur – Anglo-Saxon
Chivalric Tradition – Anglo-Norman
3. Second most referenced
character in Western
Literature.
King Arthur, c. 1385
Did He Exist?
Historical Arthur
• Celtic/Anglo-Saxon Arthur
• Welsh chieftain
• warrior in the histories of
500-1100
• may have really existed –
not a king
Fictional Arthur
• Anglo-Norman Arthur
• could just be a combination
of great leaders
• Normans add chivalry,
romance, quest, love, etc.
• Norman romances focus
more on knights.
True History
• Most scholars believe that a King
named Arthur did defeat the Saxons
in the 5th or 6th century. This is
outlined in one of the oldest accounts
of English History Geoffrey of
Monmouth's fanciful and imaginative
12th-century Historia Regum
Britanniae
• There are ruins of a castle in Cornwall
that many believe to belong to Arthur
• Not much else is known; accounts of
Arthur seem to be mysteriously
missing from all Anglo-Saxon
chronicles and other such history
books.
Arthurian Literary Tradition
• Nennius
– 9th century
– Welsh monk
– wrote Historia Brittonum
– 1st reference to an Arthur
– His Arthur is the “greatest of all
the Celts”
– an important hero to the
declining Celtic community.
Arthurian Literary Tradition
• Geoffrey of Monmouth
– 12th century
– wrote Historia Regumn Britanniae
– one of the most important books
of the Middle Ages
– add Merlin to the Arthurian
legend
– tales mostly focused on Arthur
with little mention of his other
knights.
– inspired the next generation of
authorsMerlin Reads his Prophecies to Vortigern
Arthurian Literary Tradition
• Chrétien de Troyes
– 12th century
– French
– introduces character of Lancelot and
the Arthur / Guinevere / Lancelot love
triangle
– romance / single hero adventures
– example of Anglo-Norman cultural
influence with the increased influence
of the chivalric tradition
Sir Launcelot
How Sir Bedivere Cast the Sword
Excalibur into the Water
Arthurian Literary Tradition
• Sir Thomas Malory
– 15th century
– English
– compiled the various tales into
one work: Le Mort d’Arthur
• The Death of Arthur
– expands the characters of
Lancelot and Guinevere and
makes the affair chaste and
pure
– still read today and highly
influential
Lady of Shallot Looking at Lancelot
Arthurian Literary Tradition
• Alfred, Lord Tennyson
– 19th century
– English
– composed many works on the
Arthurian tradition: “The Lady of
Shalott,” “The Death of Arthur,”
“Idylls of the King”
– Father of the Arthurian
Renaissance in Victorian England.
Cover, The Once and Future King
Arthurian Literary Tradition
• T. H. White
– 20th century
– English
– wrote The Sword in the Stone
(1938) and The Once and
Future King (1958)
– based heavily on Malory’s
work
– The Once and Future King
deals with darker themes as
Arthur grows older
Key Objects
• The Holy Grail
• The Round Table
• Excalibur
Arthur and the Round Table
A Country Religiously Divided
• Arthur was a member of the Old
Celtic religion (as evident by
keeping a Royal wizard, Merlin)
• However, a new religion,
Christianity, was beginning.
Guinevere, Arthur’s wife, was a
member of this religion.
• Arthur and Guinevere were having
trouble conceiving. Guinevere
believed this was because God was
punishing Arthur for believing in
pagan gods and encouraging his
people to do so as well.
• To try to remedy the problem of an
heir and heal the country, which
had once again grown restless,
Arthur established the Crusades.
Crusades and the Holy Grail
• Because the Celtic religion is
based upon tangible items and
nature, Arthur would need
artifacts to convince his country
to convert to Christianity.
• With the help of Merlin, Arthur
decided to send his knights on a
quest for religious artifacts, more
commonly know as the Crusades.
– The body of Joseph of Arimathea
– The Spear of Destiny
– The Holy Grail
– King Solomon’s Temple
– Byzantine Crown of Thorns
– Holyrood (the cross on which Jesus died)
Key Objects: The Holy Grail
– Cup that Jesus drank out of
at the Last Supper
– Joseph of Arimithea
brought grail to England
– “quest” which requires
much of the individual
– Grail represents
unanswered philosophical/
cosmological questions
– only artifact not recovered
which explains its
continued popularity
The Holy Grail
and The Templars
• The Holy Grail is the only artifact
not recovered which explains its
continued popularity
• Once the Holy Land was
discovered, Arthur encouraged
the English to visit it and created
the Knights Templar** who
were warriors sent to protect
the road to the Holy Land.
These warriors begin much of
the problems that still exist in
the Middle East today.
*** Please note: This is one version of the story.
Many scholars argue that this is not
historically accurate.
Key Objects:
The Round Table
• When Arthur assumes power, England
is torn apart by war, is fractioned into
city-states, and is on the brink of
invasion by the Saxons
• To unite the country and defeat the
Saxons, Arthur creates the Knights of
the Round table.
• This is a revolutionary idea for the time.
Each city state is represented by a
knight. No one knight, including King
Arthur himself, has more power than
another. Arthur creates a
democratic society.
• Because of this alliance, Arthur and his
knights defeat the powerful Saxons in a
series of 12 battles.
Key Objects: Excalibur
• Magical sword Arthur receives from the Lady in the Lake OR from a stone which
Merlin placed it
• It is said that the key to Arthur’s success is the sword Excalibur which he always
takes into battle. Excalibur is said to make its bearer invincible.
Key Themes/Archetypes
• Love Triangle
