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Abercrombie
SP 2014
- Among them were the
Britons
- Religion was a form of
animism – saw spirits
everywhere and they
controlled all aspects
of existence
- Priests – Druids were
intermediaries
-FUN FACT: some think that Stonehenge was used by the Druids for
religious rites having to do with lunar/solar cycles
All the Britons dye their
bodies with woad, which
produces a blue color,
and this gives them a
more terrifying
appearance in battle.
They wear their hair
long, and shave the
whole of their bodies
except the head and the
upper lip.
- Julius Caesar
Obligatory Braveheart
Reference
• The romans brought Christianity and roads, but not much
else.
• By 409 A.D. they had evacuated their troops from Britain.
• Government was in shambles; the island was invaded by
a series of Germanic peoples
• The Anglo-Saxons drove out the Britons who retreated to
Wales
• King Alfred of Wessex aka Alfred
the Great (reigned 871-899)
• Led the Anglo-Saxons against the
invasion of the Danes (fierce
Viking peoples)
• Under him and Christianity,
Anglo-Saxons united to protect
their people, their culture and
their church from the Danes.
• Lived in close homesteads surrounding a communal
court  sense of security  Participatory rule by
consensus
• Tribal society with kinship bonds and a heroic code of
behavior
• bravery
• loyalty to one's lord, one's warband (comitatus), and one's kin
• willingness to avenge one's warband or lord at all costs – death
preferable to exile.
• generosity of lord to thanes and of hero to warband and lord--
gift-giving
• heroism (i.e., great deeds) brings honor, eternal fame, and
political power
• Loyalty grew out of a need for protection
• Bonded together under strong leaders
• Loyalty
• Fighting for one’s king
• Avenging one’s kinsmen
• Keeping one’s word
• Generosity -- gifts symbolize bonds
• Brotherly love -- not romantic love
• Heroism
• Physical strength
• Skill and resourcefulness in battle
• Courage
• Public reputation, not private conscience
• Mix of pagan and Christian values--often in
conflict.
• Pagan (secular (non-religious) lineage vs.
Christian lineage;
• Eternal earthly fame through deeds vs afterlife
in hell or heaven;
• honor & gift-giving vs. sin of pride (hubris);
• revenge vs pacifist view (forgiveness);
• Wyrd (Anglo-Saxon "Fate") vs God's will, etc.
• Woden – help
humans communicate
with spirits; associated
with burial rites.
• Thunor - Similar to
Thor
• Dragon – protector of
treasure;
personification of
“death the devourer”
and guardian of the
grave
• Christianity provided another source of hope
• Monasteries served as centers of learning
• Preserved Latin and Greek classics
• Mix of Christian and Pagan imagery in Beowulf indicates that it
was probably translated by a monk
• Monks copied manuscripts by
hand in scriptoriums
For the non-Christian Anglo-Saxons,
whose religion offered them no hope of
an afterlife, only fame and its
commemoration in poetry could provide
a defense against death.
The Bards
• Scops
• Skilled storytellers
• Charged with preserving
culture through poetry and
music
• Oral history
• Provided hope for an
afterlife
• Elegy – poem of
mourning
• The oldest surviving
poem in the English
language
• Oral epic; handed
down by scops with
changes and
embellishments
• Some of the characters
actually existed
• Alliteration –
repetition of
consonant
sounds at
beginning of
words
• Used to help
bards easily
remember
poem
Kenning
a. Compound metaphor (usually two words)
b. Most were probably used over and over
For instance: hronade
literally means “whale-
road,” but can be
translated as “sea”
Other kennings from Beowulf:
banhus = “bone-house” = body
goldwine gumena = “gold-friend of men” =
generous prince
beaga brytta = “ring-giver” = lord
beadoleoma = “flashing light” = sword
Mead is a honey
flavored
fermented drink.
The Hall was a
central gathering
place where
warriors could
feast, listen to
stories
(entertainment),
and sleep in
safety.
Hrothgar’s Hall is under attack by the monster
Grendel
Imagine that you live in this large wooden building (hall).
There are no separate rooms for most people. There is no
electricity. There is no plumbing. The only heat comes from
the fireplace. How do you manage to do these daily
activities:
- Getting food
- Washing clothes
- Cooking and washing dishes
- Staying warm (in winter) or cool (in summer)
- Bathing and using the toilet
- Sleeping arrangements
- Entertainment
The Hero’s Journey
• Epic - A quest story on a grand scale
• Epic hero – the central figure in a long narrative that
reflects the values and heroic ideals of a particular
society
• Is significant and glorified
• Has superior or superhuman strength,
intelligence, and/or courage
• Is ethical
• Risks death for glory or for the greater
good of society
• Is a strong and responsible leader
• Performs brave deeds
• Reflects ideals of a particular society
• Is on a quest
• Aka The Hero’s Journey, the
Quest Story, The Epic Cycle
• First appeared in Campbell’s
book Hero with a Thousand
Faces
• Monomyths (one myth) look
surprising alike; archetypal
• A cyclical story
• Hero undergoes a transformation
through stages
• Offers a sacrifice to save the world
KNOWN
UNKNOWN
Refusal of the Call
Often when the call is given, the future hero first refuses to heed it. This
may be from a sense of duty or obligation, fear, insecurity, etc.