– Arthur / Guinevere /
Lancelot
• Traitor/Judas Figure
– Mordred
• Fall of the central
community / end of
order
• Messianic Return
– Once and Future King
Key Characters
• Uther Pendragon – Arthur’s biological father
• Igraine – Arthur’s biological mother
• Merlin – Arthur’s counselor, prophet & wizard
• Morgan le Fay – Arthur’s half-sister; in some versions
full sister; magical; adversary
• Mordred – Arthur’s nephew; or in some versions his
illegitimate son; kidnaps Guinevere and rebels; killed
by Lancelot
• Gawain – Arthur’s nephew; principle knight of the
round table
One Version:
Morgan de Fey and Mordred
Arthur unknowingly had a half
sister, Morgan de Fey. She
believed that she was rightful
ruler. In an attempts to usurp
the throne, she slept with him
and conceived a son. Morgan
was said to be a witch and a
powerful woman. Her son,
Mordred, threatened Arthur’s
marriage and his throne.
Key Characters
• Guinevere –
– Arthur’s queen
– has affair with Lancelot
– childless
– abducted by Mordred
• Lancelot –
– Arthur’s chief knight
– usually French
– the “perfect” knight but
has affair with
Guinevere
Lancelot and Guinevere by Herbert James
Draper (1863-1920)
One Version:
Mordred and Guinevere
• During the search for the Holy
Grail Arthur’s life begins to fall
apart. Some versions of the story
have Arthur gone 10-20 years on
his quest.
• In Arthur’s absence, Mordred has
been raised to hate Arthur, but
also to be a knight
• Arthur returns and knights
Mordred, invites him to the
round table
• Guinevere has begun to realize
her true love for Lancelot, not
Arthur, during both their
absences.
One Version:
Guinevere
• After the battles with the Saxons,
England finally experiences peace.
• During this time, Arthur decides to
marry the lovely young Guinevere.
She does not see him before they
are married. Arthur sends his most
trusted knight Lancelot to fetch
her. He marries her and they are
happy for some time.
• Guinevere, upon seeing Lancelot,
believes he is her husband to be
and falls in love with him.
One Version: The Most Famous Affair
in Literary History
• Mordred sees the possibility to overthrow
his father in Lancelot.
• Mordred discovers Guinevere and Lancelot’s
affair (the two people that Arthur loves
most) and convinces the rest of the Round
Table to capture Lancelot in the act.
• Lancelot escapes but Guinevere is captured
and is to be burned at the stake for her
treachery against the king. She is rescued at
the last minute by Lancelot and the two
escape and are never heard from again.
• Arthur does not follow them due to the
problems of his kingdom. They are once
again on the brink of war and Mordred has
turned much of the Round Table against
him.
Key Places
• Camelot – King Arthur’s
kingdom
• Isle of Avalon – island to
which Arthur is sent to
recover from the last
battle
Gustave Doré’s illustration of Lord Alfred
Tennyson’s “Idylls of the King”, 1868.
The Fall of Camelot
• Metaphorically, the country already
had fallen with the betrayal of
Arthur’s only love and his best
friend
• There are many versions of the
story. All of which end with Arthur’s
death in battle. Some of the
versions include the following
battles:
– Saxons
– Romans
– Goths
– French
– Irish
– Lancelot
– Morgan de fey
– Mordred
• All of the stories end with Arthur’s
glorious death in battle, all that any
legendary king or hero can ask for
Romance Motifs
Motif - an idea, object, place, or
statement that appears frequently
throughout a piece of writing, which
helps contribute to the work’s overall
theme
• Faithful Follower
• Wise old man
• Dreams
• Number three
• Magic
• Testing of Follower
• Betrayal
“The Day of Destiny,” an excerpt from Le Morte d’ Arthur, describes the end of King
Arthur’s reign and the dissolution of the order which he, along with his Knights of the
Round Table, has established. This end grows out of the corruption within the royal
court itself. Arthur’s illegitimate son Morderd knows the secret love between Arthur’s
wife, Queen Guinevere, and his best friend, Sir Lancelot. One night Mordred leads a
band of knights to Guinevere’s chamber, when they find the Queen with Lancelot.
Although he is reluctant, Arthur feels obligated to obey the law of the land and to burn
his wife at the stake. However, at the last minute Lancelot rescues her, killing two
knights who were guarding her. Lancelot subsequently flees to a castle in France and
Arthur forgives Guinevere. Sir Gawain, though, the brother of the dead knights,
demands vengeance on Lancelot. His hatred forces Arthur to lead his men on an attack
against Lancelot’s French fortress. In the ensuing battles Lancelot seriously wounds
Gawain but refuses to kill him.
Meanwhile, Mordred senses his chance. With Arthur away in France, he leads a
rebellion in England, claiming the throne and trying to seize Guinevere as his queen.
She flees to the Tower of London. Arthur, returning to defend his crown, battles
Mordred for the first time at Dover, where Gawain is fatally wounded. Before his
death, Gawain writes a letter to Lancelot ending their feud and asking Lancelot to
return to England to help Arthur. After a second, inconclusive battle with Mordred’s
forces, Arthur regroups his men and moves westward
Spin Offs
Camelot, like Middle Earth, is a
world rich with characters and
stories of chivalry, fairies, magic
and monsters. As such, it
spawned countless spin-offs and
parallel stories. Some of the most
famous of these stories are:
– Sir Gawain and the Green
Knight
– Percival (A Grail Knight)
– Tristan and Isolde
– The White Stag
– The Lady of the Lake