[Fear/Resistance to change.]
Supernatural Aids (Meeting with the Mentor)
Once the hero has committed to the quest, consciously or
unconsciously, his guide and magical helper appears, or
becomes known, and may present the hero with training,
equipment, or advice that will help later in their quest.
[Overcoming fear]
Crossing of the First Threshold
This is the point where the person crosses
into the field of adventure, leaving the
known limits of his world and venturing into
an unknown and dangerous realm where the
rules and limits are not known.
[Committing to change; Cultural Disassociation]
Belly of The Whale
The belly of the whale represents the final
separation from the hero's known world and
self. By entering this stage, the person shows
willingness to undergo a metamorphosis.
Road of Trials
The road of trials is a series of tests, tasks, or
ordeals that the hero must undergo to begin
the transformation. Often the hero fails one or
more of these tests, which often occur in threes.
Meeting With the Goddess
This is the point when the person experiences a
love that has the power and significance of the
all-powerful, all encompassing, unconditional love that a
fortunate infant may experience with his or her mother.
Woman as Temptress
In this step, the hero faces those temptations, often of a
physical or pleasurable nature, that may lead him or her to
abandon or stray from his or her quest.
[Experiencing new conditions.]
Atonement with the Father (Innermost Cave / Approach)
In this step the person must confront and be initiated by whatever
holds the ultimate power in his or her life. In many myths and stories
this is the father, or a father figure who has life and death power.
This is the center point of the journey. (The hero and newfound
allies prepare for the major challenge in the special world)
[Preparing for major change.]
Apotheosis (Supreme Ordeal)
When someone dies a physical death, or dies to the
self to live in spirit, he or she moves beyond the
pairs of opposites to a state of divine knowledge,
love, compassion and bliss. (Out of the moment of
confronting death/fear comes a new life.
[Big change with feelings of life and death]
The Ultimate Boon (Reward)
The ultimate boon is the achievement of the goal of the quest. It is what
the person went on the journey to get. All the previous steps serve to
prepare and purify the person for this step.
[Accepting consequences of new life]
Refusal of the Return
Having found bliss and enlightenment in the other
world, the hero may not want to return to the ordinary
world to bestow the boon onto his fellow man.
The Magic Flight
Sometimes the hero must escape with the
boon, if it is something that the gods have
been jealously guarding. It can be just as
adventurous and dangerous returning from
the journey as it was to go on it.
Rescue from Without
Just as the hero may need aids to set out on the
quest, oftentimes he or she must have powerful
guides and rescuers to bring them back to
everyday life, especially if the person has been
wounded or weakened by the experience.
[New challenge and rededication]
Crossing of the Return Threshold (Resurrection)
The trick is to retain the wisdom gained, to integrate it into a
human life, and figure out how to share the wisdom with the
world. (Another moment of death/rebirth, but on a more
complete level. Hero resolves the original conflict.
[Last attempts, final dangers; Growth at reintegration]
Master of Two Worlds (Return with the Elixir)
Achieving a balance between the material and spiritual—the inner
and outer worlds. (The hero returns bearing the treasure that has the
power to transform the world as the hero has been transformed.
Freedom to Live
Mastery leads to freedom from the fear of death, which in turn is the
freedom to live. This is sometimes referred to as living in the
moment, neither anticipating the future nor regretting the past.
[Mastery]
(KNOWN)
(UNKNOWN)
THEROADBACK Ordinary World &
Call to Adventure
While in mundane situation, the hero's journey begins by becoming aware of
the world outside his own. His journey is usually given to him by a herald
who helps the hero by acting as a guide a into the unknown.
[Limited/Increased awareness of problem.]
TESTS,ALLIES,&ENEMIES
INITIATION
DEPARTURRETURN
Joseph Campbell’s
MONOMYTH
Mr. Brennan
World Literature
Return Departure
Initiation
Refusal of the Call
Often when the call is given, the future hero first refuses to heed it. This
may be from a sense of duty or obligation, fear, insecurity, etc.
[Fear/Resistance to change.]
Supernatural Aids (Meeting with the Mentor)
Once the hero has committed to the quest, consciously or
unconsciously, his guide and magical helper appears, or
becomes known, and may present the hero with training,
equipment, or advice that will help later in their quest.
[Overcoming fear]
Crossing of the First Threshold
This is the point where the person crosses
into the field of adventure, leaving the
known limits of his world and venturing into
an unknown and dangerous realm where the
rules and limits are not known.
[Committing to change; Cultural Disassociation]
Belly of The Whale
The belly of the whale represents the final
separation from the hero's known world and
self. By entering this stage, the person shows
willingness to undergo a metamorphosis.
(KNOWN)
(UNKNOWN)
Ordinary World &
Call to Adventure
While in mundane situation, the hero's journey begins by becoming aware of
the world outside his own. His journey is usually given to him by a herald
who helps the hero by acting as a guide a into the unknown.
[Limited/Increased awareness of problem.]
DEPARTUR
Beowulf is called to adventure when he hears the stories of
Grendel.
Beowulf does not refuse the call, but embraces it as a true
Anglo-Saxon hero; the most honorable fate would be to find
death in battle.
God offers Beowulf the strength to conquer Grendel
without weaponry and the ancient heirloom to defeat
his mother; Hrothgar offers wise advice; Unferth offers
an ancient blade
Beowulf’s crossing the sea to Denmark
is a threshold in which he commits to
change and disconnects from his native
culture
Beowulf separates himself from his
men to travel alone in his decent into
Grendel’s mother’s lair.
DEPARTUREDeparture
Road of Trials
The road of trials is a series of tests, tasks, or
ordeals that the hero must undergo to begin
the transformation. Often the hero fails one or
more of these tests, which often occur in threes.
Meeting With the Goddess
This is the point when the person experiences a
love that has the power and significance of the
all-powerful, all encompassing, unconditional love that a
fortunate infant may experience with his or her mother.
Woman as Temptress
In this step, the hero faces those temptations, often of a
physical or pleasurable nature, that may lead him or her to
abandon or stray from his or her quest.
[Experiencing new conditions.]
Atonement with the Father (Innermost Cave / Approach)
In this step the person must confront and be initiated by whatever
holds the ultimate power in his or her life. In many myths and stories
this is the father, or a father figure who has life and death power.
This is the center point of the journey. (The hero and newfound
allies prepare for the major challenge in the special world)
[Preparing for major change.]
Apotheosis (Supreme Ordeal)
When someone dies a physical death, or dies to the
self to live in spirit, he or she moves beyond the
pairs of opposites to a state of divine knowledge,
love, compassion and bliss. (Out of the moment of
confronting death/fear comes a new life.
[Big change with feelings of life and death]
The Ultimate Boon (Reward)
The ultimate boon is the achievement of the goal of the quest. It is what
the person went on the journey to get. All the previous steps serve to
prepare and purify the person for this step.
[Accepting consequences of new life]
Refusal of the Return
Having found bliss and enlightenment in the other
world, the hero may not want to return to the ordinary
world to bestow the boon onto his fellow man.
The Magic Flight
Sometimes the hero must escape with the
boon, if it is something that the gods have
been jealously guarding. It can be just as
adventurous and dangerous returning from
the journey as it was to go on it.
THEROADB
TESTS,ALLIES,&ENEMIES
INITIATION
Mr. Brennan
World Literature
Beowulf’s journey comprises of three major trials; another trial
includes his journey to reach Grendel’s mother’s lair, which is
Beowulf lacks female influence, perhaps due to Anglo-Saxon
warrior culture; however, Wealhtheow gives Beowulf a “torque of
gold” for luck.
There is no temptress; perhaps, again, due to Anglo-Saxon
warrior culture. Although it never overcame him, his own pride
could have tempted him from his never-ending glory.
Beowulf’s father figure can be represented by Fate/God,
who Beowulf must accept as the possessor of ultimate
power.
Father figure can also be seen as Hrothgar or Hyglec,
who Beowulf confronts to gain acceptance, and is
embraced as a son
INITIATION
Initiation
Road of Trials
The road of trials is a series of tests, tasks, or
ordeals that the hero must undergo to begin
the transformation. Often the hero fails one or
more of these tests, which often occur in threes.
Meeting With the Goddess
This is the point when the person experiences a
love that has the power and significance of the
all-powerful, all encompassing, unconditional love that a
fortunate infant may experience with his or her mother.
Woman as Temptress
In this step, the hero faces those temptations, often of a
physical or pleasurable nature, that may lead him or her to
abandon or stray from his or her quest.
[Experiencing new conditions.]
Atonement with the Father (Innermost Cave / Approach)
In this step the person must confront and be initiated by whatever
holds the ultimate power in his or her life. In many myths and stories
this is the father, or a father figure who has life and death power.
This is the center point of the journey. (The hero and newfound
allies prepare for the major challenge in the special world)
[Preparing for major change.]
Apotheosis (Supreme Ordeal)
When someone dies a physical death, or dies to the
self to live in spirit, he or she moves beyond the
pairs of opposites to a state of divine knowledge,
love, compassion and bliss. (Out of the moment of
confronting death/fear comes a new life.
[Big change with feelings of life and death]
The Ultimate Boon (Reward)
The ultimate boon is the achievement of the goal of the quest. It is what
the person went on the journey to get. All the previous steps serve to
prepare and purify the person for this step.
[Accepting consequences of new life]
Refusal of the Return
Having found bliss and enlightenment in the other
world, the hero may not want to return to the ordinary
world to bestow the boon onto his fellow man.
The Magic Flight
Sometimes the hero must escape with the
boon, if it is something that the gods have
been jealously guarding. It can be just as
adventurous and dangerous returning from
the journey as it was to go on it.
THEROADB
TESTS,ALLIES,&ENEMIES
INITIATION
Mr. Brennan
World Literature
Beowulf reaches the lowest point of his
journey when he faces Grendel’s mother; for
the first time we see, as does he, that he is
not immortal; he changes his approach to
battle. His men believe him to be dead, but
he is victorious, ascends, and is reborn as a
true hero.
Beowulf brings back Grendel’s head and the hilt of the giant
sword back to Heorot; thus, ridding the Danes of monsters. While
this serves as a literal boon, Beowulf has brought knowledge
back that one can defeat monsters and revive salvation. A theme
also echoed in the battle against the dragon.