More Related Content

What's hot

Women in king lear and gloucester prep
Women in king lear  and gloucester prepWomen in king lear  and gloucester prep
Women in king lear and gloucester prepSamantha Peplow
 
Legend of king Arthur (Roberto Santiago)
Legend of king Arthur (Roberto Santiago)Legend of king Arthur (Roberto Santiago)
Legend of king Arthur (Roberto Santiago)Isabel Gil Marín
 
Significance_of_Luckys_Speech in 'Waiting for Godot'.pptx
Significance_of_Luckys_Speech in 'Waiting for Godot'.pptxSignificance_of_Luckys_Speech in 'Waiting for Godot'.pptx
Significance_of_Luckys_Speech in 'Waiting for Godot'.pptxGayatri Nimavat
 
Reading the Modern Short Story
Reading the Modern Short StoryReading the Modern Short Story
Reading the Modern Short StoryErwin Manzon
 
The Theme Of Existentialism in "Waiting For Godot " Sem :- 2
The Theme Of Existentialism in "Waiting For Godot " Sem :- 2The Theme Of Existentialism in "Waiting For Godot " Sem :- 2
The Theme Of Existentialism in "Waiting For Godot " Sem :- 2Asari Bhavyang
 
Waiting for Godot, use of imagery and symbolims
Waiting for Godot, use of imagery and symbolimsWaiting for Godot, use of imagery and symbolims
Waiting for Godot, use of imagery and symbolimsAbdul Ghaffar Englican
 
My last duchess
My last duchessMy last duchess
My last duchessmrhoward12
 
Types of Characters
Types of CharactersTypes of Characters
Types of Characterswittenbeth
 
Doctor faustus as a tragic hero
Doctor faustus as a tragic heroDoctor faustus as a tragic hero
Doctor faustus as a tragic heroDevikaba Gohil
 
Introduction to literary forms
Introduction to literary formsIntroduction to literary forms
Introduction to literary formsMohammed Raiyah
 
Elements of short story
Elements of short storyElements of short story
Elements of short storyRahul Nair
 
Sir Philip Sidney's Defence of Poesie
Sir Philip Sidney's Defence of PoesieSir Philip Sidney's Defence of Poesie
Sir Philip Sidney's Defence of PoesieDilip Barad
 
Prose during Romantic Age
Prose during Romantic AgeProse during Romantic Age
Prose during Romantic AgeMadhura Date
 

What's hot (20)

Myth in 'The Waste Land'
Myth in 'The Waste Land'Myth in 'The Waste Land'
Myth in 'The Waste Land'
 