INITIATION
Initiation
Atoneme
In this ste
holds the
this is the
This is the
Apotheosis (Supreme Ordeal)
When someone dies a physical death, or dies to the
self to live in spirit, he or she moves beyond the
pairs of opposites to a state of divine knowledge,
love, compassion and bliss. (Out of the moment of
The Ultimate Boon (Reward)
The ultimate boon is the achievement of the goal of the quest. It is what
the person went on the journey to get. All the previous steps serve to
prepare and purify the person for this step.
[Accepting consequences of new life]
Refusal of the Return
Having found bliss and enlightenment in the other
world, the hero may not want to return to the ordinary
world to bestow the boon onto his fellow man.
The Magic Flight
Sometimes the hero must escape with the
boon, if it is something that the gods have
been jealously guarding. It can be just as
adventurous and dangerous returning from
the journey as it was to go on it.
Rescue from Without
Just as the hero may need aids to set out on the
quest, oftentimes he or she must have powerful
guides and rescuers to bring them back to
everyday life, especially if the person has been
wounded or weakened by the experience.
[New challenge and rededication]
Crossing of the Return Threshold (Resurrection)
The trick is to retain the wisdom gained, to integrate it into a
human life, and figure out how to share the wisdom with the
world. (Another moment of death/rebirth, but on a more
complete level. Hero resolves the original conflict.
[Last attempts, final dangers; Growth at reintegration]
Master of Two Worlds (Return with the Elixir)
Achieving a balance between the material and spiritual—the inner
and outer worlds. (The hero returns bearing the treasure that has the
power to transform the world as the hero has been transformed.
Freedom to Live
Mastery leads to freedom from the fear of death, which in turn is the
freedom to live. This is sometimes referred to as living in the
moment, neither anticipating the future nor regretting the past.
[Mastery]
(KNOWN)
(UNKNOWN)
THEROADBACK
Ordi
Call t
Whi
the
w
[
INITIAT
RETURN
Joseph Campbell’s
MONOMYTH
Mr. Brennan
Beowulf does not falter and eagerly returns to
Beowulf must defeat the dragon in
order for his story to be told; the story
becomes the essential knowledge
which empowers a hero-centric war
culture standing at the crux of Anglo-
Saxon religion
After being wounded, Beowulf
receives help from his loyal thane,
Wiglaf, who enables Beowulf to
defeat the dragon, claim treasure for
his people, and eventually sings the
song of Beowulf.
Becomes master of Geatland & Denmark;
of the super-natural world through Christ
and of the human world through his
immortal tale.In defeating the dragon, Beowulf
retains his boon and crosses into the
afterlife, but is resurrected in the telling
of his heroic tale.
Though Beowulf dies, he lives on forever; the ultimate boon
becomes the story of Beowulf, the story of a hero. The tale
doesn’t simply tell that dragons are real, but that dragons can
be defeated.
RETURN
Return
With a
partner, list
the monomyth
elements of
Shrek.
1. Hero
2. Mentor
3. Threshold Guardian
4. Herald
5. Shapeshifter
6. Shadow
7. Trickster
8. Allies (sidekicks)
• The protagonist that answers the call of
duty and separates himself/herself from
the normal world.
• Sacrifices self for the sake of the journey
and its potential to help others.
• S/he accepts the challenge, goes on a
quest, and restores a balance.
• We experience the journey through the
eyes of the HERO.
• an older, wiser teacher
• serves as a role model or as hero’s
conscience.
• They provide gifts of:
•Insight (information, understanding,
knowledge, magic)
•Training (preparation for success)
•Motivation (you can do it)
 Protects the special world and the
secrets it contains
 Tests the hero and makes him/her pass
tests to prove worth, ability and
dedication
 The mentor can act as a threshold
guardian.
 The guardian is not necessarily an
antagonist or “bad guy.”
 It will be me when some chick tries to
date my son. She’ll have to get through
• Announces coming change and issues
challenges (go on a journey (Gandalf) or
discover the truth
• Could be a person (Gandalf to Bilbo/Frodo)
or an event or force (the reaping)
• The herald is like the match that starts the
fire.
• The herald ignites the hero’s journey.
• A character’s who assistance is not quite
clear
• Could be a “shady” character that might
help or might hurt (Say or Han Solo or
Gollum)
• Keeps you on edge wondering what will
happen
• Doesn’t have to physically change shape
(like Jacob does in Twilight series)
• Could mislead or deceive; is cynical and
sarcastic
• Keeps hero on guard
• A worthy opponent with whom the hero
must struggle in a fight to the end
• must be destroyed or neutralized for
journey to be complete
• Psychologically can represent the darker
side of the hero’s own psyche.
• Hero’s enemies or villains often wear the
shadow mask to destroy the hero and/or
his cause
• Not always “bad” or “evil”—sometimes just
the opposite of the hero(ine)
• Could be funny and make us laugh
• This character shows the absurdity of
the situation the hero is in
• Enjoys watching the status quo being
altered
• Shows how things are spinning out of
control
• Fills in gaps where hero is deficient
(skills or knowledge)
• Represents virtues of hero (could
be one sidekick or a team)
• Support system (vs. the mentor
who is more of a teacher)
• Allows hero to complete journey
Compare and contrast the epic quest
elements of Shrek and Beowulf. Within your
response should be an answer to the
following question: How are they each a
reflection of the time period/culture. (Beowulf
Anglo-Saxon culture, Shrek as twenty-first
century hero, or anti-hero as the case may
be.) What universal themes do each work
reveal? Use specific examples from each
piece.

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Anglo-Saxon and Beowulf

  • 2. - Among them were the Britons - Religion was a form of animism – saw spirits everywhere and they controlled all aspects of existence - Priests – Druids were intermediaries -FUN FACT: some think that Stonehenge was used by the Druids for religious rites having to do with lunar/solar cycles
  • 3. All the Britons dye their bodies with woad, which produces a blue color, and this gives them a more terrifying appearance in battle. They wear their hair long, and shave the whole of their bodies except the head and the upper lip. - Julius Caesar Obligatory Braveheart Reference
  • 4. • The romans brought Christianity and roads, but not much else. • By 409 A.D. they had evacuated their troops from Britain. • Government was in shambles; the island was invaded by a series of Germanic peoples • The Anglo-Saxons drove out the Britons who retreated to Wales
  • 5. • King Alfred of Wessex aka Alfred the Great (reigned 871-899) • Led the Anglo-Saxons against the invasion of the Danes (fierce Viking peoples) • Under him and Christianity, Anglo-Saxons united to protect their people, their culture and their church from the Danes.
  • 6. • Lived in close homesteads surrounding a communal court  sense of security  Participatory rule by consensus • Tribal society with kinship bonds and a heroic code of behavior • bravery • loyalty to one's lord, one's warband (comitatus), and one's kin • willingness to avenge one's warband or lord at all costs – death preferable to exile. • generosity of lord to thanes and of hero to warband and lord-- gift-giving • heroism (i.e., great deeds) brings honor, eternal fame, and political power • Loyalty grew out of a need for protection • Bonded together under strong leaders
  • 7. • Loyalty • Fighting for one’s king • Avenging one’s kinsmen • Keeping one’s word • Generosity -- gifts symbolize bonds • Brotherly love -- not romantic love • Heroism • Physical strength • Skill and resourcefulness in battle • Courage • Public reputation, not private conscience
  • 8. • Mix of pagan and Christian values--often in conflict. • Pagan (secular (non-religious) lineage vs. Christian lineage; • Eternal earthly fame through deeds vs afterlife in hell or heaven; • honor & gift-giving vs. sin of pride (hubris); • revenge vs pacifist view (forgiveness); • Wyrd (Anglo-Saxon "Fate") vs God's will, etc.
  • 9. • Woden – help humans communicate with spirits; associated with burial rites. • Thunor - Similar to Thor • Dragon – protector of treasure; personification of “death the devourer” and guardian of the grave
  • 10. • Christianity provided another source of hope • Monasteries served as centers of learning • Preserved Latin and Greek classics • Mix of Christian and Pagan imagery in Beowulf indicates that it was probably translated by a monk • Monks copied manuscripts by hand in scriptoriums
  • 11. For the non-Christian Anglo-Saxons, whose religion offered them no hope of an afterlife, only fame and its commemoration in poetry could provide a defense against death.
  • 12. The Bards • Scops • Skilled storytellers • Charged with preserving culture through poetry and music • Oral history • Provided hope for an afterlife • Elegy – poem of mourning
  • 13.
  • 14. • The oldest surviving poem in the English language • Oral epic; handed down by scops with changes and embellishments • Some of the characters actually existed
  • 15. • Alliteration – repetition of consonant sounds at beginning of words • Used to help bards easily remember poem
  • 16.