Death of King Arthur
Death of King ArthurDeath of King Arthur
Death of King Arthur
 
Women in king lear and gloucester prep
Women in king lear  and gloucester prepWomen in king lear  and gloucester prep
Women in king lear and gloucester prep
 
Legend of king Arthur (Roberto Santiago)
Legend of king Arthur (Roberto Santiago)Legend of king Arthur (Roberto Santiago)
Legend of king Arthur (Roberto Santiago)
 
Significance_of_Luckys_Speech in 'Waiting for Godot'.pptx
Significance_of_Luckys_Speech in 'Waiting for Godot'.pptxSignificance_of_Luckys_Speech in 'Waiting for Godot'.pptx
Significance_of_Luckys_Speech in 'Waiting for Godot'.pptx
 
English:The Story Of An Hour Kate Chopin
English:The Story Of An Hour  Kate ChopinEnglish:The Story Of An Hour  Kate Chopin
English:The Story Of An Hour Kate Chopin
 
Reading the Modern Short Story
Reading the Modern Short StoryReading the Modern Short Story
Reading the Modern Short Story
 
The Theme Of Existentialism in "Waiting For Godot " Sem :- 2
The Theme Of Existentialism in "Waiting For Godot " Sem :- 2The Theme Of Existentialism in "Waiting For Godot " Sem :- 2
The Theme Of Existentialism in "Waiting For Godot " Sem :- 2
 
Anglo-American Literature
Anglo-American LiteratureAnglo-American Literature
Anglo-American Literature
 
Waiting for Godot, use of imagery and symbolims
Waiting for Godot, use of imagery and symbolimsWaiting for Godot, use of imagery and symbolims
Waiting for Godot, use of imagery and symbolims
 
My last duchess
My last duchessMy last duchess
My last duchess
 
Types of Characters
Types of CharactersTypes of Characters
Types of Characters
 
Genres of literature
Genres of literatureGenres of literature
Genres of literature
 
English nibelungenlied
English nibelungenliedEnglish nibelungenlied
English nibelungenlied
 
Doctor faustus as a tragic hero
Doctor faustus as a tragic heroDoctor faustus as a tragic hero
Doctor faustus as a tragic hero
 
Introduction to literary forms
Introduction to literary formsIntroduction to literary forms
Introduction to literary forms
 
Elements of short story
Elements of short storyElements of short story
Elements of short story
 
Sir Philip Sidney's Defence of Poesie
Sir Philip Sidney's Defence of PoesieSir Philip Sidney's Defence of Poesie
Sir Philip Sidney's Defence of Poesie
 
Prose during Romantic Age
Prose during Romantic AgeProse during Romantic Age
Prose during Romantic Age
 
Ppt what is literature
Ppt what is literaturePpt what is literature
Ppt what is literature
 

Viewers also liked

Courtly love and romance literature
Courtly love and romance literatureCourtly love and romance literature
Courtly love and romance literatureDonna Luna
 
Notes sir gawain and the green knight
Notes sir gawain and the green knightNotes sir gawain and the green knight
Notes sir gawain and the green knightmrsabercrombie
 
Anglo-Saxon and Beowulf
Anglo-Saxon and BeowulfAnglo-Saxon and Beowulf
Anglo-Saxon and Beowulfmrsabercrombie
 
7. S2013 Literature & language of the 12th century courtly love
7. S2013 Literature & language of the 12th century   courtly love7. S2013 Literature & language of the 12th century   courtly love
7. S2013 Literature & language of the 12th century courtly loveRobert Ehrlich
 
Courtly love
Courtly loveCourtly love
Courtly loveep10040
 
The Middle Ages and The Canterbury Tales
The Middle Ages and The Canterbury TalesThe Middle Ages and The Canterbury Tales
The Middle Ages and The Canterbury Taleszanenglish
 
Native american literature
Native american literatureNative american literature
Native american literaturemrsabercrombie
 
Seek first to understand, Then Be Understood
Seek first to understand, Then Be UnderstoodSeek first to understand, Then Be Understood
Seek first to understand, Then Be Understoodmrsabercrombie
 
Medieval period powerpoint
Medieval period powerpointMedieval period powerpoint
Medieval period powerpointtbarnhart16
 
English Medieval Literature
English Medieval LiteratureEnglish Medieval Literature
English Medieval LiteratureEmmanuel Rivera
 
Medieval Romance/King Arthur
Medieval Romance/King ArthurMedieval Romance/King Arthur
Medieval Romance/King Arthurms_faris
 

Viewers also liked (17)

Notes middle ages
Notes middle agesNotes middle ages
Notes middle ages
 
Medieval romances
Medieval romances Medieval romances
Medieval romances
 
Chivalry-Cyber
Chivalry-CyberChivalry-Cyber
Chivalry-Cyber
 
Courtly love and romance literature
Courtly love and romance literatureCourtly love and romance literature
Courtly love and romance literature
 
King Arthur 12PS
King Arthur 12PSKing Arthur 12PS
King Arthur 12PS
 
Courtly love
Courtly loveCourtly love
Courtly love
 
Notes sir gawain and the green knight
Notes sir gawain and the green knightNotes sir gawain and the green knight
Notes sir gawain and the green knight
 
Anglo-Saxon and Beowulf
Anglo-Saxon and BeowulfAnglo-Saxon and Beowulf
Anglo-Saxon and Beowulf
 
7. S2013 Literature & language of the 12th century courtly love
7. S2013 Literature & language of the 12th century   courtly love7. S2013 Literature & language of the 12th century   courtly love
7. S2013 Literature & language of the 12th century courtly love
 
Courtly love
Courtly loveCourtly love
Courtly love
 
The Middle Ages and The Canterbury Tales
The Middle Ages and The Canterbury TalesThe Middle Ages and The Canterbury Tales
The Middle Ages and The Canterbury Tales
 
Native american literature
Native american literatureNative american literature
Native american literature
 
Seek first to understand, Then Be Understood
Seek first to understand, Then Be UnderstoodSeek first to understand, Then Be Understood
Seek first to understand, Then Be Understood
 
Beowulf
BeowulfBeowulf
Beowulf
 
Medieval period powerpoint
Medieval period powerpointMedieval period powerpoint
Medieval period powerpoint
 
English Medieval Literature
English Medieval LiteratureEnglish Medieval Literature
English Medieval Literature
 
Medieval Romance/King Arthur
Medieval Romance/King ArthurMedieval Romance/King Arthur
Medieval Romance/King Arthur
 

Similar to Notes arthurian legend (14)

Le Morte d'Arthur- Book 5
Le Morte d'Arthur- Book 5Le Morte d'Arthur- Book 5
Le Morte d'Arthur- Book 5
 
King Arthur Conflict
King Arthur ConflictKing Arthur Conflict
King Arthur Conflict
 
King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table
King Arthur and the Knights of the Round TableKing Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table
King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table
 
King Arthur Essays
King Arthur EssaysKing Arthur Essays
King Arthur Essays
 
Le morte darthur
Le morte darthurLe morte darthur
Le morte darthur
 
король артур 27.01.17
король артур 27.01.17король артур 27.01.17
король артур 27.01.17
 
Pwp Arthur
Pwp ArthurPwp Arthur
Pwp Arthur
 
Medieval presentation
Medieval presentationMedieval presentation
Medieval presentation
 
Feudalism, king arthur, and the medieval sweet, pozsgai, cooper
Feudalism, king arthur, and the medieval  sweet, pozsgai, cooperFeudalism, king arthur, and the medieval  sweet, pozsgai, cooper
Feudalism, king arthur, and the medieval sweet, pozsgai, cooper
 
The Legends of Arthur - Variations and Facts
The Legends of Arthur - Variations and FactsThe Legends of Arthur - Variations and Facts
The Legends of Arthur - Variations and Facts
 
KING ARTHUR SUMMARY AND FACTS
KING ARTHUR SUMMARY AND FACTSKING ARTHUR SUMMARY AND FACTS
KING ARTHUR SUMMARY AND FACTS
 
Medieval times
Medieval timesMedieval times
Medieval times
 
Kenilworth
KenilworthKenilworth
Kenilworth
 
The Legend of King Arthur
The Legend of King ArthurThe Legend of King Arthur
The Legend of King Arthur
 

More from mrsabercrombie

Satire, parody, and everything in between
Satire, parody, and everything in betweenSatire, parody, and everything in between
Satire, parody, and everything in betweenmrsabercrombie
 
The pilgrim's progress
The pilgrim's progressThe pilgrim's progress
The pilgrim's progressmrsabercrombie
 
Tudorsand waroftheroses
Tudorsand waroftherosesTudorsand waroftheroses
Tudorsand waroftherosesmrsabercrombie
 
The scarlet letter objective quizzes
The scarlet letter objective quizzesThe scarlet letter objective quizzes
The scarlet letter objective quizzesmrsabercrombie
 

More from mrsabercrombie (9)