  • 17. Kenning a. Compound metaphor (usually two words) b. Most were probably used over and over For instance: hronade literally means “whale- road,” but can be translated as “sea”
  • 18. Other kennings from Beowulf: banhus = “bone-house” = body goldwine gumena = “gold-friend of men” = generous prince beaga brytta = “ring-giver” = lord beadoleoma = “flashing light” = sword
  • 19. Mead is a honey flavored fermented drink. The Hall was a central gathering place where warriors could feast, listen to stories (entertainment), and sleep in safety. Hrothgar’s Hall is under attack by the monster Grendel
  • 20. Imagine that you live in this large wooden building (hall). There are no separate rooms for most people. There is no electricity. There is no plumbing. The only heat comes from the fireplace. How do you manage to do these daily activities: - Getting food - Washing clothes - Cooking and washing dishes - Staying warm (in winter) or cool (in summer) - Bathing and using the toilet - Sleeping arrangements - Entertainment
  • 22. • Epic - A quest story on a grand scale • Epic hero – the central figure in a long narrative that reflects the values and heroic ideals of a particular society
  • 23. • Is significant and glorified • Has superior or superhuman strength, intelligence, and/or courage • Is ethical • Risks death for glory or for the greater good of society • Is a strong and responsible leader • Performs brave deeds • Reflects ideals of a particular society • Is on a quest
  • 24. • Aka The Hero’s Journey, the Quest Story, The Epic Cycle • First appeared in Campbell’s book Hero with a Thousand Faces • Monomyths (one myth) look surprising alike; archetypal • A cyclical story • Hero undergoes a transformation through stages • Offers a sacrifice to save the world
  • 26. Refusal of the Call Often when the call is given, the future hero first refuses to heed it. This may be from a sense of duty or obligation, fear, insecurity, etc. [Fear/Resistance to change.] Supernatural Aids (Meeting with the Mentor) Once the hero has committed to the quest, consciously or unconsciously, his guide and magical helper appears, or becomes known, and may present the hero with training, equipment, or advice that will help later in their quest. [Overcoming fear] Crossing of the First Threshold This is the point where the person crosses into the field of adventure, leaving the known limits of his world and venturing into an unknown and dangerous realm where the rules and limits are not known. [Committing to change; Cultural Disassociation] Belly of The Whale The belly of the whale represents the final separation from the hero's known world and self. By entering this stage, the person shows willingness to undergo a metamorphosis. Road of Trials The road of trials is a series of tests, tasks, or ordeals that the hero must undergo to begin the transformation. Often the hero fails one or more of these tests, which often occur in threes. Meeting With the Goddess This is the point when the person experiences a love that has the power and significance of the all-powerful, all encompassing, unconditional love that a fortunate infant may experience with his or her mother. Woman as Temptress In this step, the hero faces those temptations, often of a physical or pleasurable nature, that may lead him or her to abandon or stray from his or her quest. [Experiencing new conditions.] Atonement with the Father (Innermost Cave / Approach) In this step the person must confront and be initiated by whatever holds the ultimate power in his or her life. In many myths and stories this is the father, or a father figure who has life and death power. This is the center point of the journey. (The hero and newfound allies prepare for the major challenge in the special world) [Preparing for major change.] Apotheosis (Supreme Ordeal) When someone dies a physical death, or dies to the self to live in spirit, he or she moves beyond the pairs of opposites to a state of divine knowledge, love, compassion and bliss. (Out of the moment of confronting death/fear comes a new life. [Big change with feelings of life and death] The Ultimate Boon (Reward) The ultimate boon is the achievement of the goal of the quest. It is what the person went on the journey to get. All the previous steps serve to prepare and purify the person for this step. [Accepting consequences of new life] Refusal of the Return Having found bliss and enlightenment in the other world, the hero may not want to return to the ordinary world to bestow the boon onto his fellow man. The Magic Flight Sometimes the hero must escape with the boon, if it is something that the gods have been jealously guarding. It can be just as adventurous and dangerous returning from the journey as it was to go on it. Rescue from Without Just as the hero may need aids to set out on the quest, oftentimes he or she must have powerful guides and rescuers to bring them back to everyday life, especially if the person has been wounded or weakened by the experience. [New challenge and rededication] Crossing of the Return Threshold (Resurrection) The trick is to retain the wisdom gained, to integrate it into a human life, and figure out how to share the wisdom with the world. (Another moment of death/rebirth, but on a more complete level. Hero resolves the original conflict. [Last attempts, final dangers; Growth at reintegration] Master of Two Worlds (Return with the Elixir) Achieving a balance between the material and spiritual—the inner and outer worlds. (The hero returns bearing the treasure that has the power to transform the world as the hero has been transformed. Freedom to Live Mastery leads to freedom from the fear of death, which in turn is the freedom to live. This is sometimes referred to as living in the moment, neither anticipating the future nor regretting the past. [Mastery] (KNOWN) (UNKNOWN) THEROADBACK Ordinary World & Call to Adventure While in mundane situation, the hero's journey begins by becoming aware of the world outside his own. His journey is usually given to him by a herald who helps the hero by acting as a guide a into the unknown. [Limited/Increased awareness of problem.] TESTS,ALLIES,&ENEMIES INITIATION DEPARTURRETURN Joseph Campbell’s MONOMYTH Mr. Brennan World Literature Return Departure Initiation
  • 27. Refusal of the Call Often when the call is given, the future hero first refuses to heed it. This may be from a sense of duty or obligation, fear, insecurity, etc. [Fear/Resistance to change.] Supernatural Aids (Meeting with the Mentor) Once the hero has committed to the quest, consciously or unconsciously, his guide and magical helper appears, or becomes known, and may present the hero with training, equipment, or advice that will help later in their quest. [Overcoming fear] Crossing of the First Threshold This is the point where the person crosses into the field of adventure, leaving the known limits of his world and venturing into an unknown and dangerous realm where the rules and limits are not known. [Committing to change; Cultural Disassociation] Belly of The Whale The belly of the whale represents the final separation from the hero's known world and self. By entering this stage, the person shows willingness to undergo a metamorphosis. (KNOWN) (UNKNOWN) Ordinary World & Call to Adventure While in mundane situation, the hero's journey begins by becoming aware of the world outside his own. His journey is usually given to him by a herald who helps the hero by acting as a guide a into the unknown. [Limited/Increased awareness of problem.] DEPARTUR Beowulf is called to adventure when he hears the stories of Grendel. Beowulf does not refuse the call, but embraces it as a true Anglo-Saxon hero; the most honorable fate would be to find death in battle. God offers Beowulf the strength to conquer Grendel without weaponry and the ancient heirloom to defeat his mother; Hrothgar offers wise advice; Unferth offers an ancient blade Beowulf’s crossing the sea to Denmark is a threshold in which he commits to change and disconnects from his native culture Beowulf separates himself from his men to travel alone in his decent into Grendel’s mother’s lair. DEPARTUREDeparture
  • 28. Road of Trials The road of trials is a series of tests, tasks, or ordeals that the hero must undergo to begin the transformation. Often the hero fails one or more of these tests, which often occur in threes. Meeting With the Goddess This is the point when the person experiences a love that has the power and significance of the all-powerful, all encompassing, unconditional love that a fortunate infant may experience with his or her mother. Woman as Temptress In this step, the hero faces those temptations, often of a physical or pleasurable nature, that may lead him or her to abandon or stray from his or her quest. [Experiencing new conditions.] Atonement with the Father (Innermost Cave / Approach) In this step the person must confront and be initiated by whatever holds the ultimate power in his or her life. In many myths and stories this is the father, or a father figure who has life and death power. This is the center point of the journey. (The hero and newfound allies prepare for the major challenge in the special world) [Preparing for major change.] Apotheosis (Supreme Ordeal) When someone dies a physical death, or dies to the self to live in spirit, he or she moves beyond the pairs of opposites to a state of divine knowledge, love, compassion and bliss. (Out of the moment of confronting death/fear comes a new life. [Big change with feelings of life and death] The Ultimate Boon (Reward) The ultimate boon is the achievement of the goal of the quest. It is what the person went on the journey to get. All the previous steps serve to prepare and purify the person for this step. [Accepting consequences of new life] Refusal of the Return Having found bliss and enlightenment in the other world, the hero may not want to return to the ordinary world to bestow the boon onto his fellow man. The Magic Flight Sometimes the hero must escape with the boon, if it is something that the gods have been jealously guarding. It can be just as adventurous and dangerous returning from the journey as it was to go on it. THEROADB TESTS,ALLIES,&ENEMIES INITIATION Mr. Brennan World Literature Beowulf’s journey comprises of three major trials; another trial includes his journey to reach Grendel’s mother’s lair, which is Beowulf lacks female influence, perhaps due to Anglo-Saxon warrior culture; however, Wealhtheow gives Beowulf a “torque of gold” for luck. There is no temptress; perhaps, again, due to Anglo-Saxon warrior culture. Although it never overcame him, his own pride could have tempted him from his never-ending glory. Beowulf’s father figure can be represented by Fate/God, who Beowulf must accept as the possessor of ultimate power. Father figure can also be seen as Hrothgar or Hyglec, who Beowulf confronts to gain acceptance, and is embraced as a son INITIATION Initiation
  • 29. Road of Trials The road of trials is a series of tests, tasks, or ordeals that the hero must undergo to begin the transformation. Often the hero fails one or more of these tests, which often occur in threes. Meeting With the Goddess This is the point when the person experiences a love that has the power and significance of the all-powerful, all encompassing, unconditional love that a fortunate infant may experience with his or her mother. Woman as Temptress In this step, the hero faces those temptations, often of a physical or pleasurable nature, that may lead him or her to abandon or stray from his or her quest. [Experiencing new conditions.] Atonement with the Father (Innermost Cave / Approach) In this step the person must confront and be initiated by whatever holds the ultimate power in his or her life. In many myths and stories this is the father, or a father figure who has life and death power. This is the center point of the journey. (The hero and newfound allies prepare for the major challenge in the special world) [Preparing for major change.] Apotheosis (Supreme Ordeal) When someone dies a physical death, or dies to the self to live in spirit, he or she moves beyond the pairs of opposites to a state of divine knowledge, love, compassion and bliss. (Out of the moment of confronting death/fear comes a new life. [Big change with feelings of life and death] The Ultimate Boon (Reward) The ultimate boon is the achievement of the goal of the quest. It is what the person went on the journey to get. All the previous steps serve to prepare and purify the person for this step. [Accepting consequences of new life] Refusal of the Return Having found bliss and enlightenment in the other world, the hero may not want to return to the ordinary world to bestow the boon onto his fellow man. The Magic Flight Sometimes the hero must escape with the boon, if it is something that the gods have been jealously guarding. It can be just as adventurous and dangerous returning from the journey as it was to go on it. THEROADB TESTS,ALLIES,&ENEMIES INITIATION Mr. Brennan World Literature Beowulf reaches the lowest point of his journey when he faces Grendel’s mother; for the first time we see, as does he, that he is not immortal; he changes his approach to battle. His men believe him to be dead, but he is victorious, ascends, and is reborn as a true hero. Beowulf brings back Grendel’s head and the hilt of the giant sword back to Heorot; thus, ridding the Danes of monsters. While this serves as a literal boon, Beowulf has brought knowledge back that one can defeat monsters and revive salvation. A theme also echoed in the battle against the dragon. INITIATION Initiation