Romantic poetry intro
Romantic poetry introRomantic poetry intro
Romantic poetry intro
 
Satire, parody, and everything in between
Satire, parody, and everything in betweenSatire, parody, and everything in between
Satire, parody, and everything in between
 
King lear
King learKing lear
King lear
 
Literary theories
Literary theoriesLiterary theories
Literary theories
 
Paradise lost-book-i
Paradise lost-book-iParadise lost-book-i
Paradise lost-book-i
 
The pilgrim's progress
The pilgrim's progressThe pilgrim's progress
The pilgrim's progress
 
Tudorsand waroftheroses
Tudorsand waroftherosesTudorsand waroftheroses
Tudorsand waroftheroses
 
Equiano wheatley
Equiano wheatleyEquiano wheatley
Equiano wheatley
 
The scarlet letter objective quizzes
The scarlet letter objective quizzesThe scarlet letter objective quizzes
The scarlet letter objective quizzes
 

Recently uploaded

An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERPAn Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERPCeline George
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptxBIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptxSayali Powar
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineCeline George
 
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxEmployablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxryandux83rd
 
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptxmary850239
 
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptxUnraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptxDhatriParmar
 
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Projectjordimapav
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research DiscourseAnita GoswamiGiri
 
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristicsShark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristicsArubSultan
 
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Celine George
 
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...DhatriParmar
 
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDecoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDhatriParmar
 
Indexing Structures in Database Management system.pdf
Indexing Structures in Database Management system.pdfIndexing Structures in Database Management system.pdf
Indexing Structures in Database Management system.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesSulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesVijayaLaxmi84
 
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptxComparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptxAvaniJani1
 

Recently uploaded (20)

An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERPAn Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
 
CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA _
CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA            _CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA            _
CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA _
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
 
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptxBIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
 
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxEmployablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
 
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
 
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptxUnraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
 
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
 
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
 
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristicsShark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
 
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
 
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
 
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDecoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
 
Indexing Structures in Database Management system.pdf
Indexing Structures in Database Management system.pdfIndexing Structures in Database Management system.pdf
Indexing Structures in Database Management system.pdf
 
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesSulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
 
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptxComparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
 