  • 30. Atoneme In this ste holds the this is the This is the Apotheosis (Supreme Ordeal) When someone dies a physical death, or dies to the self to live in spirit, he or she moves beyond the pairs of opposites to a state of divine knowledge, love, compassion and bliss. (Out of the moment of The Ultimate Boon (Reward) The ultimate boon is the achievement of the goal of the quest. It is what the person went on the journey to get. All the previous steps serve to prepare and purify the person for this step. [Accepting consequences of new life] Refusal of the Return Having found bliss and enlightenment in the other world, the hero may not want to return to the ordinary world to bestow the boon onto his fellow man. The Magic Flight Sometimes the hero must escape with the boon, if it is something that the gods have been jealously guarding. It can be just as adventurous and dangerous returning from the journey as it was to go on it. Rescue from Without Just as the hero may need aids to set out on the quest, oftentimes he or she must have powerful guides and rescuers to bring them back to everyday life, especially if the person has been wounded or weakened by the experience. [New challenge and rededication] Crossing of the Return Threshold (Resurrection) The trick is to retain the wisdom gained, to integrate it into a human life, and figure out how to share the wisdom with the world. (Another moment of death/rebirth, but on a more complete level. Hero resolves the original conflict. [Last attempts, final dangers; Growth at reintegration] Master of Two Worlds (Return with the Elixir) Achieving a balance between the material and spiritual—the inner and outer worlds. (The hero returns bearing the treasure that has the power to transform the world as the hero has been transformed. Freedom to Live Mastery leads to freedom from the fear of death, which in turn is the freedom to live. This is sometimes referred to as living in the moment, neither anticipating the future nor regretting the past. [Mastery] (KNOWN) (UNKNOWN) THEROADBACK Ordi Call t Whi the w [ INITIAT RETURN Joseph Campbell’s MONOMYTH Mr. Brennan Beowulf does not falter and eagerly returns to Beowulf must defeat the dragon in order for his story to be told; the story becomes the essential knowledge which empowers a hero-centric war culture standing at the crux of Anglo- Saxon religion After being wounded, Beowulf receives help from his loyal thane, Wiglaf, who enables Beowulf to defeat the dragon, claim treasure for his people, and eventually sings the song of Beowulf. Becomes master of Geatland & Denmark; of the super-natural world through Christ and of the human world through his immortal tale.In defeating the dragon, Beowulf retains his boon and crosses into the afterlife, but is resurrected in the telling of his heroic tale. Though Beowulf dies, he lives on forever; the ultimate boon becomes the story of Beowulf, the story of a hero. The tale doesn’t simply tell that dragons are real, but that dragons can be defeated. RETURN Return
  • 31. With a partner, list the monomyth elements of Shrek.
  • 32. 1. Hero 2. Mentor 3. Threshold Guardian 4. Herald 5. Shapeshifter 6. Shadow 7. Trickster 8. Allies (sidekicks)
  • 33. • The protagonist that answers the call of duty and separates himself/herself from the normal world. • Sacrifices self for the sake of the journey and its potential to help others. • S/he accepts the challenge, goes on a quest, and restores a balance. • We experience the journey through the eyes of the HERO.
  • 34.
  • 35. • an older, wiser teacher • serves as a role model or as hero’s conscience. • They provide gifts of: •Insight (information, understanding, knowledge, magic) •Training (preparation for success) •Motivation (you can do it)
  • 36.
  • 37.  Protects the special world and the secrets it contains  Tests the hero and makes him/her pass tests to prove worth, ability and dedication  The mentor can act as a threshold guardian.  The guardian is not necessarily an antagonist or “bad guy.”  It will be me when some chick tries to date my son. She’ll have to get through
  • 38.
  • 39. • Announces coming change and issues challenges (go on a journey (Gandalf) or discover the truth • Could be a person (Gandalf to Bilbo/Frodo) or an event or force (the reaping) • The herald is like the match that starts the fire. • The herald ignites the hero’s journey.
  • 40.
  • 41. • A character’s who assistance is not quite clear • Could be a “shady” character that might help or might hurt (Say or Han Solo or Gollum) • Keeps you on edge wondering what will happen • Doesn’t have to physically change shape (like Jacob does in Twilight series) • Could mislead or deceive; is cynical and sarcastic • Keeps hero on guard
  • 42.
  • 43. • A worthy opponent with whom the hero must struggle in a fight to the end • must be destroyed or neutralized for journey to be complete • Psychologically can represent the darker side of the hero’s own psyche. • Hero’s enemies or villains often wear the shadow mask to destroy the hero and/or his cause • Not always “bad” or “evil”—sometimes just the opposite of the hero(ine)
  • 44.
  • 45. • Could be funny and make us laugh • This character shows the absurdity of the situation the hero is in • Enjoys watching the status quo being altered • Shows how things are spinning out of control
  • 46.
  • 47. • Fills in gaps where hero is deficient (skills or knowledge) • Represents virtues of hero (could be one sidekick or a team) • Support system (vs. the mentor who is more of a teacher) • Allows hero to complete journey
  • 48.
  • 49. Compare and contrast the epic quest elements of Shrek and Beowulf. Within your response should be an answer to the following question: How are they each a reflection of the time period/culture. (Beowulf Anglo-Saxon culture, Shrek as twenty-first century hero, or anti-hero as the case may be.) What universal themes do each work reveal? Use specific examples from each piece.