Notes arthurian legend

  • 1. The Arthurian Legend The Man, the Myth, the Archetype
  • 2. Legend • a traditional historical tale or collection of related tales popularly regarded as true, but usually contain a mixture of fact and fiction • not to be confused with a myth (A traditional, typically ancient story dealing with supernatural beings, ancestors, or heroes that serves as a fundamental type in the worldview of a people, as by explaining aspects of the natural world or delineating the psychology, customs, or ideals of society)
  • 3. Literary Focus: Archetypes • An archetype is a pattern that appears in literature across cultures and is repeated through the ages. • An archetype can be a character, a plot, an image, or a setting. – Ex. The Quest Circle of Character Archetypes
  • 4. Why is Arthur Important? 1. Provided a hero to a conquered people. Think of all the invasions we’ve discussed 2. Tales form a common bond between Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman. Warrior King Arthur – Anglo-Saxon Chivalric Tradition – Anglo-Norman 3. Second most referenced character in Western Literature. King Arthur, c. 1385
  • 5. Did He Exist? Historical Arthur • Celtic/Anglo-Saxon Arthur • Welsh chieftain • warrior in the histories of 500-1100 • may have really existed – not a king Fictional Arthur • Anglo-Norman Arthur • could just be a combination of great leaders • Normans add chivalry, romance, quest, love, etc. • Norman romances focus more on knights.
  • 6. True History • Most scholars believe that a King named Arthur did defeat the Saxons in the 5th or 6th century. This is outlined in one of the oldest accounts of English History Geoffrey of Monmouth's fanciful and imaginative 12th-century Historia Regum Britanniae • There are ruins of a castle in Cornwall that many believe to belong to Arthur • Not much else is known; accounts of Arthur seem to be mysteriously missing from all Anglo-Saxon chronicles and other such history books.
  • 7. Arthurian Literary Tradition • Nennius – 9th century – Welsh monk – wrote Historia Brittonum – 1st reference to an Arthur – His Arthur is the “greatest of all the Celts” – an important hero to the declining Celtic community.
  • 8. Arthurian Literary Tradition • Geoffrey of Monmouth – 12th century – wrote Historia Regumn Britanniae – one of the most important books of the Middle Ages – add Merlin to the Arthurian legend – tales mostly focused on Arthur with little mention of his other knights. – inspired the next generation of authorsMerlin Reads his Prophecies to Vortigern
  • 9. Arthurian Literary Tradition • Chrétien de Troyes – 12th century – French – introduces character of Lancelot and the Arthur / Guinevere / Lancelot love triangle – romance / single hero adventures – example of Anglo-Norman cultural influence with the increased influence of the chivalric tradition Sir Launcelot
  • 10. How Sir Bedivere Cast the Sword Excalibur into the Water Arthurian Literary Tradition • Sir Thomas Malory – 15th century – English – compiled the various tales into one work: Le Mort d’Arthur • The Death of Arthur – expands the characters of Lancelot and Guinevere and makes the affair chaste and pure – still read today and highly influential
  • 11. Lady of Shallot Looking at Lancelot Arthurian Literary Tradition • Alfred, Lord Tennyson – 19th century – English – composed many works on the Arthurian tradition: “The Lady of Shalott,” “The Death of Arthur,” “Idylls of the King” – Father of the Arthurian Renaissance in Victorian England.
  • 12. Cover, The Once and Future King Arthurian Literary Tradition • T. H. White – 20th century – English – wrote The Sword in the Stone (1938) and The Once and Future King (1958) – based heavily on Malory’s work – The Once and Future King deals with darker themes as Arthur grows older
  • 13. Key Objects • The Holy Grail • The Round Table • Excalibur Arthur and the Round Table
  • 14. A Country Religiously Divided • Arthur was a member of the Old Celtic religion (as evident by keeping a Royal wizard, Merlin) • However, a new religion, Christianity, was beginning. Guinevere, Arthur’s wife, was a member of this religion. • Arthur and Guinevere were having trouble conceiving. Guinevere believed this was because God was punishing Arthur for believing in pagan gods and encouraging his people to do so as well. • To try to remedy the problem of an heir and heal the country, which had once again grown restless, Arthur established the Crusades.
  • 15. Crusades and the Holy Grail • Because the Celtic religion is based upon tangible items and nature, Arthur would need artifacts to convince his country to convert to Christianity. • With the help of Merlin, Arthur decided to send his knights on a quest for religious artifacts, more commonly know as the Crusades. – The body of Joseph of Arimathea – The Spear of Destiny – The Holy Grail – King Solomon’s Temple – Byzantine Crown of Thorns – Holyrood (the cross on which Jesus died)
  • 16. Key Objects: The Holy Grail – Cup that Jesus drank out of at the Last Supper – Joseph of Arimithea brought grail to England – “quest” which requires much of the individual – Grail represents unanswered philosophical/ cosmological questions – only artifact not recovered which explains its continued popularity
  • 17. The Holy Grail and The Templars • The Holy Grail is the only artifact not recovered which explains its continued popularity • Once the Holy Land was discovered, Arthur encouraged the English to visit it and created the Knights Templar** who were warriors sent to protect the road to the Holy Land. These warriors begin much of the problems that still exist in the Middle East today. *** Please note: This is one version of the story. Many scholars argue that this is not historically accurate.
  • 18. Key Objects: The Round Table • When Arthur assumes power, England is torn apart by war, is fractioned into city-states, and is on the brink of invasion by the Saxons • To unite the country and defeat the Saxons, Arthur creates the Knights of the Round table. • This is a revolutionary idea for the time. Each city state is represented by a knight. No one knight, including King Arthur himself, has more power than another. Arthur creates a democratic society. • Because of this alliance, Arthur and his knights defeat the powerful Saxons in a series of 12 battles.
  • 19. Key Objects: Excalibur • Magical sword Arthur receives from the Lady in the Lake OR from a stone which Merlin placed it • It is said that the key to Arthur’s success is the sword Excalibur which he always takes into battle. Excalibur is said to make its bearer invincible.
  • 20. Key Themes/Archetypes • Love Triangle – Arthur / Guinevere / Lancelot • Traitor/Judas Figure – Mordred • Fall of the central community / end of order • Messianic Return – Once and Future King
  • 21. Key Characters • Uther Pendragon – Arthur’s biological father • Igraine – Arthur’s biological mother • Merlin – Arthur’s counselor, prophet & wizard • Morgan le Fay – Arthur’s half-sister; in some versions full sister; magical; adversary • Mordred – Arthur’s nephew; or in some versions his illegitimate son; kidnaps Guinevere and rebels; killed by Lancelot • Gawain – Arthur’s nephew; principle knight of the round table
  • 22. One Version: Morgan de Fey and Mordred Arthur unknowingly had a half sister, Morgan de Fey. She believed that she was rightful ruler. In an attempts to usurp the throne, she slept with him and conceived a son. Morgan was said to be a witch and a powerful woman. Her son, Mordred, threatened Arthur’s marriage and his throne.
  • 23. Key Characters • Guinevere – – Arthur’s queen – has affair with Lancelot – childless – abducted by Mordred • Lancelot – – Arthur’s chief knight – usually French – the “perfect” knight but has affair with Guinevere Lancelot and Guinevere by Herbert James Draper (1863-1920)
  • 24. One Version: Mordred and Guinevere • During the search for the Holy Grail Arthur’s life begins to fall apart. Some versions of the story have Arthur gone 10-20 years on his quest. • In Arthur’s absence, Mordred has been raised to hate Arthur, but also to be a knight • Arthur returns and knights Mordred, invites him to the round table • Guinevere has begun to realize her true love for Lancelot, not Arthur, during both their absences.
  • 25. One Version: Guinevere • After the battles with the Saxons, England finally experiences peace. • During this time, Arthur decides to marry the lovely young Guinevere. She does not see him before they are married. Arthur sends his most trusted knight Lancelot to fetch her. He marries her and they are happy for some time. • Guinevere, upon seeing Lancelot, believes he is her husband to be and falls in love with him.
  • 26. One Version: The Most Famous Affair in Literary History • Mordred sees the possibility to overthrow his father in Lancelot. • Mordred discovers Guinevere and Lancelot’s affair (the two people that Arthur loves most) and convinces the rest of the Round Table to capture Lancelot in the act. • Lancelot escapes but Guinevere is captured and is to be burned at the stake for her treachery against the king. She is rescued at the last minute by Lancelot and the two escape and are never heard from again. • Arthur does not follow them due to the problems of his kingdom. They are once again on the brink of war and Mordred has turned much of the Round Table against him.
  • 27. Key Places • Camelot – King Arthur’s kingdom • Isle of Avalon – island to which Arthur is sent to recover from the last battle Gustave Doré’s illustration of Lord Alfred Tennyson’s “Idylls of the King”, 1868.
  • 28. The Fall of Camelot • Metaphorically, the country already had fallen with the betrayal of Arthur’s only love and his best friend • There are many versions of the story. All of which end with Arthur’s death in battle. Some of the versions include the following battles: – Saxons – Romans – Goths – French – Irish – Lancelot – Morgan de fey – Mordred • All of the stories end with Arthur’s glorious death in battle, all that any legendary king or hero can ask for
  • 29. Romance Motifs Motif - an idea, object, place, or statement that appears frequently throughout a piece of writing, which helps contribute to the work’s overall theme • Faithful Follower • Wise old man • Dreams • Number three • Magic • Testing of Follower • Betrayal
  • 30. “The Day of Destiny,” an excerpt from Le Morte d’ Arthur, describes the end of King Arthur’s reign and the dissolution of the order which he, along with his Knights of the Round Table, has established. This end grows out of the corruption within the royal court itself. Arthur’s illegitimate son Morderd knows the secret love between Arthur’s wife, Queen Guinevere, and his best friend, Sir Lancelot. One night Mordred leads a band of knights to Guinevere’s chamber, when they find the Queen with Lancelot. Although he is reluctant, Arthur feels obligated to obey the law of the land and to burn his wife at the stake. However, at the last minute Lancelot rescues her, killing two knights who were guarding her. Lancelot subsequently flees to a castle in France and Arthur forgives Guinevere. Sir Gawain, though, the brother of the dead knights, demands vengeance on Lancelot. His hatred forces Arthur to lead his men on an attack against Lancelot’s French fortress. In the ensuing battles Lancelot seriously wounds Gawain but refuses to kill him. Meanwhile, Mordred senses his chance. With Arthur away in France, he leads a rebellion in England, claiming the throne and trying to seize Guinevere as his queen. She flees to the Tower of London. Arthur, returning to defend his crown, battles Mordred for the first time at Dover, where Gawain is fatally wounded. Before his death, Gawain writes a letter to Lancelot ending their feud and asking Lancelot to return to England to help Arthur. After a second, inconclusive battle with Mordred’s forces, Arthur regroups his men and moves westward
  • 31. Spin Offs Camelot, like Middle Earth, is a world rich with characters and stories of chivalry, fairies, magic and monsters. As such, it spawned countless spin-offs and parallel stories. Some of the most famous of these stories are: – Sir Gawain and the Green Knight – Percival (A Grail Knight) – Tristan and Isolde – The White Stag – The Lady of the Lake